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Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries^ with No. 265, Jan. 24, 1891. 

< ' 



sa^r. 1- v/. IQ 


iWe&ium of Sntevcommunicatioit 



<*Wlien found, make a note of* — Captain Cuttle, 

» - 


July-^December 1890. 




Index Supplement to the Notes and Queries, with No. 265, Jan. 24, 1891, 





\ Li. 













7"» S. X. Jolt 5, '90. ] 





CONTENT S,— N* 236. 

- ' . ^ ; I 1 

NOTES :— Dukedom of Clarence, 1— The *New English Dic- 
tionary '— Archseologf, 3 — List of Jacobite Noblemen— 
Carious Notices -I^ational Flowera— Eton Swishing Block— 
Shakspeare Allusion— Benbow Family— Hungary Water, 4— 
Superstition in Mansfield -Wellington— Waterloo— Restora- 
tion of a Parish Register, 5— Inscription to K. Alfred— The 
Commonwealth Flag— Climate in Iceland— Prepense, 6— 
Arrow Throwing— Folk-lore, 7. 

QUERIES:— Whalley-Sermon Wanted— Lybe, 7— Highgate 
— • Wider Horizons ' — Chaworth — Pedigrees— Digby— The 
Gardens of Alcinous— Byron— Emma Tatham— Maori War 
of 1865— Bible Family Records, 8— Allusion in De Quincey— 
Hassell— Game of Polo- Royal Poets— St. Patrick—'* Welsh 
Rabbit "-Spurs- Christopher North's Arithmetic— Authors 

Wanted, 9. 
EBPLIES :— Voice, 10 -Churches of Brixworth and Balking— 

Keats— Errors of Printers and Authors, 11— Female Free- 
mason—The Curtsey -Betul a, 12— Troyllesbaston— G. Cruik- 
shank's Works — Spy Wednesday — Lioness and Lying-in 
Women— Couplet from Pope — Tobacconist, 13— Spalding- 
holme— " Good, bad, or indifferent "—The Crown of Ireland 
— Beeston Castle — Chart — Senegambian Folk-lore, 14 — 
Clephane— Metrical History of England — Genealogical — 
Milton's Bones— "My Father's at the Helm "—Princess 
Elizabeth Stuart— Ironmonger, 16— Silver Box— The Lud- 
dites-English and Italian Pronunciation — Mistakes in 
Books of Reference, 16 — Mrs. Jordan— Charles Swain- 
Milton's Poetic Theory, 17— College Admission Register- 
Detached Bell Towers — Weepers — Watered Silk^Gray's 
• Elegy/ 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS:— 'Dictionary of National Biography,' 
Vol. XXIII.— 'Western Law Times/ 

Notices to Correspondents. 




{Continued from 7*** S. ix. 483.) 

The second creation was made by Henry IV. 
in favour of his second son, Thomas, in 1412. 
He could trace no descent from the first duke, 
and this was an entirely new creation. It is 
not known where or when this prince was born; 
his father was then only Earl of Derby^ with no 
prospect of occupying the throne. The latter 
became king in 1899, and Thomas, like his pre- 
decessor in the title, was made Lord-Lieutenant 

he is said to have encountered a riot or rebel- 
lion, and to have been seriously wounded. In 
1411 we meet with him in London in a less 
dignified position : 

" Upon the Eve of S. John the Baptist Thomas and 
John, the King's sons^ being at Eastcbepe in London, at 
supper, after midnight, a great debate happened between 
their men and the men of the Court, lasting an hour, till 
the mayor and the sheriffa with other citizens, ceased 
the same." — Stow, * Annales,' 1411. 

There are other references to his gay and riotous 
living in the 'London Chronicle,' edited by Sir 
Harris Nicolas in 1827. Yet this was probably 
exceptional ; he could not have been altogether 
ill-disposed and unruly, or he would not have 
been made President of the Council by his father 
in the room of the Prince of Wales when the latter 
was so disrespectful to Judge Gascoigne. To this 
Shakespeare makes allusion in ^ 1 Henry IV.,' III. 

11. : 

Thy place in council thou hast rudely lost. 
Which by thy younger brother is supplied. 

He presided at the Council held at Southampton 
in 1415 when the Earl of Cambridge, Lord Scrope 
of Masham, and Sir Thomas Grey were condemned 
to death for high treason. He was created Duke 
of Clarence, Earl of Albemarle, and K.G. July 9, 
1412, at a Council held at Rotherhithe, at which 
his elder brother, Henry, Prince of Wales, was 
not present. Most of the chroniclers hint at a 
suspicion of rivalry between the brothers, in con- 
sequence of the preferment of the younger, and to 
this Shakespeare seems to allude in ^2 Henry lY.,' 
lY. iv. The King addresses his son thus : 

How chance thou art not with the prince, thy brother? 

He loves thee, and thou dost neglect him, Thomas; 

Thou hast a better place in his affections 

Than all thy brothers; cherish it my boy, 

And noble offices thou mayest effect 

Of mediation, after I am dead, 

Between his greatness and thy other brethren. 

No necessity for such mediation seems to have 
arisen. Clarence, Bedford, and Gloucester are 
always found acting in concert with Henry, both 

of Ireland at the commencement of the reign, while Prince of Wales and after his accession. To 

He was then scarcely more than eighteen years 
old. The sister island was in its customary con- 
dition of lawlessness and turmoil The Irish 
annals tell us that '' Thomas, the son of the 
King of the Saxons, came to Erin ; that he 
took the Earl of Kildare prisoner, and that 
Hitsin Tuite with great loss was slain." It is 
difficult to see why the "loyal Earl of Kildare" 
was arrested ; he had been fighting against the 
rebellious Irish, and was on his way to con- 
gratulate the new viceroy at Carlingford when 
he was seized and taken prisoner. The annals 
further tell us that in 1409 "the King of the 
Saxons was seized with leprosy, and that Thomas 
of Lancaster left Ireland in consequence, having 

liberated the Earl of Kildare.'' While in Ireland 

Clarence were pawned the King's jewels when he 
invaded France : 

"To Thomas, Duke of Clarence, 12 July, 1415, as 
security for what might be due to him and to his 
retinue, according to certain indentures, the Crown 

In 1412 the duke was sent by his father into 
France to help the Duke of Burgundy; sailing from 
Southampton with fourteen ships he landed at '^St. 
Fasters, in Normandy." The expedition came to 
nothing, but not until the English had committed 
many depredations, as if in an enemy's country. 
Indeed, Clarence boasted that he had come for the 
very purpose of winning back Aquitaine for the 
English crown ; he laid waste Maine and Tou- 

raine, and attempted further conquests. Eyentu- 


[7* S. X. July 5, '9a. 

ally the Duke of Orleans paid a considerable tri- 
bute to induce the English to retire. See Martin, 
* Histoire de la France/ vol. v. p. 525 ; Walsing- 
ham/Historia Angl./AD. 1412; and the ^London 
Chronicle* of the same date. The Duke of Clarence 
did not return to England till after his father's 
death. That there could have been no serious en- 
mity between Henry V. and his brother is shown 
by the confidence reposed in the latter by the 
former. All through the campaign in France 
Clarence loyally co-operated with Henry, and per- 
formed prodigies of valour. In 1418 he was with 
the King before Harfleur ; conducted the siege of 
Caen^ took Pont de TArche, and aided in the 
investiture and capture of Kouen. He was with 
Henry again at Melun, and was made Captain of 
Paris in the same year. He was at Troyes with 
Henry and his brother Kichard on occasion of the 
betrothal of Katherine to the King of England, 
and when Henry went with his bride to be 
crowned, Clarence was left commander of the army 
and Constable of France. His father is said to 
have described him as ^' a man of violent and self- 
willed disposition,'' negligent of the counsel of 
more experienced advisers, and rash in action. It 
was this failing which led to the first disaster suf- 
fered by the English army in France, and pre- 
judiced the fortunes of England in that country, 
resulting in his own premature death : 

"Being betrayed by his scout-maBter, a Lombard, who 
had reported the number of the enemy to be far inferior 
to what it was, and having left behind him his billmen 
and archers, in whom his chief strength coneisted, he 
precipitated himeelf, contrary to the advice of bis cap- 
tains, into a battle at Baug6, in Anjou, which province 
had sided with the Dauphin. On the French side were 
many Scotchmen ; both sides fought with equal courage, 
and the Duke, mixing himself in the throng of the 
battle, and giving proofs of singular valour, di:$mounted 
and attacked singlv Swinton^ the Earl of Buchan, who 
wounded him in the face and finally dispatched him 
with his spear/' 

This was on Easter Eve> 1421. In consequence, 
Henry hanged every Scotchman he could take in 
France^ on the plea that they were fighting against 
their own king, James I., who was in the English 
army. The spear with which Clarence was killed 
is said to have been in possession of Sir Walter 
Scott at Abbotsford. The duke's body was with 
difficulty recovered, but was finally brought to 
Canterbury and buried in the Cathedral, accord- 
ing to his own request, " at the feet of his father/' 
He is commemorated on a monument in St. 

Michael's ChaneL in the same cathedral, hv th^ 

The monument referred to is peculiar. In so far 
as Thomas of Clarence is concerned it is a ceno* 
taph only, since he is buried, as we have shown, in 
another part of the cathedral. It represents three 
figures : the Duchess in the centre, Thomas of 
Clarence on her right, and Beaufort on her left 
side. The motto for the duke's epitaph is more 
singular still, for it requires, in order to preserve 
the Latin metre, that the words Thomas and Clar* 
ence should be read in an abbreviated form : 

Hie jacet in tumulo Tho. Dux. Glar. nunc quasi nuUus, 
Qui fuit in bello clarus, nee clarior uUus. 

The will of this Clarence is also preserved in 
Nichols's * Koyal Wills,' p. 230, as made on July 10, 
1417, before he left England to join the army in 
France. He founded a chantry for his own soul 
and those of his father and mother and other 
relatives in Canterbury Cathedral, and another 
chantry at "Newark in Leicestershire.'' Dugdale 
gives the long catalogue of his manors and lands. 
His widow became a nun at Sopwell Priory, where 
she died in 1440. He left no issue. 

Noble, in his * History of the College of Arms,' 
p. 61, traces the origin of the Clarencieux Herald 
to this duke : 

"Henry V. preferring the herald of his brother 
Thomas, constable of the kingdom, created him a King 
of Arms under the title of Clarencieux, and placed all 
the south of England under bis care. Wm. Horseley 
was BO created." 

See for this dukedom Sandford's ^Genealogy,' 
B. iv. 5, p. 309, and Dugdale's 'Baronage,' vol ii. 

p. 196. 




widow of his uncle, the Earl of Somerset. The 
date of her marriage to Clarence is not known. 
She was sister and heir to Edmund, the last Hol- 
land, Earl of Kent. Her first husband was John 
Beaufort, natural soij of John of Gaunt, created 
Earl of Somerset in 1397. She had one son by 
this marriage, who died Earl of Somerset in 1418. 


'^ father " should be brother. 

(To he continued.) 

In Mr. Maskell's interesting paper on this 
subject it is stated that the marriage of Lionel 
Duke of Clarence with Elizabeth de Burgh " was 
deferred till 1354." Allow me to remind your 
readers that some years since in * N. & Q.' I was 
able to prove conclusively from the Michaelmas 
Issue Boll for 16 Edw. III. that this marriage 
took place in 1342, As I cannot give the reference 
to my paper, the Index being just now inaccessible^ 
perhaps you will permit me to repeat the transcript 
from the Roll : — 

" To Bartholomew de Bourghassh, by his own handff, 
in payment of the entire sum expended by him, paid to 
divers men of London for divers jewels bought from them 
for the use of Elizabeth, daughter of W., late Earl of 
Ulster, for the espousals IsponsaV] between Lionel, son 
of the Lord King, and the said Elizabeth, lately solemn- 
ised at the Tower of London; namely, for a golden crown 
set with stones, a girdle garnished with goldsmiths' work, 
a nouch and a tressure set with goldsmiths' work, and a 
ring with a ruby stone, which jewels were delivered to 
the said Elizabeth of the King's gift."— Sept. 9, 1342. 

On Jan. 1, 1347, the Patent EoU names Eliza- 
beth, daughter and heir of William, late Earl of 

Ulster, " lately married to our son Lionel '' (Kot. 

p^ S. X. July 5, '90.] 



Pat., 20 Edw. III., part iii.) ; and Oct. 5, 1349, 
"Elizabeth our dearest daughter, wife of Lionel 
our son " (Rot. Pat., 23 Edw. III., part iii.). 


^ r 



Is Mr. Maskell correct in styling Lionel, son 
of Edward IIIJ, " Prince "1 Were the younger 
sons of our kings ever known by this title before 

James 11. ? 

E. Leaton Blenkinsopp. 


• , 




■ (See ?h s. V. 504 ; vi. 38, 347 ; vii. 12 ; viii. 4, 114 ; 

ix. 224.) 

Ahscidit, pple. (not in D.). Ante 1450. * Colkelbie Sow/ 

779:— ■ ■ _ ■■ 

And frome thair form first rutit ground dewjdit, 

Thay may nocht than be natur, so abscidit^ 
^Do fructifie and flureiss as afoir. 

Ahrairdy Abreird (in D. given only under V Braird "). 
Henryson's ' Fables/ 3 : " Springia the flowers and the 
come abreird." 

Acolythist (earliest instance in D., 1726). 1606, Birnie, 
'Blame of Kirk Buriall/ p. 10 (reprint, 1833) : " Vespi- 
lones or bear-men^ whose peculiar calling was (being 
followed in rankes by the Acoluthists their friends, 
wherof now the Roman Bishops hes bereft them) to 
carry their corps." 

Actitate (not in D.). 1538, Indorsement on Petition 
(Pitcairn's 'Ancient Criminal Trials in Scotland/ i. 
207*) : *' Suerte being first funding to the Justice Clerk, 
and actitate in the bukis of Adjurnale^ that he sal nocht 
hreik his ward." 

A'drigh (latest in D., 1513). 1614, ' Dittay ' (Pitc., 
Grim. Tri./ iii. 265) : " Ever attending and following 
adreich upone the saide Johnne Mathow." 

Affeciiously (no instance in D. between 1430 and 1755). 
Circ. 1580, Sir R. Maitland, • Complaint aganis the Lang 
Proces/ 23, • Poems/ p. 50 (1830) : " And him exhort, 
and pray afiectiouslie." 

^ Affile Gatest in D., 1520\ Circ. 1570, A. Arbuthnot, 
' Miseries of a Puir Scolar,' st, vii. : ** And to dissemble 
man my tung affyle " (Pinkerton's ' Anct. Scot. Poems/ 


1786, p. 150). 

AfieTling=\^i^ (not in D.). 1606, Birnie, 
Bunar (1833, p. 20) : ''That Heresie, whose afterling 
entry falling out in the dreg of all tymes doth render it 

Agaieward (D. only 1647). 1530, * Register of Privy 
Seal of Scotland/ Respite to Hectour M'Clane : *' Cum- 
mand agaitwards to ye Kingis grace " (Pitc, * Crim. Tri., 
i. 245*). 

Alderman (D., "a magistrate in English and Irish 
cities and boroughs "). The title was formerly iu use in 
. Scotland also. 1488, Indorsation of Summons (Pitc, 
^ Crim. Tri.,' i. 10*) : '* Before thir witnes : Andro Busby 
alderman of Are, with others diverse." 1562, Privi- 
lege of Exemption {ibid.^ i, 418*) : •' Provest Aldermenne 
and Bailleis of our burrowes & cieties." 

AUal;ay=lhckey (not in D.). 1537, Sc. Ld. Treasurer's 
Accts, (Pitc., 'Crim. Tri./ i. 289*): "The Queenis 

Andersmes=St. Andrew's Day (not in D.). 1604, 

Record in Pitc. ' Crim. Tri.,' ii. 437 : " Murthour and 

Slauchter committit at Andersmes, I" sax hundreth and 
iua yeiris." 

Ane=SiBB (not in D.). Dunbar, * General Satyre/ 24 : 

Sa mony anis and mulia 

Within this land was nevir hard nor sene. 

Apoiheticary, adj. (not in D.). 1606, Birnie, 'Kirk 
Burial/ p. 10 (1833): "On whom, after Anatomicall 
exinteration, Apotheticary applications are so excessively 

^^p^mJZe (earliest in Dm 1499). AnieUbO, 'Colkelbie 
Sow/ 562 : 

So gentil in all his gestis and appliable. 

Assoiuj sb. (latest in D., 1375). 1598, Record in Pitc, 
' Ci im. Tri.,' ii. 65 : " The samin aucht nawyis be delayit 
in respect of ony assoinzie of seiknes/' 

Asound, Northern form of Aswoomd (no instance in 
D.). ^ 1607, Record in Pitc, * Crim. Tri.,' ii. 525 : " Scho 
continewit ane lang space asound." 

Avenant. Used as sb., ' Gawain and Gologras,' iii. 1 : 
"Thus endit the avynantis with mekil honour." 

Averoyne (only one instance in D.), Ante 1400, ' Pistill 

of Suaane,' et. ix. : 

Dasye and ditoyne, Ysope and averoyne. 
^ w;^=whap, curlew. Dunbar, ' Thistle and Rose/ 122 : 
And bawd him be as just to awppis and owlis 
As unto pacokkes. 
Bauchle, Bachle, v. D. has l)aucMe=y\Y\iy^ but not 
=8hamble (of a horse). Jamieson gives two instances, 
to which add, 1610, ' Dittay ' in Pitc., ' Crim Tri./ iii. 
78 ; *' Tuik frome him his awin horse and cuist him 
upone ane bachillane naig." 

Badling. The quotation from the ballad, " Thingis in 
kynde desyris thingis lyke," in Pinkerton's ' Sc Po.,' is 
dated '' ante 1600." It might be circ, 1500, as this 
ballad is amongst the ' Ancient Poems ' printed by Chep- 
man and Myllar, 1508. 

Bailiery (earliest in D., 1425). 'Sir Eglamour of 
Artois,' 651 (* Ancient Poems,' Edinb., 1827) : 

like officer in his balyhory. 
Bairdin (?). 1501, G. Douglas, ' Pal, of Hon.,' iii. st. 9 : 
This gudelie carvell, taiklit traist on raw. 
Was on the bairdin wallis quite ouirthraw. 

Base, v.==humble (D., 1538). 1505, G. Douglas, ' King 
Hart,' i, st, 22 : 

The bernis both wes basit of the sicht. 

Baiielour=mgg\tv (Fr. basteleur^ Cotgrave ; not in 
D.). 1591, 'Rob Stene's Dream/ p. 17 (Edinb,, 1836): 
" That battelour he blinds your ee." 

Bausy, adj.=large, coarse (not in D.). Dunbar, 'Com- 
plaint to the King,' 56 : 

And bausy handis to beir ane barrow. 
Bawd=h^Te (eariiest in D., 1592), 1486, ' Bk. of St. 
Albans,' f. 4 : " Bestis of the chace of the stenkyng 
fewte — the Baude." 

Bayand=hfiyiug, ppl. adj. (2) (D., 1538). 1513, G. 
Douglas, * -^0.,' iii. 1, 35 : 

Quhar^ at the bayand costis syde of the sea. 

K. D. Wilson. 

Archeology or Archaiologt. — Is it too late 

to return to the original, and apparently the cor- 
rect form of this word now so generally used ? The 
priceless * New English Dictionary ' of Dr. Murray 
says: ^^ Archceo-^ ad. Greek apxo-f'O' comb, form 
of ap^ctto?, ancient, primitive (f. apx^y beginning). 
Formerly, and still occasionally, spelt archaio-'; 
and then quotes many examples from 1607 
(archaiology) down to the present form archceo- 
logy. As the diphthongs ce and 05 are constantly 
confused in writing and printing, and neither of 
them is correct, the old form archaiology would be 
far better for future use. The examples quoted 

by Dr. Murray are too numerous to be given, but 



{7^ S. X, July 5, '90. 

the following are worth noting: archeologie, 1669 ; 
archialogy, 1731 ; archcEological^ 1782 and 1790 ; 
archeographyj 1804 ; and archceologic^ 1806. 


List of Jacobite Noblemen, 1745. — It has 

not hitherto been known that a list had been pab- 
lished ; bat on arranging my Jacobite papers I 
found a printed * List of Noblemen, Gentlemen, 
and others Attainted and Adjudged as Kebels 
since 24 June, 1745/ The list of names occupies 
three folio foolscap pages, and is docketed ^* A 




true Copy, 


■ M 

Curious Notices. — A friend informs me that 

by the side of the main road about four miles 
from Canterbury he saw the following carious 
notice, " Traction engines and other persons 
taking water from this pond will be prosecuted." 
This is as good as a notice I once saw in a 
barber's window, " Hair cut while you wait." 

S. Illingworth Butler. 

[At Tynemouth appeared, some thirty or more years 
ago, the alarming announcement, *' Visitors are cautioned 
against bathing within a hundred yards of this spot, 
several persons having been drowned here lately by order 
of the authorities."] 

National Flowers. (See 4^^ S. ii. 402.)— On 

the page above referred to, in regard to national 
flowers, it is asserted that as the national flower 
of England is the rose and that of France the 
flower-de-luce, so the corn-flower is the national 
flower of Prussia. Will your correspondent or 

some other reader kindly tell us the authority for 
the statement ? 

Is the corn-flower the centaurea, so famous for 

curative qualities that it took its name from Chiron, 

the prince of Centaur doctors? If not the centaurea, 

what is it ? How long has the corn-flower been 

chosen above all others by Prussians ; and what 

was the ground of their preference ? 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

James D. Butler. 

Eton Swishing Block. — The following may 
be interesting to Etonians, and is, I think, worthy 
of a record in *N. & Q.' During some disturbance 
in or about the year 1863, one Lewis (a King's 
Scholar), then at Eton, abstracted the flogging 
block, with a view of saving it from destruction. 
Lewis shortly after obtained a postmastership at 
Merton College, Oxford, took it with him there, 
and on his death the block came into possession of 
his father, Dr. Lewis, in Glamorganshire. This 
story my brother, Mr. F. T. Bircham, of the Local 
Government Board, resident at Chepstow, got from 
Dr. Lewis, and at the same time a promise that 
the block should be given to my brother, to be 
returned to Eton. Dr. Lewis, however, kept it 

till his death the other dayj when my brother 
obtained it from Mrs. Lewis, and took it to Eton^ 
giving it over into the possession of the head 
master on May 3 last. The block was the lower 
school block, and on it appear carved, among 
other names, those of Milman, Lonsdale, Houtb^ 
Wellesley, and H. Hall, 1773. 

> ;m 

Hic et ubiqub.', 

Shakspbare Allusion. — An allusion to Shake- 
speare which has hitherto escaped notice — at least 
it does not occur in Ingleby's ' Century of Praise/ 
second edition, nor in Dr. Furnivall's * Three Hun- 
dred Fresh Allusions' — is to be found in a play en- 
titled ^TheFamous TragedyofKingCharles I.,' pub- 
lished anonymously in the year 1649. The allusion 
to Shakespeare appears in the "Prologue to the 
Gentry,^' and runs as follows : 

Though Johnson, Shakespeare, GoflF, and Davenant, 
Brome, Sucklin, Beaumont, Fletcher, Shirley, want 
The life of action, and their learned lines 
Are loathed by the monsters of the times^ &c. 


Morris Jonas. 

T ) 

Benbow Family. (See 3'^ g^ ym 207, 2*77, 

362 ; ix. 104 ; 6**^ S. viii. 496 ; ix. 73, 175, 238.) 
In February, 1703, the news was received of 
the death of Admiral Benbow at Jamaica. Hia 
widow, being pensioned, probably continued to 
reside at Deptford, where it would appear that the 
youngest and unmarried daughter, Catherine, kept 
her widowed mother company till her death at 
Deptford on Dec. 14, 1722, having survived her 
husband twenty years. In six months after, viz., 
July 25, 1723, Catherine married Paul Calton, 
of St. Peter's, Oornhill, London, afterwards living 
away at Milton, near Abingdon, where a son^ 
Benbow Calton, was baptized on Dec. 15, 1726. 

Hubert Taylor, 

Hungary Water. — This fashionable medicine, 
or refreshment, used by women of rank in the 
last century, is often mentioned satirically by 
the critics of social manners in that age. It was, 
apparently, crude or rectified alcohol with a 
tincture or maceration " through it," as the tradi- 
tional Irishman would say, of rosemary (vids 
' The Young Ladies' School of Art,' to which I 
have elsewhere referred, p. 58) : 


'^Hungary water: Take a quantity of the flowers of 
rosemary ; put them into a glass; retort and pour in as 
much gpirit of wine as the flowers can imbibe; dilute 
the retort well, and let the flowers macerate for six days; 
then distil it in a sand-heat/' 

In fact, this "Hungary water" was an elegant 
stimulant (with an innocent name) for "great 
ladie?," and its use might be compared with that 
of chloral hydrate, chlorodyne, or morphia at the 
present day. Eosemary, of course, was formerly, 
though not now, "oflacinal." 

In the same little book (p. 49) is incidentally 

mentioned, under "Dyeing of Thread," the colour 

7» S. X. July 5*, '90. ] .' 


r - ^ 

called "Isabella," the story of which is too well 
known for me to repeat : " Orange and Isabella, 
with fastick, weld, and rbcou.'' 


may note that the elder tree is said to be " called 
the boun-tree in some parts of Scotland"; and 
that a relic of superstition is also included, for the 
lady, having stated the supposed specific, adds : 
" And repeat the dose the next new and full moon 
after the first, till the cure is compleated." 

' i 


* - 

Superstition in Mansfield. — The following 

newspaper cutting, referring to the observance of 
New Yeai^ 1890, seems of interest sufficient to 

place in * N. & Q 


At the Mansfield police court on Saturday a young 
man named Ebenezer Allwood was brought up in custody 
charged with assaulting a young woman of respectable 
family, named Mary Prisby, at Mansfield on New Year's 
morning. The case brought to light an extraordinary 
bit of superstition on the part of the girl's mother, which 
there is no doubt was the primary cause of the assault. 
The young woman attended the midnight service at the 
parish church, and returned home a few minutes past 
twelve o'clock; but the mother, believing in the supersti- 
tion that it is unlucky for a female to enter the house on 
New Year's morning before a man, told the daughter 
that neither her father nor brother had yet come home, 
and she was to wait about until they came to enter the 
house first. The girl, in consequence, went for a stroll, 
the morning being moonlight, and returned to the bouse 
five times, but, as her father and brother had not re- 
turned, the mother kept the door locked. For the sixth 
time she went for a walk along the streets, this being 

about a quarter to one o'clock, when the prisoner met 
and assaulted her." 


George Eaven. 

h ^ 

suddenly wheeled it to the left, and fired volleys 
into the flank of the French column, which broke 
and fled. This was the turning point of the 
struggle, and credit for it should be given to the 
52ud, whose fire, followed by a charge, was 
ably seconded by the advance of the English 
Guards under Maitland. Owing to the defection of 
the Belgian troops this part of Wellington's line, 
the right, was at this time the weakest, being almost 
unsupported, so that the advance of about six 
thousand infantry in columns seemed destined to 
burst through it. Fortunately the 52 ad was a well 
led and strong battalion ; it had marched on the 
ground with more than one thousand men, a 
number in excess of any other English regiment 
in the fight. The writer of the pamphlet places the 
52nd on the wrong side (the left) of the main road 
leading from Brussels to Genappe, and it is a pity 
he had not carefully studied Oapt. Siborne's valu- 
able model of the battle in the museum of the 
Royal United Service Institution. 

Walter Hamilton, 

Restoration of a Parish Register : Lam- 
BOURNB, CO. Essex, — The early register of this 
parish was sent anonymously by Parcel Post to 
the rector on June 4, 1889. The parcel, which 
bore the post-mark "Essex Road, N.," contained 
a slip of paper, on which was written, " Found in 
an old box, please acknowledge in StandardJ^ An 
acknowledgment from the Rev. G. F. Wright, 
Rector of Lambourne, of safe receipt, appeared in 
the Standard of June 7, 1889. There are two paper 
fly-leaves at the beginning and end of the volume ; 
the burials, 1705-9, are on one of the end paper 
leaves, and on the last a list of burials in 1788, 
but these appear again in their proper place in No. 4 
register. The writing and spelling seem to indicate 
that the latter page is a memorandum by some 
illiterate person. On the first paper leaf is a note 
that "This Booke belongeth unto the Parish of 
Lamborne in the County of Essex. Anno Domini 
1681. J. L., Curate " (i. c, John Lavender). On 

handwriting, " Memorand 


je Para- 

DuzB OF Wellington. — The Times of May 29 

draws attention to the prescription exhibited at 
the Royal Military Exhibition, dated April 30, 
1769, 49j Dawson Street, Dublin, supposed to 
have been written by Sir Fielding Ould, M.D., for 
the Countess of Mornington and the young child, 
afterwards Duke of Wellington, remarkable as 
fixing date of birth anterior to that usually accepted 
as the birthday of the Iron Duke. 

Hardric Morphyn. 

Waterloo. — It is to be regretted that the 
pamphlet describing the fight at Waterloo, which 
IS sold to visitors at the panorama now exhibiting 
is not more accurate. It repeats the silly, and oft 

denied, order attributed to Wellington, "Up 

Guards and at them"; it also reasserts that the | and bunals from Feb. 6, 1584, to Feb. 16, 1708/9. 
duke met Blucher after the battle at La Belle 
Alliance farm, which the duke himself emphatically 
denied. But the worst error occurs in describing, 
and showing on the plan, the gallant 62Dd Regi- 
ment in a position quite different from that which it 
occupied at the close of the day. It then was in 
line on the right of our Guards, and as the French 

phrase of Erasmus belonginge to y® Parish Church 
of Lamborne is in the custodie of Thomas Wynnjff 
now Parson of Lamborne, and is by him to be 
restored againe to the use of 3?® church."^ The 
volume is of parchment, and contains entries of 
baptisms from Sept. 2, 1582, to Oct. 24, 1709 ; 
marriages from Nov. 29, 1584, to Oct. 6, 1708 ; 
and burials from Feb. 6, 1584, to Feb. 16, 1708/9. 
This early register has now been privately printed 
by Mr. F. A. Crisp, of Grove Park, Denmark Hill, 
London, S.E. An interesting account of Lam- 
bourne, by G. B. , with views of the church and 
Dews Hall, will be found in Gent Mag.j 1821, 
vol. xci. part ii. pp. 297-8. 

Daniel Hipwbll. 

advanced up the hill its colonel, Sir John Oolborne, I 34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 



[?hS. X. Julys, '90. 

Inscription to K. Alfred, at Little Drif- 
field.— On May 23 the Archbishop of York re- 
opened the church at Little Driffield, in the East 
Riding of Yorkshire. On the north wall of the 
chancel there is a modern inscription : " Within 
this Chancel lies interred the Body of Alfred, King 
of Northumberland, who departed this Life Janu- 
ary 19th, A.D. 706, in the 20th Year of his Reign. 
Statutum est omnibus semel morL" Whether he 
was so buried or not has caused much controversy, 
into which it is not necessary to enter here. The 
ancient chroniclers record his death at Driffield on 
*^19. Cal. lanuarij"; see,, 'Florence of Wor- 
cester/ 1592, p. 262 ; but this is December 14, 
not January 19. Notice the text, which is Heb. 
ix. 27 (in Allen's ' Yorkshire,' iii. 422, we have 
"ef for est; and in Ross's * Celebrities of the 



51, where, however, the Vulgate differs. But in 
Heb. ix. 27, the Vulgate has ** statutum est homi- 
nibus semel mori.'* The confusion of hominibus 
with omnibus is possibly due to some late Latin or 
early Italian version, in which the initial h would 
disappear. The confusion is not recent either in 
Latin or English. Omnibus is printed in the 
margin of p. 245 a, of an edition of Peter Lombard, 
Paris, 1553. It also occurs on the sheath of a 
Bristol sword, 1670, Proc. Soc.Ant, second series, 

xii. 327. 


of Pearson * On the Creed ' (1659), edited by James 
Nichols, 1848, pp. 433, 641 ; and twice in the 
' Works ' of W. Romaine (ob. 1795), 1837, pp. 467, 
817. It is also found in a sermon by Canon 
Liddon, printed in the Contemporary Pulpit^ 
January, 1887, p. 55, but it is only fair to add 
that for the printing the preacher held himself in 
no way responsible. W. C. B. 

The Commonwealth Flag. — In ' Woodstock,' 
chap, viii., t«bere are a couple of mistakes which, 
considering Sir Walter Scott's partiality to the study 
of heraldry, are very curious. The banner of Eng- 
land, he says, was no longer flying over the Round 
Tower at Windsor; "in its room waved that of 
the Commonwealth, the cross of St. George, in its 
colours of blue and red, not yet intersected by the 
diagonal cross of Scotland, which was soon after 
assumed, as if in evidence of England's conquest 
over her ancient enemy." It is possible that he 
did not know that the Commonwealth did not, at 
any time, carry on its banner the diagonal cross 
of Scotland intersecting St. George's cross ; but he 
certainly did know that St. George's cross has no 

blue about it. 

J. K. L. 

Alleged Change of Climate in Iceland. 

With your permission I should like to make a 
small comment on a passage in the highly inter- 

editor is Mr. Justin Winsor, Librarian of Harvard 
University, and the second chapter, which con- 
tains the passage in question, is by himself. After 
alluding to the Irish settlement in the island, 
which appears to have been the earliest of all, and 
to have been displaced by the Norse immigration 
into Iceland towards the end of the ninth century, 
Mr. Winsor proceeds : 

" Here Columbus, when, as he tells us, he visited the 
island in 1477, found no ice. So that, if we may place 
reliance on the appreciable change of climate by the 
precession of the equinoxes, a thousand years ago and 
more, when the Norwegians crossed from Scandinavia 
and found these Christian Irish there, the island was not 
the forbidding spot that it seems with the lapse of cen- 
turies to be becoming.'' 

If any appreciable change has taken place in the 
climate of Iceland within historic times, this can- 
not have arisen from any directly astronomical 
cause. The precession of the equinoxes can never 
produce any climatic change, consisting as it does 
in a conical motion of the earth's axis round a 
point in its centre. The diminution in the ob- 
liquity of the ecliptic is a different phenomenon, 
due to planetary perturbation. So far as it goes 
it tends, of course, to diminish the range of change 
in seasonal temperature ; but its whole extent is 
small, amounting only to about 45'' in a century. 
During the last thousand years the obliquity has 
only changed by about 7', and since the time of 
Columbus less than 2^'. Surely Mr. Winsor's 
language is calculated to give a wrong impression 
with regard to what that great navigator noticed ! 
That he should have found " no ice " in Iceland 
would indeed have been extraordinary. What 
really surprised him seems to have been to find an 
open sea much further to the north, in which it was 
possible to sail without being blocked in by the 
ice. The Norwegians at first gave the island the 
name of Snjaland, or Snowland, but afterwards 
changed this to Island, probably on account of the 
masses of drift ice frequently carried to its western 
shores from the coast of Greenland. The word is 
signifies ice in the Scandinavian tongues. It was 
the same also in Old German and in Anglo-Saxon, 
though in modern German it has become eis, and 

in English ice. 


W. T. Lynn. 

Prepense. — In the phrase " malice prepense " 
the etymology of prepense is not very easy. I give 
it as from Lat. prce, beforehand, and the French 
penser. Godefroy's 0. F. Dictionary gives an 
example (s.v. "Porpenser") of the phrase "de 
malice pourpensee.^^ This may seem decisive, but 
it is not so. Scheler {s.v. "Pour") points out the 
extraordinary confusion, in French, between ^our, 
O.F. par (properly Lat. pro)^ and par (Lat. per) ; 
and ho might have included F. pre- as well. The 

esting work recently published under the title j confusion seems to be one of long standing, for in 

* Narrative and Critical History of America.' The I the second section of the * Laws of William the 

^ \ 

7*^ S. X. July 5, '90.] 



Conqueror' Thorpe's edition speaks of "agweit 
purpensi,^^ i. e., premeditated lying in wait. But 
another reading is prepensed (see Littr^^ s.v. 
" Pourpenser/' and Schmid's 'Die Gesetze der 
Angelsachsen/ p. 322). This makes it tolerably 
clear that the above-mentioned confusion existed. 
At the same time it is certain that the usual 
Anglo-French verb for premeditate was purpenser. 
Cf. the phrase "felonie purpense^^ in Britton, 
vol. i. p. 15, and the long note in Elyot's 
* Governour/ ed. Croft, vol. ii. p. 375. 

Walter W. Skeat. 

- Arrow Throwing. — As I believe that the only 
places where the old English sport of arrow throw- 
ing still exists are a few villages in the West 
Biding, the following extract from the Leeds papers 
of June 9 may be of interest : 

** At Quarry Gap Grounds, Laisterdyke, on Saturday, 
A. Ray, of Laisterdyke, and C. Hinchcliffe, of Horton, 
threw 30 arrows each on level terms for 201. There was 
a fair company of spectators. A shade of odds were laid 
on Ray, who won a very closely contested game by 4 
score. The following are the detailed scores: — Ray, 12, 
12, 10. 8, 12—54; 11, 12, 11, 11, 11-56; 10, 11, 11, 11, 
12—55; 8. 11.11,12, 12—54; 12, 10, 11, 9, 10—52; 8, 
11, 13. 7, 10-49; total, 320. HinchcliflFe, 10,11, 13, 12, 
10—56; 11, 11, 11, 12, 10—55; 13, 12,10,11,12—58; 
10, 10, 12, 9, 10-51 ; 10, 11, 11, 6, 10-48; 11, 7, 10, 11, 
9-48; total, 316." 

T. B. 

, Settle. 

Folk-lore : Ears Burning. — I have been ac- 
quainted with the first part of the following as long 
as I can remember. The latter part is new to me^ 

and has reached me from Hampshire. If your 
ears burn^ the sign is : 

Left for love, and right for spite : 
Left or right, good at night. 

In the case of the right ear I have been advised 
to pinch itj and the person who is speaking spite- 


S. Illingworth Butler. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest^ to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries^ in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

[ Whalley. — A list of the manuscripts of George 
Alan Lowndes, Esq, , of Barrington HalJ, co. Essex, 
in the* Seventh Report of the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission,' Appendix, contains this entry: 

" (No. 156) 1628. July 28, Screaveton.— Rye. Whalley 
to Lady Joane Barrington, baronettess, at her house 
Hatfield in Essex.— On a report of the death of her 
husband, Sir Francis, he condoles with her. Asks that 
his daughter (her niece) may still remain with her. 
Sends the third and last volume of Mr. Parkins's works." 


Q.' tell which of Mr 
is ? The pedigree oi 

Whalley, in the ' Visitations of Nottingham,* 1569 
and 1614, Harleian Society's Publications, vol. iv. 
p. 118, shows that he had two daughters, Elizabeth 
and Jane, the former of whom married William 
Tiffin, of London, mercer. The famous Eoger 
Williams, the founder of Rhode Island^ then chap- 
lain to Lady Barrington's son-in-law, Sir William 
Masham, of Otes, solicited of her, about the year 
1629, the hand of her niece ; but the niece's name 
it not mentioned in the correspondence on the 
subject, which is printed in the New England 
Historical and Genealogical Register^ vol. xlii. 
(1889), pp. 315-20, from a Copy furnished by Mr. 
Lowndes, the owner of the original letters. I have 
queried whether it was not the niece mentioned in 
Mr. Whalley's letter whose hand Williams aspired 
to. A brother of Miss Whalley, Major-General 
Edward Whalley, one of the king's judges, came to 
New England and died here. Jane, the youngest 
daughter of Kichard Whalley, named in the pedi* 
gree, married Rev. William Hooke, a graduate of 
Oxford University, who was vicar of Axmouth, in 
Devonshire, but as early as 1639 came to New 
England. He preached a few years at Taunton, in 
Plymouth colony, and from 1644 to 1656 at New 
Haven, Conn. He then returned to England, and 
was private chaplain to Oliver Cromwell. Some 
letters of Mrs. Jane Hooke to friends in New 
England are printed in the ' Massachusetts His- 
torical Collections,' vol. xxxviii. pp. 260-68. If 
this was the niece of Lady Barrington whom Eoger 
Williams wished to marry — and I think it not 
unlikely that it was— though one clergyman failed 
to obtain her hand she became the wife of another. 

John Ward Dean. 

18j Somerset Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Sermon Wanted. — In the ' Catalogue of 
Pamphlets in Harleian Library V (1746), p. 939, 
occurs the following: — "A Declaration of the 
Notable Victory given of God to Queen Mary 
shewed in the Church of Luton 22 July, in the 
First Year of Her Reign" (1553). It is a sermon 
by J. Gwynnetb, Vicar. It has never been printed 
in either of the sets of volumes published by the 
British Museum, nor, as they assure me that it is 
not be found on their shelves, does it seem ever to 
have come into their possession. Can any one tell 
me where it is likely to be found ? 

Henry Cobbe. 

Maulden Rectory, Ampthill. 

Lybe. — In the ballad of *The Holly and the 
Ivy,' temp. Hen. IV., printed in * A Garland of 
Christmas Carols, Ancient and Modern,' edited by 
Joshua Sylvester, Hotten, 1861, are these lines : 

Hyve hath a lybe, she caught it with the cold, 
So may they all have, that do with Hyve hold. 

Is lyhe a misreading of Tcyhe^ chilblain ; or what is 


J. T. F. 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall^ Durham. 



[7th g. X. July 5, '90. 

HiGHGATE. — I am, as a matter of charity, about 
to publish the somewhat interesting poetical 
remains of John Brown, called '^ the Horncastle 
Laureate," under the patronage of Lord Tennyson, 
&c. They are rich in Lincolnshire and other 
idioms, of which I am giving explanatory notes. 
Writing of a man of weak intellect, he says : 

" They laughed, and sed he wosn't reight, 

His mind was mazzled, or his nut; 
He should have gone to Highgate streight. 

And for the simples there be cut. 

The expression " to be cut " or " bled for the 
simples" is proverbial, probably surviving from 
the days of plentiful blood-letting as a sovereign 
remedy for most of *^ the ills that flesh is heir to." 
But the point which needs solving is this, Why go 
to Highgate for the operation ? Was there any 
doctor, quack or otherwise, living half a century 
ago^ at Highgate to whom reference is here made ? 
I visited Highgate a few days ago, but could not 
learn anything to throw a light on this subject. 

J. Conway Walter. 

Langton Rectory, Horncastle. 

Wider Horizons 


give me the names of the author and of the pub- 
lisher, the date of publication, and the price of a 


F. T. Selby. 

Chaworth.— Can any of your readers kindly 
tell me the date of death and place of burial of 
John> second Viscount Chaworth, the owner of 

Wiverton Hall, Notts, 
Pedigrees. — Where 

J. H. 


Dunkeld, and Davidson of Perth, also of the 
branches of Stewart of Cardneys and Culdares ? 

W. Lyon. 

DiGBT. — Can any one tell me the name of the 
mother of Simon Digby, Bishop of Elphin, in the 
reign of Charles I. ? His father was Essex Digby, 
Bishop of Dromore, second son of Sir Robert 
Digby. and Lettice Fitzgerald, created Baroness 
OSdlej. Kathleen Wabd. 

The Gardens of Alcinous : ' Odyssey,' 

Lib. VII. 113. — In his glowing description of 
these the^ poet says : eKToadev S'auA^s fiiyas 
opxaros ayxi dvpdcou Terpdyvos. What measure 
is expressed by nTpdyvos ? Buckley translates it 
'^ of four acres," as also does Crusius in his Homeric 
'Lexicon,' and Pope adopts the same rendering. 
Cowper, also, I see, as quoted by Crusius, trans- 
lates TiTpayvov, ' Odyssey,' xviii. 374, " a field 
^ur acres in size." On the other hand, Messrs. 
Butcher and Lang, in their fine prose version, 
translate it " of four ploughgates," a ploughgate, as 
defined in Jenkins's 'Vest- Pocket Lexicon,' 1871, 
being thirty acres. Certainly a hundred and 
twenty acres would seem to be more correct than 

Library, No. 24, Cockspur Street. 1810." 

the other, as four acres is scrimpy measure for a 
royal garden, even for a king of the heroic ages 
whose daughter did the family washing. One 
acre less, and we should have expected Alcinous, 
instead of growing luscious fruits, to have pastured 
a cow on his three acres ! Liddell and Scott trans- 
late rerpdyvov^ substantively, "a measure of land, 
as much as a man can plough in a day,^' but in 
their smaller ^Lexicon,' ed. 1849, they also define 

T€Tpdyvos, "as large as four acres of land." The 
whole description of the glorious garden seems to 
me inconsistent with so scanty a measure as four 
acres. What do your classical readers say ? 

Jonathan Bouchier. 


Byron. — I have laid before me two copies of 
what professes to be the third edition of Lord 
Byron's ' English Bards and Scotch Reviewers,' 
"London, Printed for James Cawthorn, British 


the back of the title of one of them is "Printed by 
T. Collins, Harvey's Buildings, Strand, London." 
This does not occur on the other. The two books 
are octavos of about the same size. They have 
each eighty-five pages. It is quite evident to any 
one who examines them closely that they are dif- 
ferent editions. I have not looked them through 
with much care, but so far as I can tell from a 
rapid and somewhat careless examination they 
are, except for a misprint or two, identical in text. 
Can any one explain the meaning of there being 
two third editions of this work ? i : 

Edward Peacock. 

Emma Tatham. — Can any one tell me if a stray 
copy of the poems of Miss Emma Tatham is to be 
had ? She is alluded to by Mr. Matthew Arnold 
in one of his ' Essays on Literature.' She died 
about thirty-six years ago, at the age only of 
twenty-five, I believe. I remember hearing her 
poems spoken of during the period of the Crimean 
War. One, *The Dream of Pythagoras,' was 
especially said to possess merit, as well as shorter 
ones. I was a child then, so could be no judge ; 
but I wish I could see the poems now. 

F. S. H. 
Maori War of 1865.— I should be much 

obliged if any of your correspondents could tell 
me whether any history or literature of any kind 

Kew jt 

Maori War 


[See Petherick's The Torch for Hats of works on colonies.] 

Bible Family Records. — What is the oldest 

Bible, in any language, containing blank pages for 
family records? How were such records kept 
before Bible printers began to furnish such genea- 
logical helps ? The oldest edition now at hand 
with pages headed " Family Record " is of 1816, 
by Collins, New York. There are no such pages 


7t»» S. X. July 5, '90. J 



in the Edinburgh edition of 1795, by bis Majesty's 
printers, &c, ^ James D. Butler. 

t Madison, Wis., U.S. • 

' •* 

Allusion inDe Quincey. — Can any of your 
readers inform me precisely to T^hat De Quincey 
alludes in the passage in his essay on the Essenes ? 

*' By the Bible statement we mean, of course, nothing 
which any inapired part of the Bible tells ua— on the 
contrary, one capital reason for rejecting the old notion 

is the total silence of the Bible ; but we mean that little 

explanatory note on the Eesenes which our Bible trans- 
lators under James I. have thought fit to adopt, and, in 
reality, to adopt from Josephus, with reliance on his 

authority which closer study would have shown to be 

It has been suggested that De Quincey refers to an 
explanation of the terms Essenes, Pharisees, &c., 
which occurs in some copies of the Bible between 
the Old and the New Testament, but his own 
words seem to imply an actual passage of Scrip- 


' f 


Hassell. — In the * Visitation of Yorkshire, 
1665,' there is a pedigree of Hassell, of Hutton- 
upon-Darwent, commencing with Thomas Hassell, 
of London, who married a daughter of Dela Motte, 
Governor of Gravelines. De la Motte was shot 
about 1580. Can anyone give further information 

respecting the above Thomas Hassell ? Leo 0. 

The Game of Polo. — Can any of your learned 
Indian correspondents light upon the derivation of 
the name given to the game of polo ] It is supposed 
by some to be of Persian, by others of Thibetan 
origin, and was first introduced into England from 
India about the year 1872, as stated in reply to a 
query {' N. & Q.,' 6'^ S. x. 501). No information is 
wanted on the nature of the game itself, which, I 
am told, is fully described by Mr. G. J. Young- 
husband in a work quite recently published, 
which bears the title * Polo in India/ 

H. Krebs. 

^ Royal Poets.— Can any reader of *N. & Q.' 
give me information as to what foreign potentates, 
if any, before * Carmen Sylva/ the present Queen 
of Roumania, have written in verse ? W. B. 

. St. Patrick. — In an article in the Tablet of 
March 29, by Mr. Wilfrid Robinson, p. 486, 
St. Patrick is spoken of as the patron of the deaf 

and dumb. What 

caused him to be so regarded ? 


Welsh Rabbit."— In a recent review of 


'' To call Welsh 


rarebit wait) is only M. Filippini's fan, or his 
American patrons' ignorance.'' More recently still 
.the Standard, while expressly referring to Thacke- 
ray's " Cave of Harmony," where " Welsh rabbit " 

was a speciality (* The Newcomes,' ch. i.), takes 
care to improve the word into "Welsh rarebit.^ 
This is all a mistake, I believe. Welsh rabbit 
occurs in Grave's * Spiritual Quixote,' bk. viL, 
ch. ix. But what early writer can be quoted for 

Welsh rarebit ? 
S. Woodford. 

A. Stmthe Palher. 

Spurs. — The gingling spur, or "ginglers," as 
they were called, appear, from ^ Every Man in his 
Humour,' II. i., to have come up circa 1599. In his 
note on the passage Gifford, rather laughing at 
Wballej's and Theobald's explanations, says that 
"the gingling was produced by the large loose 
rowels then worn." Having had reason to doubt 
his confident statements, I took leave to doubt 
this, and wrote to Mr. A. W, Franks, of the 
British Museum. He courteously told me that 
they had no specimen, but referred me to the Hon. 
Harold Dillon's edition of Fairholt's * Costume in 
England,' vol. i. p. 259, and also to the Tower Ar- 
mouries. In the latter I, assisted by Mr. Barber, 
found none, but in Fairholt there is depicted a 
spur with a small barred rod suspended from the 
axis of the rowel on the outside of the spur, and 
this in walking would necessarily strike against 
the blades of the rowel or against the spur-bar 
itself, and cause a gingling. In all probability, 
however, there were more ways than this of pro- 
ducing the gingle, and I would ask possessors of 
Elizabethan or Jacobean spurs, or others, to de- 
scribe any such which they may possess or know 
of. While, also, I am somewhat inclined to think 
that Gifford evolved his explanation from his inner 
consciousness — for I have found his statements not 
always accurate or unbiassed — I would be glad to 
bear of a specimen of a spur so loosely rowelled 
as to produce an audible gingle. 

Br. Nicholson. 
Christopher North's Arithmetic. — In Prof. 

Wilson's charming *Noctes Ambrosianse' (No- 
vember, 1834), I notice the following sentence, 
spoken by the Ettrick Shepherd : " There, wull 
ye believe me — were lyin'five-and-twunty eels and 
five-and-twunty pikes — in all saxty," Is North's 
arithmetic at fault, or is the blunder intentional? 

W. W. Da vies. 

Qlenmore, Lisburn, near Belfast. 

Authors of Quotations Wanted. 

Whence comes the following quotation regarding a 
dog ?— 

He did not know, poor fool. 
Why love should not be true to death, 

M. N. ANi> A. 

'* To leave the world better than you found it." Who 
originated this phrase? P. A, 0. 

Like souls that meeting pass, 
And passing never meet again. 


What Cato did and Addison approved 
Cannot be wrong, 

J. P. 



[7"i 8. X. JuLT|5, '90. 



(7^^ S. ix. 309.) 

The earliest explanation of this term, so gener- 
ally employed by the grammarians, with which 
I am acquainted is in the ^^Glossarium Gram- 
maticum" at the end of the * Public School 
Latin Primer' (p. 162, first edition, 1866), 
where there is the following definition : ** Vox, 
voice : that form by which verbs are shown as 


Sec. 39, p. 24 : "The verb has 

two Voices, (1) the Active Voice, as amo, I love ; 
(2) the Passive, as amor, I am loved." Before 
this the 'Eton Latin Grammar' had, "Verbs 
have two Voices; the active, ending in o; the 
passive, ending in or." *The Short Introduction 
of Grammar,' written by John Colet, Dean of St. 
Paul's, and dedicated to William Lily, the first 
high master of St. Paul's School, in 1510, does not 
employ the term voice, but in the section " Of a 
Verb" states, "Of verbs personal there be five 
Jcinds, active, passive, deponent, neuter, and com- 
mon,'^ although at the end of the book (I quote an 
edition of 1758), in a "Table of the Terminations 
of the Verbs," use is made of the terms " Active 
Voice," "Passive Voice." The ' Institutio Grsecse 
Grammatices Oompendiaria in usum Regiae Scholse 
Westmonasteriensis,' London, 1754, compiled by 
Edward Grant in 1575, and revised by Camden, 
under " Verbum " has this sentence : " Verborum 
tres sunt voces^ activa, passiva, et media utriusque 
particeps." This grammar being a compilation 
from preceding works, the term vox was probably 
in use before that date. I do not, however, find it, 
in the grammatical sense, in the * Oatholicon/ nor 
in Ducange. The ancient grammarians do not use 
it. Donatus says : 

^ " Verbum est pars orationis cum tempore et persona, 
sine casu, aut agere aliquid aut pati aut neutrum signifi- 
cana. Verbo accidunt septera : qualitas, conjugatio, 
genus, numerus, figura, tempuB, persona."— Sec. xii. 1. 

"Genera verborum, quae ab aliis significationes di- 
cuntur, sunt quiuque, activa, passiva, neutra, communia, 
deponentia."— 5. 

This is repeated by Asper Junior, sec. vii.; by 
Phocas Grammaticus, sec. vii. ; by Pompeius in his 
' Comment on Donatus,' sees. xx. and xxii. ; and 
by Servius, sec. vi. 2, 8. Priscian says the same 
nearly : 

" Verbo accidunt octo, significatio sive genus, tempus, 
modus, species, figura, conjugatio, et persona cum numero, 
quando affectus animi delinit,"— viii. 2, 

*' Significatio vel genus, quod Graeci Sia9t(Tiv vocant, 

verbi in actu est proprie, ut dictum est, vel in passione." 
— viii. 2. 


Still earlier Quintilian, *Inst. Orator.,' i. 4, 27: 
"Sed in verbis quoque quis est adeo imperitus, ut 
ignoret genera et quaiitates, et personas etnumeros,'^ 

on which passage Spalding, in his edition, Lips., 
1798, notes : 

^'Genera verborum quae et significationes appellant 
Diomedes et Priscianus, etiam nostri aevi Grammatici 



"Verba autem sunt mentis signa quibus homines 
cogitationes suae invicem loquendo demonstrant. Sicut 
autem nomen significat personam, ita verbum factum 
dictumque personae. In persona verbi agentis aut patientis 
significatio est. Verborum species sunt formae, modi, 
conjugationes et genera. Genera — ideo autem ipsa 
dicuntur activa quia agunt, ut verbero, et passiva quia 
patiuntur, ut verberor."— Origin,, i, viii. § 2, 8. 

In the above passage both verbum and vox are 
implied, for, as Augustine says, the verhum may 
be in the mind of the thinker, but it needs the 
vox to convey it to others ; hence vox comes to be 



which declares or tells that the speaker is acting 
or being acted upon ; and a passage in Priscian 
may have suggested this use of vox. He says ; 

'* Si quis altius consideret in activis vocibus passionero, 
etin passivis actionem fieri inveniat, ut audio te, video te, 
tango te. Ostendo enim pati me aliquid in ipso actu. Cum 
enim dico, audio te, ostendo quod vocis tuae actum 
patiuntur aures meae. Et e contrario, audior a te, dico 
quod vox mea agit aliquid in aures tuas. Sed tamen quia 
nobis agentibus, id est sentientibus, et aliquid facientibuS) 
et oculi vident et aures audiunt, et tactua corpori evenit, 
non irrationabiliter activorum et vocem etconstructionem 

habuerunt." — viii. ii. 7. 


The French word voix was used for the first 
time as a grammatical term by Dumarsais, a 
French grammarian, celebrated for having written a 
^ Traits des Tropes.' He lived from 1676 till 
1756. The following sentence is to be found in the 
fourth volume of his complete 'Works,' p. 68: "La 
voix ou forme du verbe : elle est de trois sortes ; 
la voix ou forme active, la voix passive et la forme 
neutre." The English corresponding word voice 
must have come to be used with this meaning 
about the same time, or perhaps rather later, for 
Webster, in the new edition of 1880 of his ' Dic- 
tionary,' gives a very particular account of this 
meaning of the word, as if it were not generally 
known. Thus much for the "when"; now for 
the " why." The verb is the most important word 
in a sentence, and if Homer could give wings to 

the words of the language (cTrea TrrepoevTo), we 

can with the same accuracy give being and speech 

to the verb that rules them, and say that he speaks 

in a sentence with an authoritative and active, or 

a submissive and passive, voice. Dnargel.. 


I suppose E. G. thinks of the active, middle,, 
and passive voices. A voice is a mode of ex- 
pression, but not necessarily a sound uttered by 
natural or artificial organs and audible to physical . 
ears. Doubtless this is the commonest meaning, 

7'" S. X. Jolt 5, '90.] 



but when E. G. remembers the wider one he will 
have no difficulty, nor any in believing that this 
grammatical term is as old as grammar itself, or at 
least as the oldest treatise ^n the same. 

Longford, Coventry. 

0. F. S. Warren, M.A. 


Churches of Brixworth and Balking (7^** 
S. ix. 389). — I am tempted to ask what is Mr. 
Warren's authority, at the present day, for Brix- 
worth Church " as a Roman Basilica," and " the 
oldest church in England.'* When the Archaeo- 
logical Institute visited it in 1878, it was the 
opinion of the very competent judges present that 
no part of the existing building is earlier than the 
eighth century. There is, of course, a quantity of 
Eoman material used in Brixworth Church, but it 
is not used more Romano. 

Albert Hartshorne. 

There cannot be much in the church of Baulking 
or Balking which is older than the Norman Con- 


The main body is unmistakably Early 


English, and of the thirteenth century. I should 
much like to have a list of all the English churches 
which in their entirety are pre-Norman. Those I 
know are the ecclesiola at Bradford-ori-Avon, the 
Castle Church at Dover, Worth Church in Sussex, 
and the wooden church at Greenstead, by Ongar. 
Brixworth seems only partly pre-Norman. 

J. Mask ELL. 

Several — that is, a large proportion — of the 
so-called Saxon churches begin with a B ; but 
Balking is not in Hickman's list marked as of this 
character, nor is it in his notice of the churches of 
Berkshire in his * Architecture,' 1835, nor in the 
list of Saxon churches in Parker's * Glossary,' 1845. 
Mr. J. H. Parker (^Ecclesiastical Topography of 
Berks/ Ox., 1850, No. 70) has an account of a survey 
by himself of Baulking Church, in which the 
earlier portions which he specifies are the north 
and south doorways, which he names Transition 
Norman ; the next to this is the chancel, which he 
terms Early English ; while the nave has two 
Decorated windows on the north, and one Per- 

pendicular on the south. 

Ed. Marshall. 

. Keats (7'^ S. ix. 370). — It is not easy to 

analyze beautiful poetry in work-a-day prose, but 
I will endeavour to explain the first stanza of the 
*Ode to a Nightingale' as I understand it, in 
Ofder to assist your correspondent Catti, who I 
am glad is interested in this divine poem. The 
poet says that "his heart aches, and a drowsy 
numbness pains his sense," &c., not because he 

the nightingale's " happy lot," but 
through sheer excess of happiness in the bird's happi- 
ness, which happiness (namely, the bird's) consists 
in his " singing of summer in full-throated ease." 
The four lines beginning 

That thou Hght-winged Dryad of the trees 

** envies" 

are in apposition with " thy happiness." Compare 
Shelley's lines in his * Ode to the West Wind'; 

AH overgrown with azure moss and flowers 
So sweet, the sense faints picturing them. 

"Spirit" in the second stanza of the *Ode on a 
Grecian Urn' is unquestionably a substantive^ 
used in opposition to " sensual ear " in the previous 
line. May I be allowed to say that the phrase 
"leaf-fringed legend" in the first stanza of this 
ode strikes me as worthy of any poet that ever 

lived ? What 
Keats ! 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

'Tis not through envy of thy happy lot, 
But being too happy in thine happiness, 
That thou 



Is it possible to give the sense of this better than 
Keats has given it ? " My heart aches : it is not 
through envy of thy happiness, but because I am 
too happy in sympathy with thee and thy song of 
summer." Surely this is plainly the sense of the 
lines ! In one of his letters to Bailey, written in 
1817, Keats says : 

" I scarcely remember counting upon any happiness. 
I look not for it if it be not in the present hour. Nothing 
startles me beyond the present moment. The setting 
Bun will always set me to rights, or if a sparrow come 
before my window, I take part in its existence, and pick 
about the gravel. 

The italics are mine. Compare with this what he 
says of melancholy : 

She dwells with Beauty— Beauty that must die ; 

And Joy, whose hand is ever at his lipa 
Bidding adieu ; and aching Pleasure nigh, 

Turning to poison while the bee-mouth sips : 
Ay, in the very temple of Delight 

Veil'd Melancholy has her sovran shrine, 
Though seen of none save him whose strenuou? 

Can burst Joy's grape against his palate fine ; 
His soul shall taste the sadness of her might, 
And be among her cloudy trophies hung. 

These two confessions (for each of them is a con- 
fession) interpret the great ode — interpret Keats 


*^ Spirit " in the line from the * Ode on a Grecian 

Urn ' is undoubtedly a noun. 

0. 0. B. 

Errors of Printers and Authors (7^^ S. ix. 

261).— Being a lover of fair play, " the other side," or 
(as I believe Sydney Smith happily christened it) 
** the dog's story," always interests me, so I have 
thoroughly enjoyed the amusing treat Mr. Ran- 
dall has supplied to us. I will in future incline 
to think the errors which I constantly note in 
print may as often be ascribable to the author as 
to the printer, and will begin with one I noticed 



for light and humerous articles as for deeper 

I have a collection of most facetious printers' 



[7^ 8. X. July 5, '90. 

blunders, which I have noted in my own proofs, 
and I confess it is something like a disappointment 
that the proofs one receives from ' N. & Q/ supply 
so scant a measure of this little amusement! So 
far as my experience goes the reader is exception- 
ally good there, but it is fair to writers to remark 
that many bulls and blunders that we make merry 
over in Mr. Randall's article would probably be 
noticed by the writer when correcting the proof. 
For my own part, I write amid constant interrup- 
tions. I begin a sentence in one way one day, and 
when, after an interruption, I take it up some 
other day the result is likely to be a disjointed 
performance. This doubtless happens to most 
people, and when the dislocation appears in type 
the deformity probably makes itself apparent. 
But proofs also have to be corrected amid inter- 
ruptions ; and therefore I for one always feel 
most grateful for any marks of the reader which 
call attention when one makes a slip through 
whatever cause. 

Perhaps, on the other hand, we have a little right 
to complain of being sometimes too much bound 
down by hard and fast printers' rules. I confess that 
sometimes these are salutary, and emphasizing must 
not be allowed to run riot. But it is also a dan- 
gerous tyranny to crush out all individuality of 
style and orthography. Too much italic, too many 
small caps, the too frequent introduction of (what 
Germans by a happy verbum desideratum call a) 
Gedankenstrick, no doubt spoil the appearance of 
a page of calm English ; but no one writes impres- 
sively but those who feel strongly, and those who feel 
strongly must be allowed somelatitude in individual- 
izing their writing. Here are just three instances. 
1. When I am speaking of Leonardo da Vinci, no 
one forces me to call him Leonard; why is my writ- 
ing of RaflFaelle or Raffaello always uglified into 

Raphael ? 

Why is my writing of the word 

" rime" always altered into '^ rhyme "1 3. I have 
an idea that in many cases a qualificative hyphened 
on to a noun gives quite a different tone of 
thought from that conveyed by the same two 
words used apart; e. g,^ I lately wrote " exquisitely- 
worded," but my hyphen was not allowed to ap- 
pear. I hope I am not breaking confidence in 
venturing to quote from the sonnet for the Bea- 
trice celebration, with which I have been entrusted 
by Sir Theodore Martin. I find that he uses the 
hyphen- word " maiden-modest " as a qualificative, 
a most happy coinage in the place where it occurs. 
Had this been written for printing and the hyphen 
crushed out, I venture to think it would have 
greatly damaged the line. E. H. Busk. 

Among names very commonly misspelt might 
have been reckoned those of two eminent divines. 




printer of a recent historical tale, to the extreme 
disgust of the author, made a character say (in 
1557), "What you told us not to.'' A certain 

popular evening paper has lately been giving some 
very curious readings of Holy Scripture, the latest 
being "Aaron^s rod, which swallowed up the rest." 
Shall we ever hear the last of *^ these kind of 

things " ? 


t • , - i 

The First and only Female Freemason (5*^ 

S. iv. 303 ; v. 157, 311 ; 7»*^ S. ix. 206, 276). 
The following extract from an article in the Echo 
of June 6 on this subject is of interest : 

" In a country so behind England as France is in the 
general status of women, it is all the more remarkable 
to find a woman received into the ancient order of Free- 
masons. She (Mdlle. Maria Deraismes, Rue Cardinet, 
Paris) ia the only woman in France who has been so 
initiated, and was received into the Grand Orient Lodge 

in 1882, when she duly donned the badge of member- 

EvERARD Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

In the Great Exhibition held in Dublin in 
1871 — on the Council, Fine-Art Selection and 
Hanging Committees of which I had the honour 
to be — a miniature, painted on ivory, of Miss St. 
Leger was exhibited, also her diploma (or what- 
ever the document is called), her apron, and some 
other relics. The miniature represents a person of 
middle age, of a firm and somewhat stern counten- 
ance. In his 'Komance of the Aristocracy' Sir 
Bernard Burke gives a full history of the whole 
occurrence, which has repeatedly been in print. It 
was said she never married, 

Francis Robert Davies, K.J,J. 
The Curtsey (7*^ S. ix. 343, 451).— Board 

schools are not the only schools in which manners 
are neglected. There are plenty of "academies" 
and other *' educational establishments" of a more 
pretentious sort of which the same complaint 
might be made. The only school in which I can 
remember being taught to bow upon entering or 
leaving was a village dame's school, kept by one 
Pleasant Allen. The curriculum there was of the 
simplest kind. It consisted of the Church Cate- 
chism, the alphabet and easy spelling, "pot-hooks" 
(on a slate), and *^ unpicking." This last— the un- 
ravelling of worsted stuffs afterwards used by the 
dame in the making of patchwork cushions, by 
the sale of which she eked out her living — occupied 
most of our time. While we bojs " unpicked," 
the bigger girls would sew the patchwork covers. 
If we learnt little else, however, we were at least 
taught deportment, and I believe my " first first- 
love " was excited by the beautiful curtseys of little 
Annie Allen, a granddaughter of the dame's. 
Such curtseys are rarely seen nowadays, but 
I have seen them occasionally within the last few 


C. 0. B, 

Betula, the Birch (V**^ S. ix. 328).— 2r^/iv5a 
seems generally to be taken for the birch, but 

Liddell and Scott quote Theophrastus, and say 

7^ S. X. July 5, '90.] 



supposed to be the birch tree. Of " Betulla " 
Facciolati gives no derivation, but quotes Pliny, 
i. 16, c. 18, "Arbor Gallica lentissima mirabili 
candore, atque tenuitate : ex qua olim Consulares 
fasces plerumque fiebant/' Vossius fancies it to 
be from the British bedu. Quayle says it is from 
the Celtic dettha; but Wachter is best, that it 
comes from Germ, wit^ white, and so is albula^ 
mirahilis candoris. Martinius, in his ^Lexicon,' 
Quotes Eembertus Dodonoeus, who supports the 
derivation from batuendo^ running to batula and 
betulay from the use of this word for the fasces 
when the Eomans had conquered Gaul. 


0, A. Ward. 

^i „ 

»;VThe derivation quoted by your correspondent 
appears in Francis Holyoke's * Latin Dictionary,' 
1640, with this addition : "Nam ex ea fasces con- 
ficiebant qui magistratibus solebant prseferri." 
Adam Littleton's * Latin Dictionary,* 1678, has 
the same derivation, and also the quotation from 
Pliny, after which is added; "Ergo vel est vox 
linguae veteris Celticse, quse eadem fere erat cum 
Britannica^ut sit a Bedu facta forma dimin. Camd.," 
&c. May not the derivation from bedw be correct? 

F. 0. BiRKBECK Terry. 

Catafago (^Arab. Diet.') gives batula, the birch. 

R. S, Charnock. 

Trotllesbaston (7^^ S. ix. 489).— Simply a 
misprint for trayllebaston. Let me quote : 

*^ Trailbaston, a law term (F.-L.). Anglo-P. trayl- 
hastourtt a term applied to certain lawless men. It 

meant 'trail-stick' or ^stick-carryer.' Fully explained 
in Wright's 'Political Songs,' p. 383; but constantly 
misinterpreted. The justices of traylbaston were ap- 
pointed by Edw. I. to try them. From trails verb; and 
O.F. hasiouy a stick. See Trail and BatonJ*^ — 'Concise 
Dictionary of English Etymology/ by W. W. Skeat. 

Fuller information is given in my larger ^Dic- 
tionary/ second edition, at pp. 654 and 831. 
' It is weary work to explain a thing for the third 
time to those who do not know where to look for 


Walter W. Skeat. 

See * Trailbaston ' in 'N. & Q./ 7*^ S. iv. 408, 

470. . . 

W. 0. B. 


As illustrative of these let me note a book in 
two quarto volumes in my library, containing 
* Landscape -Historical Illustrations of Scotland 
and the Waverley Novels/ after drawings by 
eminent artists, n.d., published by Fisher, Son & 
Co., London, Paris, and America. There are also 
in it thirty-five comic illustrations by George 
Cruikshank, who seems to have found something 
grotesque or amusing in all the novels, and sub- 
jects for caricature. Perhaps, however, in many 
of the etchings of this great artist there is some- 
thing of the caricature to be found. The illustra- 

tions were, I think, issued in monthly parts about 

1836, and were intended to 


inserted in the 

** Waverley Novels," as the numbers and pages of 
the favourite edition, in forty-eight volumes, are 
placed underneath each plate. 

John Pickford, M.A. 

'^ *k 


Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Spy Wednesday (7^^ S. ix. 407).— For 'Its 
Meaning' see *N. & Q./ l«t S. v. 511, 620; the 
* Custom at Amboise,' 2'^'^ S. vii. 26; and *Its 
Origin,' 4'^ S. x. 140 ; 5^^ S. i. 228, 275 ; 6^ S. 

vii. 218. 

Everard Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Koad. 


This is a folk-lore appellation common enougli 
among Irish Catholics. The *^ spy " is Judas, and 
Wednesday in Holy Week is the day he made his 

compact for the betrayal. 

R. H. BusK^ 

16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. 

* 1 


The Lioness and lying-in Women (7*^ S. ix. 
385). — I am informed by my Yorkshire house- 
keeper that this belief is, or was lately, current in 
the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

E. Walford, M.A. 


7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

This superstition is firmly believed in by many 
of the labouring classes in the West Biding of 


W. M. E. F. 

Couplet from Pope (7*^ S. ix. 448). — The title 

of Lord Carlisle's work is " Two Lectures on * The 
Poetry of Pope' and on his own 'Travels in America.' 
Delivered to the Leeds Mechanics* Institution and 
Literary Society, December 5th and 6th, 1850. 
Leeds, 1851." On p. 18 he says, after quoting 
the passage describing the death of Villiers, Duke 
of Buckingham : 

'' If any should object that this is all very finished and 
elaborate, but it is very minute — only miniature pair&t- 
ing after all — what do you say to this one couplet on the 
operations of the Deity? — 

Builds life on death, on change duration founds, 
And gives the eternal wheels to know their rounds. 

* Moral Essays,' Epistle iii., ' On the Use of 

Riches/ 167, 168. V; 

I would beg any of the detractors of Pope to furnish me 
with another couple of lines from any author whatever 
which encloses so much sublimity of meaning within 
such compressed limits and such precise terms." f; 

W. E. Buckley. ^ 

[Many similar replies are acknowledged.] ^ 

Tobacconist (7'^ S. ix. 428). — If Curious had 

given the name of the man he seeks, I might 
possibly have given him better assistance. Kendal 
is a very old tobacco-manufacturing town, and at 
the present time contains six factories ; a large 
number for so comparatively unimportant a district. 
Samuel Gawith & Co., Great Aynum,and John E. 
Gawith, Lowther Street, are probably the oldest. 
They both claim to have been established in 1792, 



[T^hS.X. Julys, '90, 

so probably are both chips from the same block. 

Communication with either or both might elicit 

No writing passes nowadays in taking out an 
ordinary licence. Like one for a dog^ you furnish 
name and address, pay your money, and receive the 
licence. They were in vogue in 1700, and much 
earlier ; what the practice was then I cannot say. 
A manufacturing licence is a more important 
proceeding. It is extremely unlikely, however, 
that the local Excise Office has preserved any 
documents of such date. 

The man was probably married ; and if, which 
is doubtful, the present practice prevailed of the 
contracting parties attesting to their union under 
their own sign-manual, the signature would most 
readily be met with in the parish register, wherever 
the ceremony took place, which would very pro- 

bably be in Kendal. 

J. u. b. 

Spaldingholme, Yorks. (7^^ S. ix. 427).— The 
moor around Spaldington, in the East Riding, is 
called Spalding Moor. Here are several Holmes. 
We have Hasholme, Holme House, Holme Lodge, 
and the village of Holme-upon-Spalding-Moor, 
which is doubtless the " village '' of Spaldingholme 
which your correspondent seeks. 

Isaac Taylor. 

The place meant must, I imagine, be Spalding- 



post town is Tadcaster; but I do not know the 


Walford. M 

7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

" Good, bad, or indifferent " (7**^ S. ix. 288). 

-Martial must be credited with oricrinatincf this 
combination of words : 

Sunt bona, sunt quaedam mediocria^ sunt mala plura. 
Quae legiB hie ; aliter non fit, Avite, liber. 

' Epigram,' I. xvi. (xvii.). 

W. E. Buckley. 

The Crown of Ireland (7^^ S. yiii. 467 ; ix. 
72, 176, 257, 356).— Mr. Marshall "mends 
worse," which, being interpreted, means that he is 
practising somewhat successfully the art of ground- 
shifting. But I cannot congratulate him on his 
adroitness. Mr. Marshall's qualification of his 
query is also, to use another metaphor, an at- 
tempted back door of escape, but it is too narrow 
to admit of exit. Anybody who knows what an 
Irish Ard-Righ was, knows that he wielded far more 
power than Henry VIII., the so styled (33 Hen. 
VIII.) dejure King of Ireland, whose "effective 
sway " was bounded by the English Pale, and that 



not only claimed 
to rule — over the whole country as supreme king/' 
If *^ effective sway " be the criterion of a monarch 
of Ireland, then James I., not Henry VIIL, was 

the first English sovereign entitled to be so re* 
garded, for it was not till 1603 (at Hugh CNeilFs 
submission to Mountjoy) that " all Ireland," to use 
a modern writer's words, " for the first time be- 
came subject to English law.'' That any one of 
the long line of Irish Ard-Eighs waq not only de 
jure^ but (what Henry VIII. was not) de facta 
monarch of Ireland, Mr. Marshall can see for 
himself by a careful perusal of either the ^ Annals 
of the Four Masters,' D'Arcy McGee, Haverty, or 

any well-known history of Ireland. 


J. S. S. 

Beeston Castle (7*^ S. ix. 407). — Camden 
simply says that Beeston Castle "was built by 
Kanulph, the last Earl of Chester of that name." 
This was in the year 1220, and we are told in the 
^Beauties of England and Wales' (1801), 5.v. 
" Cheshire," that 

'^ the particulars reported of the history of this castle 
are not well authenticated. All that can be depended 
on is, that it devolved from the Earls of Chester to the 
Crown, and, after undergoing many vicissitudes, fell 
into ruins, in which state it was seen by Leland in the 
reign of Henry VIII. Being afterwards repaired, it 
partook of the changeable fate experienced by so many 
fortresses during the Civil Wars."— Vol. ii. p. 243. 

Eventually the castle was dismantled "by orders 

of the Parliament." 


J. F. Manserqh. 

Chart or Chartland {7^^ S. ix. 308, 398). 

There is a foot-note in Taylor's 'Words and Places/ 
p. 360 (second edition), which informs the reader 
that " the word chart is identical with the hart 
(wood or forest) which we find in such German 
names as the Hartz Mountains, the Hercynian 
Forest, Hunhart, Lyndhart, &c.," which word, I 
think I may venture to say, has nothing to do with 
chart of the x^pvrj^ X^P^V^y pedigree. Messrs. 
Parish and Shaw, in their * Dictionary of the 
Kentish Dialect' (E. D. S.), have : 

" Chart (chaa't), sb. A rough common overrun with 
gorse, broom, bracken, &c. Thus we have several places 
in Kent called Chart, e.g., Great Chart, Little Chart, 
Chart Sutton, Brasted Chart." 

« Charty (chaa'ti), adj. Rough, uncultivated land like 
a chart." 

Dr. Murray does not give chart as a generic term, 
but mentions Brasted Chart, sub "Chert" (a 
siliceous rock), with which it appears Prof. Skb at 
thinks the Kentish place-names should be com- 
pared. St. Swithin. 

Senegambian Folk-lore : Sorcery (7"* S. ix. 

401). — Mr. Clouston says, "I do not remember 
having met with this Senegambian notion of the eflft- 
cacy of salt against sorcery in the folk- lore of any other 
country. " ^ But it is a common belief that witches 
have an objection to salt. Reginald Scot says that 
men are preserved from witchcraft by receiving 
consecrated salt. And the witches abstain from 
salt when they banquet at their Sabbath. I think 

7«» S. X. July 5, '90.] 




that I have read this in Bodin's * Demonomanie,' 
I know that I have read it somewhere. I may 
also add that the Indian story of the snake whose 
skin was destroyed is in Basile's ' Pentamerone '; 
and a similar story is in Straparola's work. 

, ^ E. Yardlet. 

- > w 

Apropos to ^* eating salt," the well-known story 
of the Duke of Wellington will bear repetition : 

"In 1809 []1806] he was sent to Hastings, that he 
might there busy himself in the discipline, the instruc- 
tion, and all the minute details of a brigade of infantry. 
He discharged all the duties incident to his position with 
the most scrupulous exactitude. One of his friends, asto- 
nished at so much self-denial, asked him ' how he, who 
had commanded armies of 40,000 men in the field, and 
repeatedly received the thanks of Parliament, could put 
up with the command of a brigade.' * The real fact is,' 
replied Sir Arthur, * that I am nirti-muhwallah, as we 
say in the East, that is, I have eaten the King's salt; 
on that account I believe it to be my duty to serve with- 
out hesitation, zealously and actively, wherever the King 
and his Government may find it convenient to employ 
me; "— • Life/ by Gleig, p. 702. 


H. Marshall* M 

Clephanb (7*^ S. ix. 229, 358).— Clephane is a 
family name ; they were seated at Oarslogie, and it 
is not topographical. It is probably personal, and 
to be traced to A.-S. clyppan, "to enclose, to hold, 
to grasp or seize." It appears that the founder of 
the race lost a hand, whereupon his feudal monarch 
supplied a " steel-hand," ingeniously constructed, 
as a substitute. Clyppan, as a nickname, might 
easily be corrupted to Clephane ; indeed, we have 
the allied form clifian, with the sense of "ad- 


A. Hall. 

Metrical History of England (7'^ S. viii. 

88, 158, 238, 317, 398 ; ix. 218, 358).— Though 
not suitable for the purpose of giving a child of 
from seven to eight years of age, according to the 
wish of N. L. B. (viii. 88), on account of its great 
length and being devoted to but one reign, it may 
be interesting to add, " The Reigne of Henry the 
Second [in verse], written in seaven books. By 
His Majesties [Charles I.] command. By [Thomas 
May]. 1633,'' 12mo., portrait by Vaughan. 

J. CuTHBERT Welch, F.R.S. 

The Brewery, Reading. 


Genealogical (7*^ S. ix. 427).— The best 
thing is to buy the little publication * Records and 
Record Hunting,' by Mr. Rye, which gives much 
valuable information as to what to search. 


Clariores e Tenebris. 

John Milton's Bones (7*^ S.ix.361,396,473). 
It may perhaps interest Mr. Townshend to know 
that I compiled the note on this subject from the 
original matter, which I came across quite acci- 
dentally and independently, and was not aware 
that Mr. Ashton's book contained anything on the 

subject until the article was practically finished, 
when I took a suggestion from his work in the 
shape of Leigh Hunt's lines on the lock of hair 
and Shakespeare's epitaph, which I thought I 
might do without fear of being accused of plagiar- 
ism. Moreover, with the exception of a few intro- 
ductory remarks, Mr. Ash ton's article on the 
subject is merely a verbatim reprint of Neve's 
pamphlet and ^ Nine Reasons,' &c., which I used 

in the original. 

0. L. Thompson. 

A very curious pamphlet of fifty pages was 
issued in 1790 by "Philip Neve of Furnival's 
Inn," entitled : 

A Narrative of the Disinterment of Milton's Coffin in 

the Parish-Church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, on Wed- 
nesday, 4th of August 1790; and of the Treatment of 
the Corpse, during that and the following day. Second 
Edition, with Additions. [Postscript, pp. 16.] London: 
Printed for T. & J. Egerton, Whitehall, mdccxo. 

The details are almost too disgusting to be re- 
printed. The pamphlet gives a very minute de- 
scription of every incident of the discovery and 
exhibition of the remains '^ at first for 6(2., and 
afterwards for Zd. and 2d, each person," and the 
author gives forcible reasons and facts to prove 
that Milton's body was founds shown, and broken 
up for relics. He adds : 

^' In recording a transaction which will strike every 
liberal mind with horror and disgust, I cannot omit to 
declare that I have procured those relics, which I pos- 
sess, only in the hope of bearing part in a pious and 
honourable restitution of all that has been taken." 

And this was some of ^^ the hair which Mr. Taylor 
took from the forehead and carried it home." 


"My Father's at the Helm" (7^ S. ix. 

449). — Miss Mary Louisa Boyle's poems are not 
published in book form. She has, however, pub- 
lished the following works : 

The Bridal of Melcha. 1844. 

The Forester. A Tale of 1688. 1839. 

The State Prisoner. A Tale of the French Regency. 


Tangled Weft. Two Stories. 1865. 

Woodland Gossip. Translated from the German. 1864. 

And the biographical catalogues of the pictures at 
Longleat and Panshanger, lately published by 

Eliob Stock. 

Db V. Payen Payke. 

The Princess Elizabeth Stuart (7**^ S. ix. 
444). — What reason has Newport for supposing 
that a detective was sent down? Did the mys- 
terious stranger announce himself as an emissary 
of the Home Secretary ? And may he not have 
been the dishonest agent of a dishonest dealer in 

curiosities ? 

A. H. Christie. 


Ironmonger (7*** S. ix. 346, 418).— This word 
is of very much greater age than the citations 
given would suggest. In the Gloucester eyre of 
1221 mention is made of " Walterus Ironmangere " 



[7t«« S. X. JPLY 5, '99. 

(Pleas of Crown, Gloucester, 1221,' Plea No. 21, 
ed. Prof. Maitland, 1884). . Geo. Neilson. 

It is perfectly clear that there was an Iron- 
mongers and a Grocers' corporation, for the arms 
of both will be found in Burton's 'Historical 
Kemarqaes,' published 1691. The former was in- 
corporated in Edward IV.'s time, the latter in 
Edward III.'s reign. The Company of Apothe- 
caries was incorporated in King James I.'s reign. 
From a marginal note, Pepperers were first so 
called in 1345. Alfred Chas. Jonas. 


Silver Box (7^ S. ix. 328).— I have one 
similary without the inlaid garter. Mine came 
through the Lane family (Jane Lane, who helped 
King Chrrles to escape to Bristol), probably a 
present from the Stuarts. I have also other 
presents in acknowledgment. J. 0. 

The Luddites (7*^ S. ix. 485).— See ^The 
Eisings of the Luddites, Chartists, and Plug- 
drawers,' by Frank Peel, second edition, 12mo., 
Heckmondwike, Senior & Co., 1888, pp. 364. The 
author has collected a large amount of information 
from people on the spot who remembered the 
Luddites, and in some cases had stood in their 
ranks. All interested in the subject should possess 
the little volume. The Luddites are referred to in 
the • Rejected Addresses ' (1812, p. 3) : 

Who makes the quartern loaf and Luddites rise ? 
Who fills the butchers' shops with large blue flies ? 

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

J. T. F. 

demned to wear black dresses under "the burning 
sun of Syria," to use the opening words of * Ivan- 
hoe's ' sister romance ^The Talisman/ In the same 
edition, vol. ii. p. 71, ^'Some hilding fellow" is 
printed "some hiding fellow." In *The Pirate,' 
same edition, vol. ii. p. 333, Bunce is made to say, 
" Captain Cleveland is in love — Yes— Prince Vol- 
scius is in love ; and, though that 's the cure for 
laughing on the stage, it is no laughing matter 
here." " Cure " is, of course, a misprint for cue. 
In * Woodstock,' in the same edition, vol. ii. 
p. 373, Scott is made to say, " Cromwell, accus- 
tomed to such arts of enthusiasm among his fol- 
lowers." Of course "arts of enthusiasm " should 
be ** starts of enthusiasm." 

In the cheap edition of Kingsley's *Alton Locke,' 
lately published, in a quotation from Shelley in 
chap, xxxii., " Saxon Alfred's olive-cinctured 
brow " appears as " Saxon Alfred's oliye- tinctured 
brow," scarcely an appropriate epithet for " the 
yellow-haired blue-eyed Saxon " ! 

In the little "Canterbury Poets" edition of 
Keats, 1886, the lines in the * Ode to Psyche/ 

Their lips touched not, but had not bade adieu. 
As if disjoined by soft-handed slumber, 

are printed 

Their lips touched not, but had not bade adieu. 
As if disjointed by soft-handed slumber. 

A disjointed lip is a Imus naturce indeed! In 
the "Aldine" Keats, 1876, the line is correctly 



edition of Scott's ^ Poems,' 1868, the line in the 

And while his harp responsive rung, 

appears as, 

And while his heart responsive wrung. 

In both my one-volume editions of Scott's ^Poems,' 
worthy of being added to those previously noted. I 1852 and 1857, the line is correctly printed. Ohe! 

English and Italian Pronunciation (7*^ S. 

vii. 487; viii. 92). — The remarks on the English 
and Italian languages that are made by Howell in 
his * Familiar Letters,' ed. 1650, may be considered 

He writes : 

'* Translations are but as turn-coated things at best, 
specially among languages that have advantages one of 
the other, as the Italian hath of the English^ which may 
be said to differ one from the other as silh doth from 
cloth^ the common wear of both countries where they 
are spoken : And as cloth is the more substantial!, eo 
the English toung, by reason 'tis so knotted with con- 
8onant8, is the stronger^ and the more sinewy of the 
two; But silJc is more smooth and slik, and so is the 
Italian toung compar'd to the English^' — Vol. iii. 
p. 33. 

J. F. Mansergh. 


Mistakes in Books of Reference (7*** S. ix. 

304, 378, 465).— The misprint *The Spended Shil- 
ling ' for 'Splendid Shilling/ mentioned by Mr. 
Mansergh, is very droll. Here are a few, more 
or less amusing, which I have noted lately. In 
'Ivanhoe/ ed. 1860, vol. i. p. 64, ''the black- 
tressed girls of Palestine *' appear as " the black- 
dressed girls of Palestine." Poor creatures ! con- 

jam satis est. 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

A quaint error occurs in the fourth edition of 
Brewer's ' Reader's Handbook of Allusions,' which 
has not been noticed before. Don John (5. u) is 
said to be brother of Leonato, Governor of Mes- 
sina ; whereas he is, of course, bastard brother to 
Don Pedro, Prince of Arragon (' Much Ado '). 

J. A. J. 

In the edition of Mr. Davenport Adams's ' Dic- 
tionary of English Literature ' which I possess (no 
date on title-page, but issued in parts in 1879-80) 
there is a far more serious error than those already 
mentioned in 'N. & Q.' The article "Anti- 
Jacobin " confuses the celebrated short-lived 
weekly with its monthly successor the Anti- 
Jacobin Review^ which lasted for more than 
twenty years. The contributions of Hookham 
Frere and Canning are said to have appeared in 
the latter instead of in the former. 

Another unfortunate error occurs in the notice 

^ t 

T'fc S. X. July 5, '90.] 



Marvel I 

' M 

» * 

^The Rehearsal Tra,nsposed.* The mistake is re- 
peated in the separate article on this work. 

Under " Ramour," Chaucer's poem * The House 
of Fame ' is quoted as * The House of France? 

I do not know whether these mistakes have 


John Randall. 

I am much obliged to F. N. for his note re- 
specting the early printed editions of Littleton's 

* Tenures/ My authority'was, I believe, Ames's 

* Typographical Antiquities/ a work sorely in need 
of revision. My attention was drawn to the sub- 
ject by a vain search for a copy of the * Tenures/ 
said by the same authority to have been printed 

by Robert Wyer, the Charing Cross printer (1531- 
1560). Perhaps F. N. can throw some light on 


Henry R. Plomer. 

61j Cornwall Road, W. 

Mrs. Jordan (7*^ S. ix. 387, 494).— Notwith- 
standing Mr. Hope's interesting communication, 
I must uphold the view that the name Jordan, if 
exception be taken to the term "suggested," was, 
at any rate, agreed upon by the lady, her mother, 
and Tate Wilkinson. For this we have Wilkin- 
son's statement in print. See* Wandering Patentee/ 
vol. ii. p. 140, published 1795. The words used 
are "Jordan was adopted,"and this fact was never, 
so far as I am aware, contradicted by Mrs. Jordan. 
The^ story of the aunt who was dying has long 
since been public property, and is alluded to by 
Tate Wilkinson and was borrowed by Boaden : 
"The lady in question being a Mrs. Philips, who 
had been an actress in the York Company." Boa- 
den, in the preface to his ' Life of Mrs. Jordan,' 
1831, refers to Sir Jonah Barrington's work, the 
first edition of which was published 1827-1830, 
and is a book that must be well known to all who 
have studied the career of the great comic actress. 
The paragraph from Veritas, 5'^ S. viii. 397, 
quoted by Mr. Marshall hits my point for 
investigation, namely, the Thimbleby mystery, 
which I regret to find not yet solved. If 
there be foundation for Mr. Laurence Oliphant's 
tale, surely the time has passed for sentiment to 
stifle facts. " 

Robert Walters. 

Garrick Club. 

Charles Swain (7*^ S. in. 406, 475).— In the 
edition of Swain's * Poems' in my possession (ori- 
ginally given to a relative by the poet) I cannot 
find '* There's a good time coming," and was 

was responsible for the verses. What 


Batne want ? 

literary achievements does M 

W. W 

Glenmore, Liaburn, near Belfast. 
Milton's PoETin TmnoTtv 


(7*^ S. ix. 269). 

quote the following from the poet's very interest- 
ing tract ^ On Education,' 1644 (an education, it 
may be remarked, that could only be enjoyed by 
the minority), for the information of your corre- 
spondent : 

" And now lastly, will be the time to read with them 
these organic arts to enable men to write and discourse 
perspicuously, elegantly, and according to the fittest 
style, of lofty, mean or lowly. Logic, therefore, so much 
as is useful, is to be referred to this due place with 
all her well-couched heads and topics, until it be time 
to open her contracted palm into a graceful and ornate 
rhetoric, taught out of the rule of Plato, Aristotle, Pha- 
lereus, Cicero, Hermogenes, Longinus. To which poetry 
would be made subsequent or, indeed, rather precedent, 
as being less subtile and fine, but more simple, sensuous, 
and passionate.*^ 

The use here of sensuous^ I venture to say, is in- 
tended to indicate " full of feeling or passion," a 
meaning also expressed in the word passionate. 
As regards Mr. Bouchier's other question, as to 
where Milton mentions " that in writing prose he 
had, so to speak, the use of only his left hand,^' 
the appended quotation from ^ The Reason of 
Church Government,' 1641, will, I have no doubt, 
be sufficient for his purpose, viz. : 

*' If I were wise only to my own endg, I would cer- 
tainly take such a subject as of itself might catch applause, 
whereas this hath all the disadvantages on the contrary, 
and such a subject as the publishing whereof might be 

delayed at pleasure Lastly, I should not choose this 

manner of writing [i. e., prose], wherein, knowing my- 
self inferior to myself, led by the genial power of nature 
to another task, I have the use, as I may account, but of 
my left hand. For although a poet, soaring in the high 
reason of his fancies, with his garland and singing 
robes about him, might without apology speak more of 
himself than I mean to do ; yet for me sitting here below 
in the cool element of prose, a mortal thing among many 
readers of no empyreal conceit, it may not be envy to 
me."— Fzrfe the charming edition, by Ernesc Myers, of 
the * Selected Prose Writings of John Milton.' pp. 23, 24, 
and 89 (Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., London, 1889). 

Henry Gerald Hope. 

In his tractate * Of Education/ addressed to 
Mr. Samuel Hartlib, Milton writes, after enume- 
rating many branches of study — ethics, politics, 
law, theology, logic, &c. — " To which Poetry would 
be made subsequent, or, indeed, rather precedent, 
as being less subtile and fine, but more simple, 
sensuous, and passionate" (vol i. p. 146, ed. Birch, 
4to., 1753; vol. i. p. 281, ed. Symmons, Svo., 

" Sensuous is used by Milton as equivalent to 

senstfuly full of sense or feeling (bodily or cor- 
poreal)," says Richardson, and it has this force in 
his tractate ' Of Reformation in England,' '^ till 
the soul by this means of overbodying herself, 
given up justly to fleshly delights, bated her wing 
apace downward: and finding the ease she had from 
her visible and sensuous coUegue the body," &c. 
(book i. vol. i. p. 2, ed. Birch, 1753, and ed. 

Symmons, 1806). 
As to the second passage required, it occurs 



n^^8. X. Julys, '90. 

in his * Reason of Church Government/ book ii., 
^' Lastly, I should not chuse this manner of writing, 
wherein knowing myself inferior to myself, led by 
the genial power of Nature to another task, I have 
the use, as I may account, but of my left hand " 
(vol. L p. 62, ed. 1753; vol. i. p. 118, ed. Sym- 
mons, 1806). W. E. Buckley. 

The Admission Register of Corpus Ohristi 
College, Cambridge (7-** S. ix. 389, 475).— 
The replies hitherto furnished fail to meet the 
point raised. I was aware that "A List of the 
Names,'' &c., formed part of Masters'a * History 
of the College of Corpus Christi in the University 
of Cambridge,' 1753 ; but an introductory note to 
the * List ' makes it apparent that the catalogue of 
members had prior circulation as a separate and 
distinct issue. The note, bearing date " C. 0. C. C, 
Dec. 1, 1749." runs : 

" The Publication of this (before the other part of the 
Work) is, with a view of rendering it the more com- 
pleat, since it is hereby put into the power of all Bio- 
graphical Collectors (especially of such as are or have 
been of this House, and so are more immediately con- 
cerned for its Credit and Reputation) to make some 
additions thereto, by communicating to me any Memoirs 
relating to the Families, Characters, Works, &c., of any 
of itfl Members, any Notices of which sort will be most 
thankfully acknowledged." 

A copy of ^A List of the Names/ &c., 4to., with 
the date 1749, appears as No. 308 in the late 
John Camden Hotten's ^ Handbook to the Topo- 
graphy and Family History of England and 



Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Detached Bell Towers (7«* S. ix. 107, 169, 
277X— In the long list elicited by Canon Ven- 
ABLEs's question, I do not think the following were 
noticed :— Woburn, Bedfordshire ; Chittlehamp- 
ton, Devon ; My lor, near Falmouth; Llangyfelach, 
Glamorganshire ; and Flixborough, Lincolnshire. 
They occur in the list given by Bloxam, vol. ii. 
p. 21. His theory, which seems to me a very 
satisfactory one, is that they were so built where 
the ground was soft or marshy, lest the settlement 
of the tower might dislocate the main structure. 


F. D. M 

but I think the belfry 

campanile— of the church there is detached. 




K. H. Busk. 

— ,. An early instance 
of the use of this word will be found in the follow- 
ing extract from Goldsmith's * Citizen of the 
World,' first published in 1759 : 

•' Mourners clap bits of muslin on their sleeves, and 
these are called eepers Weeping muslin alas alas 

very sorrowful truly ! These weepers then, it seems, are 
to bear the whole burthen of the distress." 


This was followed shortly afterwards by Smollett, 
who issued * Sir Launcelot Greaves' during the 
following year, wherein he says : 

" The young squire was even then very handsome, and 
looked remarkably well in his weepers.^^ 

Everard Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

[See also ' K & Q.,' 4ti> S, vii. 257 ; viii. 378, 443 ; ix. 
17 ; X. 1050 

Watered Silk (7*^ S. ix. 449).— The follow- 
ing quotation does not ansv^rer your correspondent's 
question, but it is worth quoting in connexion 
with it : 

*' j cheaable of blew velvat with the albe and apparell, 
prist, decoD, and subdecon of blue unwatered chalat."-^ 
' Inventory of Winchester Cathedral, a.d. 1552,' in 
ArchcBologiaj vol. xliii. p. 237. ^ 

Edward Peacock. 
Gray's 'Elegy' (7"» S. ix. 468).— Gervase 

Markham's 'Farewell to Husbandry' (ed. 1631) 
contains a somewhat lengthy account of "the par* 
ticular daies labours of a Farmer or Plowman 

from his first rising, till his going to bed." From 
this recital I select what will probably be sufficient 
to give an idea of how a ploughman's day was 
occupied in the seventeenth century ; 

" We will suppose it to be after Christmas, and about 

plow-day (which is the first letting out of the plow) 

At this time the Plowman shall rise before foure of the 
clocke in the morning, and after thankes giuen to God 

he shall goe into his stable, or beast house, and first 

he shall fodder his cattle Whilst they are eating 

their meate, he shall make ready. and to these 

labours I will allow full two houres, that is, from foure 
of the clocke till sixe, then shall he come in to breake- 
fast, and to that I allow him halfe an houre, and then 
another halfe houre to the gearing and yoaking of his 

cattle and then he shall plow from seuen of the 

clocke in the morning, till betwixt two and three in the 
afternoone, then he shall vnyoake and bring home his 

cattle he shall fodder them then shall the ser- 

uants goe into their dinner, which allowed halfe an 
houre, it will be then towards foure of the clocke, at 

what time he shall goe to his cattell againe by this 

time it will draw past sixe of the clocke, at what time he 

shall come into supper, and after supper he shall doe 

some husbandly office within doores till it be full eight a 
clocke : Then shall he goe to his cattell, and give theih 
meate for all night."— Pp. 144-6. 

And then to bed. In case there are "in the hous- 
hold more seruants then one," instructions are 
given regarding "what the rest of the Seruants 
shall be imployed in before and after the time of 
plowing " (p. 146). It is not likely that the work 
of ploughing would cease earlier in the eighteenth 
century than it did in the preceding one. 

J. F. Mansergh. 


* 4 

I know of no reason for supposing that in Gray's 
time the ploughman's hours were different from 
what they are now. They are not the same all 


««» S. X. July 5, '90.] 



over the country. Where I was brought up it 
was usual for the teams to leave home the first 
thing in the morning and to remain at work until 
al'Out two o'clock in the afternoon, or sometimes 
later. Where I now live it is the custom for the 
men and horses to return home for a meal at noon, 
and go back to work at half-past two, remaining 
until half-past five. C. 0. B. 


I think the poet was right and the commentator 
wrong. In these days, and certainly for the last 
three-quarters of a century, ploughmen in this 
county have been in the habit of making two yokes 
a day in summer, that is, ploughing from morning 
until dinner-time, which is usually at twelve 
o'clock ; then, when dinner is over, resuming their 
work, which is continued till half-past five or six. 
In winter one yoke only is made, which lasts from 
breakfast to half-past two or three, when the 

gloughmen come home to dinner. I do not know 
ow these matters were arranged when oxen were 
used for ploughing ; but I see no reason for think- 
ing that they were different from what they are 


A Lincolnshire Farmer. 


The Dictionary of National Biography. Vol. XXIII. 

Edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee. (Smith, 

Elder & Co.) 
The twenty-third Tolume of the ' Dictionary of National 
Biography/ again punctual in appearance, begins with 
the name Gray. Of the members of this family the most 
distinguished, the poet Gray, is dealt with by Mr. Leslie 
Stephen, who in a brief but animated biography gives a 
good insight into the '^ versatility and keenness of Gray's 
intellectual tastes/^ calls him '^ the most learned of all 
6ur poets,'' speaks of his few poems as containing '^ more 
solid bullion in proportion to the alloy than almost any 
in the language/' and attributes to ill-health and fas- 
tidiousness, among other causes, the smallness of his 
actual achievements. Patrick, fourth Lord Gray, is in 
the hands of iMr. Henderson, and Mr. Thomas Bayne 
gives a sympathetic account of David Gray, the juvenile 
author of ^ The Luggie.' Mr. Stephen also sends a short 
life of Matthew Green, and bestows some praise on * The 
Spleen.' Another life of secondary importance for which 
Mr. Stephen is responsible is that of Zetchary Grey, the 
antiquary and editor of Hudibras. The contributions of 
the associate editor lead off with Sir Fulke Qreville, sub- 
sequently Lord Brooke, the friend of Sidney and Sir 
Edward Dyer. The estimate of Fulke Greville's literary 
claims is very judicious : *' despite its subtlety of expres- 
sion, Greville's poetry fascinates the thoughtful student 
of literature." Guy of Warwick, a somewhat nebulous 
personage, is also treated of by Mr. Lee, who, while 
holding that *' the mass of details in the romance is pure 
fiction," in certain facts finds some shadowy historic con- 
firmation. The bibliographical portion of this bio- 
graphy has singular value. Grimald the poet, William 
Grocyn,and John Groenveldt are in the same admirably 
competent hands; Prof. Tout is responsible for the 
Welsh princes. Miss Kate Norgate supplies an admir- 
able summary of what is known of Gundrada de Wa- 
renne and a no less valuable biography of St. Guthlac. 

Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester, is in the hands of the 

Rev. William Hunt. Robert Green, the Shakspearian 
dramatist and poet, is safe in the competent and scholarly 
hands of Mr. A. H. Bullen, who also writes on William 
Habington. Prof. Groom Robertson writes the life of 
Grote the historian. Many important lives are supplied 
by Mr. W. P. Courtney, Mr. Ru sell Barker, Mr. James 
Gairdner, Mr. Boulger, Mr. Thompson Cooper, and Dr. 
Garnett. Prof. Laughton is still responsible for the lives- 
of sailors, and Dr. Norman Moore for those of physicians. 
The name of Mr. C. H. Firth appears to more than one 
article of high importance, and Mr. R. E. Graves, Dr. 
Greenhill, Mr. J. M. Rigg, and Canon Venablea send 
contributions. Now that the level is reached, it is easy 
and pleasant to commend the entire management of this 
national work. 

The Western Law Times. Vol. I. No. 1, May, 1890, 

(Winnipeg, Manitoba.) 
The editors of this new periodical in the far north-west 
of British North America are well up in their * N. & Q.,' 
from which they cite freely on points of interest to the 
legal profession, such as * Black-Letter Lawyers,' ' Trial 
by Combat/ and the ' Trial of Warren Hastings' The 
leading article of the opening number is devoted, under 
the title * A Constitutional Limitation,' to the discussion 
of the veto power, as it exists, in a certain degree, in the 
provinces of the Dominion of Canada, and which, the 
writer thinks, needs clearer definition and limitation. 
The memoir of the late Adam Thom, LL.D., first Re- 
corder of Rupert's Land, gives some interesting par- 
ticulars of the career of one who seems to have been a 
man of mark in his day. We shall be glad if any of our 
correspondents can help the editor of the Western Law 
Times to a knowledge of the existence of any portrait of 
Dr. Thom, who died in Torrington Square Feb. 21 last. 
As Dr. Thom was a native of Aberdeen, and a graduate 
of King's College, in the City of Bon Accord, there 
may be some information on this head in the possession 
of Aberdonian friends of ^ N. & Q.' 

The Fortnightly opens with the dispute concerning 
* Actor-Managers,' in which Mr. H. A, Jones and Mr. 
H, Beerbohm Tree take different sides. Mr. Gosse writes 
on * Protection of American Literature,' and Mr. Lanin, 
whose previous articles on Russian subjects have attracted 
attention, tells the "simple truth " concerning 'Russian 
Prisons.' Mr. J. A. Symonds depicts scenes ^ Among 
the Euganean Hills,' and Mr, George Moore has a paper 
upon Meissonier and the Salon Julian, descriptive of a 
recent secession of French artists from the Salon. — Sir 
John Popo Hennessey's contribution to the Nineteenth 
Century, entitled * The African Bubble,' deserves more 
attention than it is likely to get. In * The Lights of the 
Church and the Lights of Science' Prof. Huxley once 
more descends, with controversial purpose, into the arena. 
The King of Sweden and Norway concludes his 'Memoir 
of Charles XIL' Mile. Blaze de Bury gives a concise 
account of *The French Opera,' and the editor protests 
against the * Threatened Disfigurement of Westminster 
Abbey.' Sergeant Palmer is heard in rejoinder to his 
censors. * Official Polytheism in China/ an admirable 
paper by Sir Alfred Lyall, contains incidentally some 
interesting folk-lore. — *A Provencal Pilgrimage,' which 
appears in the Century^ gives a series of delightful views 
in the great historic cities of Provence, from Orange, the 
Roman gateway of which is depicted, to Aigues Mortes. 
Most objects of interest are depicted, but there is no 
view of the Pont du Gard. ' A Taste of Kentucky Blue 
Grass ' is also well illustrated. ' The Women of the 
French Salons' is continued, and Mr. Jefferson's 'Auto- 
biography' reaches the actor's appearance in Lon- 
don. — ' The Romance of History,' in Temple Bar, deals 

with the confessions of Yidocq. ' The Memoirs of Prince 



(_7*h S. X. JoLY 5, '90. 

Talleyrand' tells what is known concerning this long 
deferred contribution to history and scandal. *Chrifet 
mastide in Tangier' is fmm a female pen, and ^ives a 
fairly animated description. — In MacmiUan's Mr. T. 
Bailey Saunders supplies much information, new to the 
great majority of readers, as to the progress made by 
Lessing with his drama of * Faust' In • Valencia Del Cid ' 
Mr. Stanley J. Weyinan takes a rather optimistic view of 
the Spain of Ferdinand and Isabella.—* A Walk up the 
Valley of the Conway,' by Mr. E. Walford; 'TwoR^^lics 
of English Paganism/ by Mr. S. 0. Addy; and * Fines/ 
by A. C. Ewald, F.S.A., attract attention in an excellent 
number of the Gentiemafi's. — Murray s has an article 
on * Scotland Yard/ in which we are told that the 
Brussels police are much more energetic than the French, 
* Why not Iceland?' recommends, as may be guessed 
Irom its title, a summer visit to the island. — Beigravia 
has an essay by Mr. Joseph Forster on ' Schiller.' — * Ox- 
ford: the Upper River' repays perusal in Longman' Sy 
in which Archdeacon Farrar institutes a curious parallel 
between Nero and St, Benedict. — * Rural Reminiscences/ 
'British Birds, their Nests and Eggs/ and 'Capri of To- 
day ' reward attention in the CornhilL — Mr, Andrew W. 
Tuer contributes to the English Illustrated a capital 
paper, quaintly illustrated, on * The Art of Silhouetting ' 
Articles of high interest are * Eton College/ by various 
contributors; *Adare Manor/ by Lady Enid Wyndham 
Quin, both well illustrated ; and * Overland Routes from 
India,' by Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace.— Mr. Walford, 
in the Neu>bery House Magazine^ describes ' A Visit to 
Little Gidding/ 

The productions of Messrs. Cassell lead off with the 
Mncyclopcedic Dictionary^ Part LXXVIII. In a number 
made up of words in use, the claims of the dictionary are 
only shown in scientific terms, as "Ungulata," &c. — 
Part LIV. of the Illustrated Shakespeare^ with an extra 
sheet, ends in the fourth act of * Othello/ The most 
dramatic design is that to Act IV. sc. i., showing Othello 
inaniuiate and prostrate, and lago placing one foot in 
triumph on his breast, lago is rather a melodramatic 
looking persouHge througtiout. — Part XXXIV. of Old 
and New London is still in Westminster^ and depicts St. 
Stephen's Chapel, various portions of the old Houses of 
Legislature, the ruins left by the fire, the interior of 
Westminster Hall, and Margaret Street. Among the 
portraits is that of Mr. Dymoke, the Queen's Champion, 
on horseback. — Picturesque Australasia^ Part XXI., has 
a map of New South Wales to face the title of a third 
volume. It deals with the Australian Alps and the Can- 
terbury settlements. — Naumann's History of Music^ 
Part XXVIII. , opens with an account of Haydn, accom- 
panied by a full-length portrait. A portrait of Mozart 
when a boy is also given. — PartX. of Dr. Geikie's The 
Holy Land and the Bible contains a full-page plate of 
'The Plains of Mamre ' and many pictures of Hebron 
and the country to the south, — * The Beatrice Exhibition 
at Florence' is dealt with in Woman^s World. 

The catalogue of Messrs. H. Sotheran & Co. contains, 
as usual, some of the scarcest and most valuable of books. 
The same may be said of the catalogue of Messrs. Ellis 
& Elvey of New Bond Street, in which a rare binding of 
one of the volumes is reproduced. In addition to an 
ordinary catalogue of cheap books, Mr. Bertram Dobell 
issues a first part of a catalogue of books printed for pri- 
vate circulation, with annotations, which is likely to form 
a standard bibliographical work. Among the scores of 
catalogues of general books that reach us attention may 
be drawn to those of Reeves & Turner of the Strand, 
Mr. and Mrs. Tregaskis of Holborn, Wm. Hutt of Hyde 
Street, Oxford Street, C. Herbert of Goswell Road, 
William Ridler of Booksellers' Row, J. W. Jarvis & Son 

of King William Street (containing some rare bo-^ks), 
James Brown of High Holborn, Clement Sadler Palmer 
of Southampton Row, Salkeld of Clnpham Road, Rimell 
& Son of Oxford Street, Wm. Reeves of Fleet Street, 
Francis Edwards of High Street, Marylebone, and A. 
Jackson of Great Portland Street. Messrs. Macmillan & 
Bowes of Cambridge have issued part ii. of a 'Catalogue 
of Books on the Mathematics, Pure and Applied '; and 
Mr. E. Howell of Liverpool, Henry Young & Sons of 
Liverpool, H. Forester of Glasgow, William Clay of Bdin- 
burtfh, George P. Johnston of Edinburgh, Charles Lowe 
of Birmingham, John Hitchman of Birmingham, Edward 
B^ke.r of Birmingham, Downing of Birmingham, Meehan 
of Bath, Jarrold & Son of Norwich, Henry March Gil- 
bert of Southampton, M. W. Rooney of Dublin, James 
Fawn & Son of Bristol, James Watts of Hastings, arid' 
A. Iredale of Torquay may all be commended to book- 

We hear with regret of the death on May 30 of Mr. 
Thomas Hughes, F.S.A., for many years a regular con- 
tributor to our columns. He was born September 29, 
1826, in Chester, at the Grammar School of which city 
he was educated. He was founder of the Chester Anti- 
quarian Society, F.S.A. 1866, SheriflF of Chester 1873, 
and a member of the Archasological Institute and 
Association. Among other works, he edited * King's 
Vale Royal.' 1852 ; Batenham's * Ancient Chester,' 1878 ; 
'The Chester Sheaf,' 1878. He wrote a 'Stranger's 
Handbook to Chester,' 1856, and * Chester in its Early 
Youth/ 1871, &c. Many MS8. of interet-tare left in the 
possession of his son, Mr. T. Cann Hughes, whose sig- 
nature also is familiar in these columns. The more im- 
portant of these will, it is to be hoped, see the light. 

fiatUti to Cotvtifon^tnti. 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

On all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

Wb cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to liead the second communication ** Duplicate." 

J. Bagnall. — The custom of discharging firearms at 
ten o'clock at night by watchmen and caretakers as a 
warning to evil-doers was half a century ago not confined 
to Birmingham, but was general in the manufacturing 
towns of the North of England. It was sometimes 
practised in the gardens of private houses, 

Galen ('* Paradoxes ").— Prof. De Morgan has written 
a work of the class you require. 

fl. Capel.— Consult Gardner's 'Faiths of the World,' 
2 vols., Fullarton;or 'Religious Sj'stems of the World/ 
Swan Sonnenschein. 

G. S. B. (*' Bees").— As to the superstition concerning 
these which you mention, see 6^*i S. xii. 145, where 
numerous references are given. 

Robert Payne.— The great gates are not closed. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'"— Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "—at the Ofl5ce, 22 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, CLancery Lane, E.C. ' ' 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 


70> S. X. J0LT 12, '90. J 





CONTENTS.— N« 237. 

NOTES :— Meston, 21— Brothers-ln-Law of King Henry VII] 
-22— Seventeenth-Century Ghost Story, 23— Transmogrify 
Girl — Docwra: Brockett, 24— J. Finlayson— St. Anne's 
Chapel, 25— De Stafford Pedigree, 26. 

QUERIES:- *Le Fonrbe Puni'— Holker Family— " Psycho- 
logical Paedagogics"— Thomas Bull— Pendril Family— The 
Spanish Armada, 26— Supeistitions on the Vigil of St. Agnes 
—St. Agnes's Well— Charles Kingsley— A. W. Devis— Pre- 
serving Sound— Jointed -Dolls, 27— Oliver Goldsmith— Sup- 
positative— Index Society— Guilds of Shrewsbury— Alder- 
man Geo. Hay ley- Dr. Vincent on Public Education- 
Thomas Strangwayes— Hayes's * Written in the Temple 
Gardens '—Thomas Shaw— Early Missal, 28. 

BEPLIES :— Mr- Gladstone's Oxford Address, 29— Proofs in 
Elizabethan Times— Ted, Ned, 30— Diabolic Correspondence 
—'•Down on the nail," 31— "Sudden Death "—Griffith ap 
Llewellyn — Thomas Campbell, 32 — Cuthbert Bede, 33— 
Cambridge Apostles— Mourning Lace— Poem by Author of 
* Festus '—Dispersion of the Wood of the Cross, 34— Solitaire 
Hone: Hoe -Regimental Messes, 35— Harrison Ainsworth 
Ireton— Bumsiana— The Dromedary — Third-Class Rail- 
way Carriages— Plover, 36— Kinlike— City lighted with Oil— 
Englandic. 37— Hesiod— Execution of Charles I.— Spectacles 
in Art— Sir G. Somers, 38— Beenham, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Cowper's 'Registers of St. 
Canterbury ' — ' The Index Library *— Russell's 
Nelson '— * The Annual Register.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

' Horatio 


The accounts that have hitherto appeared in print 
of William Meston, author of * The Knight/ are 

Meston is further stated to have tanght pablicly 
in Marischal College, haying been appointed to a 
regency or profeseorship in 1714. The true date 
of his appointment is Nor. 30^ 1715^ (when he 
gave a '^publick oration and a specimen in the 
Greek tongue"); and he seems never to bave 
actually lectured, for in session 1716-16 *^the 
Colledge was separat [by reason of the disorders of 
the times] before the Lawes were read or the 

Season of payment come.''t 

From the first report, dated Dec. 21, I7l6:tl (and 
hitherto nnprinted), of the Eoyal Commission ap- 
pointed, after the Fifteen, 

'^ to visit the IJnivereity of Aberdeen and all the Colleger 
and Schools thereof, and to take tryall of the preset t 
Professors, Principalis, Regents, Ma8ter8, and others 
bearing office therein, and to examine into their past 
Conduct and Behaviour with regard either to Church 

or State," 

we learn that 

*' Doctor Patrick Chalmers [Professor of Medicine in 
Marischal College] did frequent the Episcopal Assem- 
blies where the Pretender was prayed for by the name of 
King James the Eight; and concurred with the late 
Principal Paterson and the above named three Regents 
[George Peacock, Alexander Moir, and William Smith] 
in admitting Mr. William Meston, Regent in the College, 
after the said Meston had assisted the Rebels with a 
drawn sword in his hand to proclaim the Pretender at 
the Cross of Aberdeen; and after he the said Meston 
had pronounced an Oration wherein Your Majestie^s 
Right and Title to the Crown was impugned and con- 
demned, that of the Pretender asserted, and in which 
was contained the most scandalous and criminal Expres- 
sions against your Majesty and Government." 

aDoears that Meston 


Thus 1688 has been accepted as the year of his 



'* delivered an addre68§ to the Pretender at Fettereaso 
under the Title of King James, which address being 
from the College, it is highly probable was signed by 
the Principall [Paterson] who being aged and infirm 

was not able to travell to Fetteresso with the other 

The classes did not meet acfain till the autumn 

and University, Aberdeen, in session 1694-96.* 
In 1698 he graduated, and on Feb. 12, 1701, he 
was appointed, after "tryall of grammar and other 
authors, as also of makeing extempore thems," I all his colleagues, except Thomas Black well, Pro- 



1 1 fessor of Divinity, who was promoted to the prin- 
cipalship) had been expelled from office by the 

Mr. David Cooper.l He acted Commission. During the rebellion he acted as 



Governor of Dunottar Castle. After Sheriffmuir he 


when students at the local university — George, 
Magistrand in session 1711-12 ; 
1715. § 

Marshal Keith), Act of Indemnity was passed. He subsequently 

* ' College ' Procuratory Accounts/ 1683-1710. 
cannot believe that Meston went to college at six. 


^ _^ , Montrose^ 

Perth, educating the sons of the gentry in Jacobite 
loyalty, of which Principal Blackwell complains 
bitterlyll He died in 1745. 


the age of entrants in the seventeenth century was often 
very small. Bishop Gilbert Burnet was born Sept. 18, 
1643; and his name (autograph) appears among the 
Marischal College ** primarii " in October, 1652. 

* Town Council Register/ vol. Ivii. p. 781. 

* T. C. R./vol IviiL pp. 320, 335. 
^Alburn Studiosorum.' 


* Register of Presentationes and Admissiones. 

• Coll. Proc. Accounts,' 1711-66. 
See * N. & Q.,' 7'** S. ii. 428. 
See * N. & Q./ 7^^ 8. i. 129. 
Knight's MS. Collections, i. 352. 



[7"> S. X. JcLY 12, '90. 

Irving's Lives of Scottish Poets. 1804. Vol. ii. p. 318. 

■ " By Society of Ancient Scots. 

Lives of Scottish Poets. 

1821. Vol.i. p. 111. 
Jietrospeciive Review. 
Aberdeen Magazine. 

Vol.iii. p. 318. 

Sketch by 

December^ 1831. 

Joseph Robertson. 
Jervise's Epitaphs and Inscriptions 

1880. Vol. ii. 

p. 83. 

Walker's Bards of Bonaccord. 

1885. P. 133. 

None of these gives a bibliography of his writings. 
A first attempt is appended. 

Verses at end of Alexander's Tituli Fontium Abredon- 
cnsium. Aberdeen, 1707. Bodleian Library. 

Viri Humani Salsi et Faceti Gulielmi Sutherlandi 
Multarum Artium et Scientiarum Doctoris Doctissimi 
Diploma. N.p. ; n.d. Adv. Library. 

Phaeton ; or, the First Fable of the Second Book of 
Ovid's Metamorphoses Burlesqu'd. Edinburtsh, 1720. 

Tale of a Man and his Mare. N.p.; 1721. Laing's 
Bale Cat, vol. iii. p. 77. 

The Knight. N.p.; 1723. 

The Knight of the Kirk ; or, the Ecclesiastical Adven- 
tures of Sir John Presbyter. London, 1728.— Halkett 
and Laing state, p. 1308, that a third edition of 'The 
Knight ' was published in 1728. 

. Mob contra Mob. Edinburgh, n.d. Mitchell Library, 
Glasgow. — MS. note by James Maidment says, ** First 

Mob contra Mob. Edinburgh, 1731, Brit. Mus. 

Mob contra Mob. Ed'nburgh, 1738. 

Old Mother Grim's Tales. Decade I. London, 1737. 

No, 9 is Phaeton Burlesqu'd ; No. 10 is The Man and 
his Mare, Query : Did the others appear previously in 
separate formi They are : — 1. A Grecian Tale. Motto : 

" Erupit venae," &c.; 2. Tarquin and Tullia : a Roman 
Tale. '* Vivitur ex rapto," &c.; 3. The Lion and his 
Subjects. "Nobilis est ira leonis," &c.; 4. The Real and 
Pretended Parent. ** Praestat seio sapere," &c.; 5. The 
Cobler : an Irish Tale. '* Est genus unum," &c.; 6. A 
Dutch Tale. "Ridiculum acri," &c.; 7. A Vision. "Con- 
stitit ante oculos," &c.; 8. A Lochaber Tale. "Sunt 
quos curriculo," &c. 

Decadem Alteram Subjunxit Jodocus Grimmus Pro- 
nepos. London, 1738. — The longest piece in this is ' G. 
Sutherlandi Diploma.' This was also reprinted in ' The 
Wife of Auchtermuchty,' Edinburgh, 1803; and in *Car- 
minum Rariorum Macaronicorum Delectus,' second edi- 
tion, Edinburgh, 1813, Query : Also in first edition of 
1801 1 According to the preface in the * Collected 
Poems ' of 1767 both " Decades " underwent several 

Poetical Works. Sixth [?] edition. Edinburgh, 1767. 
— According to Jervise, ii. 83, " The first edition of 
Meston's Poems, now rare, appeared in 1737." 

Poetical Works. Seventh edition. Aberdeen, 1801. — 
This edition omits the Latin poems. 

Unpublished verses printed in Scottish Notes and 
Queries for December, 1889, January and June, 1890. 

esquire, had the honour of being related to the 
royal Bluebeard in the capacity of brothers-in-law. 

Their names were : 

Sisters' husbands. — 1. James IV., King of Scot- 
land, oh. 1513. 2. Archibald Douglas, Earl of 
Angus, oh. 1556 (divorced 1526/7). 3. Henry 
Stewart, Lord Methven, o6. c. 1652."^ 4. Loui& 
XII., King of France, oh. 1514/5. 6. Charles 
Brandon^ Duke of Suffolk, oh. 1545. 

Brother-in-law of Queen Catherine (of Aragon)* 

6. Emanuel, King of Portugal, born 1521. 

Brothers and brothers-in-law of Queen Anne 
(Boleyn).— 7. George Boleyn, Viscount Eochford, 
oh. 1536. 8. William Carey, Esq. 9. Sir William. 

Brothers and brothers-in-law of Queen Jane 
(Seymour). — 10. Edward Seymour, Earl of Hert- 
ford (afterwards Duke of Somerset), oh. 1552. 11, 
Sir Thomas Seymour (afterwards Lord Seymour 
of Sudley), oh. 1549. 12. Sir Henry Seymour, oh. 
1578. 13. Sir Anthony Oughtred. 14. Gregory 
Cromwell, Lord Cromwell, oh. 1551. f 15. Sir 
Clement Smith. 16. John Laventhorpe, Esq. 

Brother and brother-in-law of Queen Anne (of 
Cleves). — 17. William, Duke of Cleves, o&. 1592. 
18. John Frederick, Duke of Saxony, oh. 1554. 

Brother and brothers-in-law of Queen Catherine 
(Howard).— 19. Henry Howard, E?q. 20. Sir 
George Howard. 21. Sir Charles Howard. 22. 
Sir Thomas Arundell of Wardour, oh. 1522. 23. 
Sir Edmund Trafford of Trafford, oh. 1590. 24. 
John Stanney (or Stanley), Esq. 25. Henry 
Baynton, Esq. 

Brother and brother-in-law of Queen Catherine 
(Parr). 26. William Parr, Earl of Essex (after- 
wards Marquis of Northampton), oh. 1571. 27. 
Sir William Herbert (afterwards Earl of Pem- 
broke), oh. 1569.^ 

Queen Catherine of Aragon had a brother John^ 
Prince of the Asturias, who died in 1497, and two 
brothers-in-law, viz., Don Alonzo of Portugal and 
Philip I., King of Spain, both of whom died before 
her marriage with King Henry. 

Queen Jane Seymour had three brothers who 
died young, viz., 1. John Seymour, oh. 1510. 2. 
Anthony Seymour. 3. Another John Seymour. 

Queen Catherine Howard's eldest brother Henry 

New Spalding Club, Aberdeen. 

P. J. Anderson. 


No King of England has exceeded Henry VIII. 
in the number of his wives, and it is only natural, 
therefore, that we should find bim more than usually 
blessed in the number of his fraternal relatives by 
marriage. In all twenty-seven persons, ranging in 
rank from the crowned monarch to the simple 

The date of Lord Methven's death is uncertain. 
Miss Strickland, in her * Lives of the Queens of Scot- 
land/ vol. i. p. 268, says that he and his son, the Master 
of Methven, were both killed at the battle of PinkiC:, 
1547; but Douglas, in his 'Peerage of Scotland,' says a 
charter of certain lands was granted to him and Henry 
his son, dated Oct, 10, 1551, and that he died soon after- 

t After the death of her second husband, Gregory, 
Lord Cromwell, Elizabeth Seymour, Queen Jane's 
younger sister, married, thirdly, John Pawlet, after- 
wards Marquis of Winchester, who was summoned to 
Parliament in his father's barony of St. John in 1554. 
He did not succeed to the marquisate until 1572. and 
died in 1576. 

7U> Si X. JuLT 12, '90.] 



may have died before her marriage with the king. 
His (Henry Howard's) wife, or widow, was impli- 
cated in the troubles of her royal sister-in-law. 

In the above list we have three kings, four 
dukes, one marquis, two earls, one viscount, three 
lords, seven knights, and six esquires. Miss Strick- 
land (alluding to the king's marriage with Jane 
Seymour) remarks, "By this alliance the sovereign 
<,f England gained one brother-in-law, who bore 
the name of Smith, and another whose grandfather 
was a blacksmith at Putney." 


actually onl 



grandson on the throne, and died in 1650, and 
Marie, Duchess of Cleves, who died in 1543. 


' } 


King Ferdinand of Spain, who died in 1516; 
Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wiltshire, who died in 
1538 ; and Sir John Seymour, who died in 1536 
{seven months after his daughter had succeeded 
the hapless Anne on her throne), were successively 
King Henry's fathers-in-law. John, Duke of Cleves, 
who died in 1539, Lord William Howard in 1538, 
and Sir Thomas Parr in 1517, did not live to see 
their daughters ascend the perilous steps of his 
throne. H. Murray Lane, Chester Herald. 

I *.. 



The document from which I have transcribed 
the following yarn is contemporary with the date 
of the events referred to. It is written in a fine 
secretary hand, and is endorsed "A Sad Relation 
of a Ship in Extremity.^' If space can be afforded, 
I trust that the gentleman ^^in the Black Hatt 
stuff coat and stript neckcloth " may be allowed to 
make his bow to the readers of *N. & Q.' 

• "The 22** Feby 1671 Wee sailed from Gravesendand 

- ihe 26th by Gods providence Wee sailed over the Barr of 
Newcastle and there loaded the 2^ of March about 9 or 
10 of the clock in the night Wee had made all cleare for 

, the furtherance of our voyage, and after Supper I went 
to rest about 12 a clock to ye best of my remembrance I 
was waked out of my sleepe by a noyes but See nothing 
which did to the best of my capacitie bid me begon I 
had nothing to doe there but I being soe hastily dis- 
turbed was not certaine w' might be the cause but judg- 
ing I might be a dream'd & soe that I did passe that 
being uncertaine of the truth After the first day was 
past about 8 or 9 o clock I went to rest and about 12 my 
Mate rise and strooke a light to take a pipe of Tobacco 
as I suppose and expecting the Wherry to goe upp to the 
Towne being the Tyde fell out about two in the morning 
I desired the candle might not be put out and being as 
well awake as now I am to the best of my Judgment I 
was then pulled by the haire of my head upp from my 
pillowe and the same words declared to me as before and 
then I saw the p' feet face and p'portion of a man in a 

_ Black Hatt stun coat and stript neckcloth hanging downe 
haire and a sower downe looking countenance and his 

teeth sett in his head I had then time to say Lord have 
mercy upon me what art att which hee did vanish but 
the candle did burne very blew and almost went out I 
then being much discontented did by the p'sent post give 
my owners a just account of what had befallen and the 
5i*» of that instant wee sett saile being day about 4 a 
clock with the wind at W.S.W faire weather and a brave 
wind of the shore w'^*^ did continue untill ^ an hower a: 
11. A Wednesday night then the man at the helme did 
call out that hee could not steer the helme but after I 
had pulled of the Whipp staff the ship did steire as afore 
and still faire weather the wind coming to the N.W and 
snowing weather but very faire and cleare I was doubtfull 
of more wind I did cause the men to furl the fore top 
sale and lower doun the main Top saile upon the back of 
the maine Saile but could not w^h all the strength wee 
had hall in the weather brace of the fore topp saile when 
this was down still in my Judgm^ our shipp did Heile as 
much as when our Sailes were out then wee did hall upp 
our maine saile and still the shipp had the same List 
with a large Wind to my Judgment might be ^ a Strake 
or thereabouts, by this time it was 2 a clock then our 
men did try the pump and finding little or no water in 
her the man at the helme did call out that the candle 
was burning so blew that was in the Lanthorne y^ it did 
give noe light and then Three severall times did goe out 
soe that I did [hold?] the Binekell to the looke out 
which candle did burne very well and show a good light 
but of a suddaine our shipp would not free her helme 
soe kindly as before and brought all our sailes A back & 
then our shipp did fill as much to winward as afore to 
Leward the glasse being out went to try ye pump & found 
no water in ye Ship but did not Steire well neither could 
I find the reason still faire weather & this unkind steer- 
age made mee urgent to try the pump but could not gett 
the upper box to worke nor stir puling that upp & trye- 
ing with the pump Hooke wee could not come nere the 

lower box by a foot and J w*^** to my judgm* was like a 
BuUfiss or Wool sack yt as you did force downe gave up 
againe with the hooke then 1 did mistrust y^ all was not 
well I did cause our men to ripp the coat of the pump 
upp & myself looseing ye Tackle in ye meane time I did 
order two men to loose the boat which they did being 
lashed in 3 places but they doe not remember to this 
hower y^ they did loose any of them but y* middlemost 
and w^h 3 men in her y^ boat went over the top of the 
ffore sheet w^ lay above her stem and did never touch it 
w^*^ such violence as did amaze us that see it & they y* 
were in the boat cryeing out soe much did fright him at 
y® helme he came runing out unknowne to me but I find- 
ing y* Shipp comeing neerer y* wind then formerly I run 
to y® Staire case to bid him put the helme over and he 
giving me noe an&wear I run downe & finding him gon 
I tryed what I could doe to putt the helme over but 
could not & hearing one Jump downe at the hatch w*^*^ 
was open upon the ^ Deck did expect that the Helmes* 
man bad come downe againe & calling him by his name 
to come & help me but the word being noe sooner out of 
my mouth but I did p'ceive the same p'son that I had 
formerly scene before wee came out of Harbour who 
came violently to me & spoke to me to be gone you have 
noe more to doe here and did heave me in at the Cabbin 
doore there upon the top of the Table I cryeing out in 
the name of God what art? he vanished away with a 
flash of fyer and did thinke the Shipp had splitt in a 
1000 peices it gave such a crack y* our men called out 
Master if you be a man come away did something revive 
me and I did strive to have gott to my chest being I had 
some money in it but found that something did hinder 
me but what I could not tell but p'ceiving the Maine 
sea comeing soe that I was up to ye waste before I coulde 

gett out of the Cabbin finding all our men in the Boat 



[7th s. X. July 12, m 

fcut only one man I did desire him to gett a compasBe 
w^** hee did but could never p'ceave what became of it 
wee being no sooner in the boat but ye Shipp did sinke 
downe & 1 baveing a great Sea furr Gowne wc** lay upon 
y« Binkell which when ye Shipp went downe ye very up- 
gett of the water did bring it to the Boat side & one of 
our men did take it in wee did reckon ourselves 10 or 12 
leagues E S.E from the Sporne I did p'ceive the vaine 
of the Maine topp mast head when the Shipp was sunck 
wee continued in y* boat from 3 in the morning: till 10 
or a 11 that day when wee were taken upp by a Whitbey 
ketch & di'J use us very kindly and did tow ower boat at 
his Sterne with twoo ends of an horser till she broke 
away hee being boun<l for New Castle & the wind being 
contrary did on the Satterday following sett us a Shoare 
at Grimsby in Hull River where the Maior graunted us 
a Passe for London and this being a true & p'fect rela- 
tion to the best of my knowledge in every respect 

" Witnesse my hand 

''JoH Pye." 

J, Eliot Hodgkin. 

Transmogrify. — Transmogrify is not a word 
we ehould be likely to meet with in a sermon^ but 
it may often be found in our lighter literature^ and 
has found a place in most of the dictionaries pub- 
lished in late years. It is found in Webster, Wor- 
cester, Ogilvie, and in Cassell, and is generally 
explained as signifying transformed or metamor- 
phosed. The Latinized form of the word shows 
that it has not cropped np, like shunt or the like, 
from popular speech into literary use, but has been 
the coinage of some person of education in order 
to give novelty to his expression. I had fully 
supposed that it was an invention of the present 
century, and was much surprised to find from a 
quotation in Worcester that it was used by Field- 
ing, although in which of his works is not men- 
tioned: ^^ I begin to think that some wicked 
enchanters have transmogrified my Dulcinea.'' 
We have also in Cassel^s ^ Dictionary * a quota- 
tion from Jortin (^Ecclesiastical History,' i. 254, 
date 1751-73), where he is led hy a blind senti- 
ment of etymology to write transmography : 
^^ Augustine seems to have had a small doubt 
whether Apuleius was really transmographied into 
an ass.'' The dictionaries offer no suggestion as 
. to the origin of the word beyond the very safe 
position that it is compounded with trans. To 
me it seems that a very probable origin of the 
word may be found in the notion of transmigration, 
which offers a familiar type of transformation 
of the most varied description, while at the same 
time the consouantal skeleton of the word is the 
same as that which is found in transmogrified. If, 
then, we were to frame a word on the basis of 
irasmigration in a manner similar to that in which 

^y^iify is formed from mystery^ we should con- 
struct a term transmigrify y which would be readily 
understood in the sense of giving the effect of 
transmigration— of making like a transmigrated 
being, or completely altering the outward appear- 
ance* The change of the vowel from i to o in 

H. Wedgwood. 


transmogrify seems to represent the imperfect 

attempt of an ignorant person to pronounce the 

unfamiliar word, with the effect of giving a low 

or ludicrous turn to the expression, as is usually 

the case with fransmogfri/i/. Such is the theory 

of the origination of the word which I had 

reached when I met with the following passage in 

a novel of the day (* Woman with a Secret/ 

vol. iii. p. 187), **The ancients did not despise the 

quaint doctrine of metempsychosis. It may well 

be that Max [a dog] is a transmogrified man " — 

showing how natural is the connexion of the 

meaning conveyed by transmogrify with the idea 

of transmigration. 
94, Gower Street. 

Girl pronounced Gurl. .(See 7*^ S. ix. 472.) 

St. SwiTHiN will, I am sure, find many who 
will protest with him against the word girl being 
pronounced gurl. In conversation this is compara- 
tively speaking unusual ; but in poetry it occurs 
frequently, mainly, I suppose, from the difficulty 
which would naturally occur in finding a word to 
rhyme with it. Some weeks ago I decided to tempt 
the Editor with a few quotations illustrating this 
somewhat ugly usage. Examples could be easily 
multiplied. Tennyson, in * In Memoriam' (li. 13), 
makes it rhyme with pearl; in fact, the latter 
word seems to be the favourite accomplice. Ros- 
setti, in a ballad (vol. ii. p. 298), uses it to rhyme 
with girly as does Browning in one of his last 
poems, called ^A Pearl, A Girl,* which lately 
appeared in ^ Asolandc' Again^ in ' The Lady of 
Shalott ' (ii. 17), we read : 

There the river Eddy whirls, 
And there the sturdy village churls 
And the red cloaks of the market girls 

Pass onward from Shalott ; 

and so on. St. Swithin and myself have got 

strong odds against us as yet. 


DocwRA : Brockett. — In East Hatley Church, 
Cambs,is the remains of a monument to the above. 
Cole describes it as follows : 

*' Just below the step of the nave, near ye screen of 
the chancel, lies a large old gray marble with ye broken 
effigies of a man in armour and his wife by him in brass, 
but the inscription at their feet is reeved. The 4 
coats at ye corners are perfect. Ye Ist at ye man's 
head is a chevron engrailed inter 8 Roundles, each 
charged with a Pale, for Docwray; the 2nd at ye 
woman's head is a cross flory or moline or patonce [?J, 
for Brockett of Brockett Hall, in Hertfordshire ; 3rd at 
ye man's feet these 2 impaled^ and at ye woman's feet 
Docwray again. This monument by the arms was de- 
signed for Roger Dockwra, who married Elizabeth^ 
daughter of Edward Brockett of Brockett Hal. Vide 
vol. XV. I? xiii.] p. 109 of my MS. Collections for Cambs." 

In a paper read before the Oamb. Antiq. Society, 
March 3, by the Rev. W. H. Shimield, on * Shengay 
and its Preceptory/ it appeared from a Visitation 
made in 1684 that a Sir Thomas Docwra was Pre- 
ceptor of Shengay. Was this Sir Thomas related 



r / 

7^^ S/X. July 12, '90.] 



the Eoger of East Hatley ? The arms are alike. I to this chapel The records and histories of Bristol 
k Docwra was postman at Gailden Morden, a showed this. In 1878 witness had the well cleared 

• - ^1 -• t--- -•- 10*7/^ Would he out, and he produced several coins and tokens 

parish west of Shinghay, in 1870. 
have been of this family? It might so be, seeing 
that (as appears from Mr. Shimield's paper) Sir 
John Thorney, chantry priest of Clapton (? Clop- 
ton), on Jan. 10, 1425, left Dalyson* by will a 
pair of fustian blankets and lOi., and to Helen 
Janeway, of Shengay, 4d. was bequeathed. 

*< It is interesting to notice that there are still several 
Janeways living at Shengay, probably the descendants 
of the fortunate Helen aforesaid/' 

The local pronunciation of Shengay is Shingy. 

''Sir Thomag Docwra [Mr. Shimield further states] 
was al30 Lord Prior of the order, and finished the re- 
building of the Hospital of St. John by Clerkenwell in 
London. His arms, the same as those found iu the 
Shengay Preceptory, were carved in stone over the great 
gate, and bore the date 1504." 

H. W. P. Stevens. 

Tadlow Vicarage, Royston, 

John Finlatson, 1730-1776.— All mention of 


them, and said there was no doubt the tokens 
were thrown into the well by pilgrims as a testi- 
mony of their presence at the place. There was a 
tradition amongst his congregation that this was a 
holy well, and it was believed that the water had 
medicinal value, and was good for bad eyes. The 
devotion to St. Anne had commenced in Brittany, 
and he knew that parties of Bretons, who came 
over yearly to sell onions, were accustomed to 
make a pilgrimage to this spot. July 26 was St. 
Anne's Day, and in July last year he met a Breton 
coming from St. Anne's. In a conversation with 
the reverend gentleman the Breton stated that he 
could not make a pilgrimage at home, and so came 
there to do so. He also stated that other Bretons 
came there for the same purpose. The witness 
mentioned that Latimer on one occasion preached 
a sermon in Bristol against this pilgrimage. St. 
this excellent draughtsman and mezzotint enfi;raver I Anne's Chapel was formerly attached to the 
is unaccountablyomitted from the ^ Diet, of National Augustinian monks of Keynsham Abbey. It was 
Biography^' Messrs. Colnaghi & Co., of Pall Mall customary for a monk from the abbey to reside 

East, send me the following particulars of him : 

"He was born about 1730, and practised his art in 
London. He was a member of the Free Society of 
Artists in 1763, and in 17ti4 and 1773 was awarded a pre- 
raium by the Society of Arts, He engraved a consider- 
able number of portraits after Hone, Cotes, Zoflfany, and 
Reynolds, and died about 1776. He also engraved two 
or three subject pictures, one of them, ' Candaules show- 
ing his Wife as she is leaving the Bath/ after his own 

The aboye is, I presume, copied out from some 
well-known work. Finlay son's proof engravings 
have now a considerable value. 

t -. 



' St. Anne's Chapel and Well. — In the course 

of an inquiry regarding the existence of an alleged 
right of way through St. Ann's Wood, Brislington, 
near Bristol, the following very interesting evi- 
dence was tendered by Father Ignatius Grant, of 
Bristol. The reverend gentleman stated that he 
had given attention to the claim made for this path, 
and, with other persons, had gone over the path 
leading to the well. He knew the well in St. 
Ann's Wood and the building near, which had 
existed tip to 1878. It was not, he thought, the 
chapel itself, but an adjunct to the chapel — a sort 
of gnest house. The witness explained that in old 
times it was considered a duty, as it was the 
practice, to make pilgrimages, and everybody 
made them up to the time of the Reformation. 
He had no doubt that there were pilgrimages made 

* His epitaph was in existence in 1684, and was, " Hie 
Jacet Frater Robertas Dalison, miles quondam Praeceptor 
hujus Praeceptoriae de Shengay et nuper Praeceptor Prae- 
oeptoriae de Halston et Temple Coombe, qui obiit quinto 

eptembris Anno Domini 1404." 

there. The chapel was dismantled and the pil- 
grimage suppressed in 1536. 

Mr. Elton, Q.O., then put in the printed extracts 
compiled by the Rev. T. P. Wadley from the Book 
of Wills and the Orphan Book in the Bristol 
Council House. It appeared that in 1392 the will 
of John Beket was proved before the mayor and 
bailiffs at Bristol The following extract was 
read : 

"Saturday in the feast of the Conversion of Paul 
Apostle. To be buried in the Monastic Abbey of the 
Blessed Mary of Keynsham. Legacies to the Abbot and 
Convent of that Monastery, the Vicars of Keynsham and 
Compton Dando, Sir Richard, Chaplin of St. Anne's, and 
other persons. 


Mr. Elton also quoted from the accounts of the 
Dake of Buckingham, which fell into the hands of 
the Crown on his attainder for high treason : 
" May 9, My Lords, my Ladies, and my young 
Ladies obligations to St. Anne's in the Wood, 
Is. 4d." Then from the privy purse expenses of 
Elizabeth of York, queen of Henry VII., an entry 
showing that during her progress the queen gave 
25. 6d. to the King's Almoner as the •'Qaeen's 
oflfering to St. Anne in the Wood beside Bristow." 
Another interesting witness was Elisha Ettmell, 
who said he was born in 1810, and could remem- 
ber three kings and one queen. He could remember 
the St. Anne Chapel It was sealed up, and he 
thought it was a cart-house. This inquiry has 
lasted some days, and at time of writing is not 
concluded; but thinking the above items in the 
evidence may interest many of your readers, I 
venture to send them for insertion in your columns. 


1, Henrietta Street, Bath. 



[7"* S. X- Jolt 12, m 

De Stafford Pedigree.— Among the * Collec- 
tions for a History of Staffordshire' (William Salt 
Archseological Society), vol. ii. p. 273, the learned 
editor states that William and Ralph were half- 
brothers of Hervey de Stafford, and that they were 
the sons of Hervey Bagot by a previous wife to 
Milisent de Stafford, because he thinks that they 
were too young in 1215 to have supported their 
brother Hervey de Stafford when he joined the 
insurrection of the barons against King John, or 
when the said barons appointed him to be Sheriff 
of Staffordshire. However, he allows that Hervey 
de Stafford may have been born as early as 1194. 
He then goes on to say : 

" Wq must here pause, for we purpose to deal not with 
genealogies so much as with authentic materials for 
genealogy. One of the old Staffordshire Kenealogists has 
told us that Harvey and Milisent his wife gave Brams- 
hall to William, 'their ' younger son. This is an inven- 
tion. Bramshall was the inheritance of William Bagot— 
afterwards called *de Stafford'— somewhat improperly. 
William was the son of Hervey Bagot, but not of Milisent. 
Sampson Erdeswick— I name him with reverence— was 
proud of his descent, and knew himself to be descended 
from William 'de StaflFord/ of Bramshall. Perhaps 
some sycophantic friend assured Sampson that William 
was a son of Milisent de Stafford ; so Sampson, much 
liking to be descended from the older barons of the Toni 
race, believed himself to be so." 



and there is printed in 'Collect. Top. et Geneal./ 
vol. i. p. 249, a charter of this William de Stafford, 
which formerly belonged to the priory of St. 
Thomas, near Stafford. It was sold in 1833 by 
auction, with nearly one thousand other ancient 
deeds, and is stated to be " now in possession of 
one of the editors of these * Collectanea.' " The 
date assigned to it by them is temp. John, but it 
more probably belongs to the early years of the 
reign of Henry 

" Sciant tam presentee quam futuri quod Ego Willel- 
mus de Stafford filius Hervei Bagot, assensu Domini et 
fratris mei Hervei Bagot et assensu Dominae et matris 

mese Mylisent concessi et presenti carta mea con- 

Srmavi Ecclesiae S. Thomas Martyris de Stafford et 

Canonicis ibidem concessionem et donationem quam 

pater mens Herveus fecit predictis Canonicis de Villa de 
Drayton cum molendino, etcumsectaejusdemmolendini, 
&c. Reddendo anuatim dimididiam marcam argenti," 

It will be seen that this charter confirms the 
descent generally accepted, viz , that William de 
Stafford was the j onager son of Hervey Bagot and 
his wife Milisent de Stafford, and that it proves 
the correctness of the statement of "the old 
Staffordshire genealogist." 

This correction may perhaps be of interest to 

some of the descendants of the older race of De 
Toeni, the first Barons of Stafford. 

Reform Club, S.W. 

R. TwiGGE, F.S.A. 



on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

^ Le Fourbe Puni ; ou, le Duel des Rivalbs,' 
1741.— Tempted by a handsome binding, I pur- 
chased the above volume, which comes from the 
library of the Duke of Buccleuch. It is a small 
octavo, of 183 pages, title included, with no place 
of publication, but probably printed in Holland, 
and is a passably gallant novel, written in the 
supposed interest of virtue. The first scene pre- 
sents a duel between two gentlewomen. I find no 
mention of the book in the ' Dictionnaire des 

Ouvrages Anonymes ' of Barbier, in Brunet, or in 
the very full 'Bibliographie^ of works of its class 
of Gay. Can any one tell me if the work or its 

author is known ? 

H. T. 

Holker Family. — Will any one give me in- 
formation about the family of Holker? The Eight 
Hon. Sir John Holker died in 1882. One member 
of the family was, I believe, famous at the court 

of King James II. 

M. 0. Owen. 

Hulme Hall> Plymouth Grove^ Manchester. 

" Psychological Pedagogics." — A friend asks 
me whether there are English works on this sub- 
ject ; but as the question is too vast and profound 
for me, I submit it to the readers of ^ N. & Q/ in 
hope of enlightenment. Mr. Herbert Spencer's 
treatise on ^Education' is the only thing that 
occurs to me as probably apposite. 

Thomas Bayne. 

Helensburgh^ N.B. 

Thomas Bull. — Any information about the 
ancestry of Thomas Bull, of a family near Ports- 
mouth, captain of an East Indiaman, who married 
Mary Nairne, of Greenyards, in Stirlingshire, and 
whose daughter married in 1777 James Ker, of 
Blackshiels, in East Lothian, will greatly oblige. 
Mrs. Ker was a celebrated beauty. 

Mac Robert. 

There is. or was, a rent 

Pendril Family. 

charge in favour of the Pendril family on the Rec- 
tory of Hodnet, Salop. Is there any history of the 
reason why this was levied by Charles II.? Tradi- 
tion says that the holder of the preferment refused 
aid to either the king or some of his favourite ad- 


U. 0. N. 

The Spanish Armada. — Was there ever a 

special service of thanksgiving composed and 
added to the liturgy in commemoration of this 
great deliverance? Perhaps such a service was 
enacted essentially special, that is to say, only to 
be used upon the one occasion of the great sove- 
reign's attendance at St. Paul's Cathedral in state 



Vb s. X. July 12, '90.] 





solemn thanks for the victory. It may 
not haye been made a permanent addition to the 
Prayer Book. I have a strong impression that I 
have met with such a production somewhere. If 
my memory serves me truly, the special Psalm pro- 
vided contained the words — selected with reference 
to the dispersion of the proposing invading force at 
sea — *^ He blew with his mouth and his enemies 
were scattered "; but my difficulty is that I cannot 
find the text (which I very particularly require to 
use as a reference on a matter wholly unconnected 
with liturgical inquiry) in the Authorized Version, 
even with the assistance of Cruden's 'Concord- 
ance.' If used contemporaneously it would, of 
course, have been taken from Tyndale's or Cran- 
mer's Bible. Can any reader of N. & Q.' kindly 
help me? What I want is analogous reference 
in the present commonly received Scripture 
(James I.'s Authorized Version, 1611) to this text 
that is to say, to its equivalent. Nemo. 


Superstitions practised on the Vigil of 

St. Agnes. 


of Jan. 26, 1889, pp. 114, 115, there was reference 
made to a " Scottish newspaper " '^ regarding cer- 
tain superstitions practised in various countries on 

the anniversary of the Vigil of St. Agnes." I 

have written to the author of that article, but he 
was unable to tell me the name or date of the 

Scottish newspaper he had quoted. 


reader ? 


A. Fradelle Pratt. 


Maclean's ^ Parochial 
iavs, " Near to Chanel 

Comb is St. Agnes's Well, about w 

stories are told." Murray's * Handbook of Corn- 
wall' speaks of monkish stories connected with 

the same place. I have consulted the following 
authors, who wrote on Cornwall, or portions of 
it/ to find out what these "miraculous stories" 
are :— Blight's * Keliquary,' Borlase's 'Antiquities,' 
&c., and also his *Age of the Saints/ Carew, Gum- 
ming, Gilbert Davies, Hitchins, Hunt, Tregelas, 
and others, but unsuccessfully. I know Chambers's 
'Book of Days,' Hone's *Every-day Book,' and 
Hampson's ' Kalendarium,' &c. Does any reader 
know where an account of these " miraculous 

stories " is given ? 

A. Fradelle Pratt. 

9, Prideaux Road, Clapham Rise, S.W. 


I am particularly anxious 

to obtain details of the lectures (with dates) which 
Canon ^ Kingsley gave to the Hants and Wilts 
Education Society, and to know, if and where, any 
of them have been published, locally or otherwise. 
We - : -^ to have dealt with the Days of the 

^,-^^s and No Eyes, Jack of Newbury, 

* eld, and other subjects. None of these 

::^ the green edition or in the reddish 

V. ' being published. The same remark 

-*:- ^ i 

applies to 'Primeval Man,' which has appeared 
almost verbatim in vol. iii. pp« 520-8, of the 
Journal of the Chester Archaeological Society, and 
has been reprinted in pamphlet. 


T. Cann Hughes, M.A. 

Arthur William Devis.— There is a picture 

painted by A. W, Devis, representing Lord Corn- 
wallis receiving Tippoo Sultaun's two sons as hos- 
tages in 1792, now being exhibited at the Royal 
Military Exhibition, Chelsea, No. 680 in the 
Battle Gallery. The following advertisement 
apparently refers to this painting, or to another 
of the same subject : 

" Proposals for a Print from a Painting, by Mr. Devia. — 
The Subject — The reception of the hostage Princes, dedi- 
cated by permission to the Most Noble Marquis Cornwallis 
and the Army under his command. The size of the 
engraving not to be ]ess than the death of Lord Chat- 
ham, but so much larger as the artist (who shall be of 
the first abilities) will undertake for. 

*^ Another print will accompany this with an outline 
of each head and a reference, expressing the name and 
rank of each individual at the scene delineated : this 
will be included in the Subscription, which is eighty 
Sicca Rupees. Half to be paid at the time of subscrib- 
ing, and the other half on delivery of the print, which 
will be as soon as the extensive nature of such an under- 
taking will admit of. Those subscribers who wish to 
receive their copies in Europe will be kind enough to 
signify such intention at the time of subscribing. 

<< Subscriptions will be received by Messrs. Lambert^ 
Ross, and Company, who will grant accountable receipts 
for the delivery of the print, or, in default thereof, to 
return the half amount of subscription to be advanced. "^ 
—Calcutta Gazette, Feb. 6,1794. 

Does any reader of*N. & Q.' happen to know 
whether the engraving and key were ever pub- 
lished ? If so^ by whom ; and who vras the en- 
graver ? Does a copy still exist ? 

W. C. L. Floyd. 

Preserving Sound. — We hear a great deal 
nowadays about the wonders of the phonograph; 
but the idea of the possibility of preserving sound 
for future use is not quite new, but how old 
it may be I cannot say. I take the following from 
p. 74 of Glazebrook's ' Guide to Southport/ printed 
at Warrington in 1809. The author says : 

^' An ingenious friend of mine, pleasantly changed the 
seriousness of our discourse by observing that by and 
by, perhaps, we might be able to bottle up sounds, and 
bring a charming Concerto home in our pockets," 

I want to ask correspondents of *N, & Q.' if they 
know of any earlier references than this, suggest- 
ing the preservation of sound by bottling it up 
after the manner of the phonograph. 

W. Nixon, 


Jointed Dolls. — Writing to a lady on Sept. 28, 
1827, Smedley says, " Mary is absolutely employed 
on jointed dolls, a Westminster phrase, which I 
doubt not Mopsa can explain to you " (Edward 



[Ttfc S. X. July 12, '90. 

Smedley's * Poems, with a Selection from his Cor- 
respondence/ 1837, p. 303). This phrase was 
certainly not in nse at Westminster in my time; 
and I should be glad if any reader of *N. & Q.' 
will explain it to me. Could "jointed dolls " have 

been nonsense verses ? 

G. F. R. B. 

Oliver Goldsmith or Dr. Oliver Goldsmith. 

In a copy of the * Citizen of the World/ edition 
1818, published by Messrs. Archer & Burnside, 18, 
Capel Street, Dublin, which is in my possession, 
the name of the author is given as Oliver Gold- 
smith, M.B. I was not aware that Goldsmith was 
entitled to the use of this degree, and perhaps 
through your columns I may get the information 
whether Goldsmith's title to rank as a medical man 
was gained as the result of examination or was 
conferred by the Dublin or some other university 
as an honorary distinction^ in recognition of his high 
attainments as a literary man. John Godson. 

[Goldsmith is reported to have taken the M.B. degree 
at Louvain, and aleo at Padua, and is said to have 
attended chemical lectures iu Paris. Nothing definite 
is known, however. See Mr. Leslie Stephen's article in 
'Diet Nat. Biog/] 



over-fastidious as to the coinage of new words ; but 
I would fain ask Dr. Br. Nicholson how he can 
justify the formation of the above word, which he 
uses on p. 270 of the last volume of * N. & Q/ 
Two lines lower down he uses the word authori- 
tative, which, of course, comes from authoritasy or 
more correctly auctoritas ; but there is no such a 
Latin substantive as suppositas. 


- Index Society. — Can any one tell me whether 

the Index Society has published more than Part 1, 
A to Gi., of their ^ Index to the Obituary and Bio- 
graphical Notices in the Gentleman's Magazine^ 
1731 to 1780/ which was issued in 1886? It 



K. B. 

Guilds of Shrewsbury, &c.— Can any reader 
of *N. & Q.' say whether there are any returns 
from Shrewsbury or Oswestry among the documents 




o. C. S. 

Alderman Geo. Hatley.— Can any reader 
give me information respecting the date of birth 
and parentage of the above ? He was alderman 

Ward, and M 

London 1774 and 1780. 

Subscription Library, Hull. 

Dr. Vincent's Defence 

Can any reader of 'N 



liberty of reading a copy of this work, which I 


It is referred to in 

the Gentleman^s Magazine, voL Ixxii. pp. 33, 122, 
as having recently issued from the press, t.e., not 
long before January, 1802. M. H. P. 

I f 

Thomas Strangwates. — Can any correspon- 
dent give me particulars of the life and family of 
Thomas Strangwayes, K.G.C., Captain 1st Native 
Poyer Regiment, and Aide-de-Camp to His High- 
ness Gregor, Cacique of Poyais, and author of a 
work entitled ^ A Sketch of the Mosquito Shore, 
including the Territory of Poyais,' published by 
Blackwood in 1822? (See article entitled ^ On some 
Discredited Notes* in Chambers's Journal, Oct. 22, 

1887, p. 678.) 
The Leases^ Bedale. 

Mr. Justice Hayes's ' Written in the 
Temple Gardens.' — Mr. James Payn, in his 
causerie in the Illustrated London News of Dec. 15, 

1888, names this as one of the best of legal poems. 

Thomas E. Strangwayes. 

Where can I find it ? 

De V. Paybn-Payne. 

-^ *^ 

Thomas Shaw the Traveller.— Is there any 
memoir in existence of this traveller, who explored 
portions of Africa long before the days of railways 
and steamboats, and when great risks were run ? 
He was not only a traveller, but a scholar and a 
divine. Thomas Shaw was born at Kendal, in 
Westmoreland, about 1692, educated at the Gram- 
mar School of that town, and afterwards at Queen's 
College, Oxford, the great resort of North-country- 
men. He became fellow of the college ; was for 
twelve years chaplain at Algiers ; principal at St. 
Edmund's Hall, 1740-61, in the gift of Queen's 
College ; and Regius Professor of Greek, 1747-51, 
when he died. There is yet in existence a monu- 
ment to his memory in the English Church at 
Algiers, so a friend informs me, and he is noticed 
by Gibbon in a note on chap. xxiv. of * The Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire' as follows : " Our 
blind travellers seldom possess any previous know- 
Udge of the countries which they visit. Shaw and 
Tournefort deserve an honourable exception." The 
term "blind" is, of course, used metaphorically. 
It is a point to have been mentioned by Gibbon, 
for it has been said that the name of any one being 
mentioned by him is like having it inscribed on 
the cupola of St. Paul's. Shaw's chief work, 
'Travels and Observations relating to several 
Parts of Barbary and the Levant,' besides running 
through several editions in English, was translated 
into French, German and Dutch. It forms a 
volume in the series "Pinkerton's Voyages and 


John Pickford, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Early Missal. — I have an imperfect copy of 
a missal which I shall he glad to identify. It is a 
fo lio, printed in black letter, in double columns, of 
thirty-three lines. Each leaf is numbered. Th«» 
title is as follows: "Incipit Missale ii ^ ' 
d e t'pe q' de Sanctis s'm tubrica' archie^ as w 


7*" S. X. July 12, '90.] 



, - 4' . — 

sie Prage'sis cu^ oi'bus suis requisitis/' My copy 
consists of 324 leaves numbered and one leaf 
monnted, containing the '^Benedictio salis et 
aquse''; the remainder, of coarse including the 
colophon, is wanting. The canon is not inserted 
in the usual place, and may have been among the 
missing sheets at the end. I may mention it is 
rich in proses. Brunet mentions a missal with 
this title, ^^ Missale secundum rubricam Pragensis 
Eccle'side. Lips., Eachelofen, 1498.'' Could this 

be the same ? 

Charles L. Bell. 

73> Chesterton Road, Cambridge. 



, , (7*^S. ix. 144, 249, 394.) 
Mr. Moore 

Brit,' ^^ At an early date ihe stars were numbered 
and named, but the most important astronomical 
work was the formation of a calendar, which would 
seem to belong to about 2200 B.C.," more than 
ten centuries before the earliest date assignable to 
Homer. This calendar passed through the Ach 




the Greeks got some hint of it, and other Assyrian 
astronomy, either in their own voyages or by con- 
tact with Phoenician merchants ? I do not wish, 
however, to attempt to prove any such connexion 
as Mr. Gladstone fancies, though I must say I 
think it highly probable that some of the wisdom 
of the great Mesopotamian empires did filter 
through the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon (who 
were subjects of Assyria) into Greece. I have 
not been able to refer to Sir Comewall Lewis's wori^ 
but against him I may quote these words from 

yielded, the one point in his previous note which I Prof- Sayce, " Eclipses were observed from a 
desired to attack. " So far " he then wrote, " were remote epoch." For my previous reference to the 


time from getting such 


astronomy as they had from Assyria, that every 

) Mr. Moore 



probability ia the other way," meaning, I presume, | of the Greeks in the Homeric period, 
that it was much more likely the Assyrians borrowed 

from the Greeks. This I maintained to be quite | at a very early date, but they took good care never 
impossible ; and I am glad to see that Mr. Moore 

no longer attempts to defend his former position, I embarked for the night, 
but contents himself with an effort to prove a land of terror and wonder to the early Greeks, 
that the Greeks were in no way indebted to Assyria, and yet within a very short sail from their western 
This is, of course, very likely; and subtle as Mr. coast. They were compelled, indeed, by the 

carry- nature of their country to become a seafaring 


ing conviction. 

Mr. Moore, however, introduces a good deal of 
foreign matter into his rejoinder, and his own pro- 
verb, ovSev Trpos Ac6pv(tov^ might easily be turned 
against himself. He wishes to prove that the 
Greek astronomy was of home growth, and actually 
thinks it to the point to prove that Greek navigation 
and Greek nautical terms were indigenous; and 
what the connexion may be between a record of 
the eclipses of the moon and that simple astro- 
nomical knowledge which might guide the 
Chaldean shepherds over the plain or Odysseus 
steering over unknown seas, is very hard to see. 

As Mr. Moore attacks my arguments, I should 
like to offer a brief defence. 

(1.) I cannot see that a reference to the Chaldean 
astronomy is beside the original question, though 
it may be, as restated by Mr. Moore. Babylon 



I leave it 

to common sense to decide whether there is the re- 
motest probability of Assyria borrowing from Greece. 




should have thought the antiquity of the 
astronomy would have passed un- 

Mr. Moore 



people, and it is natural that their nautical terms 
should be mostly indigenous; but they certainly 
needed little assistance from the stars in the shor^ 
faltering voyage of their early history. It was 
only when they were launched on unknown seas, 
as was Odysseus in his involuntary voyage, that 
they may have been glad to borrow a little of the 
astronomical skill which the Pboeaicians on-' 
doubtedly possessed at an early date. 

(4.) Lastly, Mr. Moore 

toyol Pporo 

grouped together like living men." Not only is 
this a questionable translation, as uy/JLiXevv seems 
to mean " were mingling in the fight," but the com-' 
parison (Sore, k.t.X., becomes, to ray thinking, 
tasteless and pointless. Mr. Moore thinks it 
just such an observation as would be made on a 
fine composition of Baphael ; but I venture to 
think that most of us would be rather surprised 
and amused if we read in some description of ^The 
Ascension ' of that greatest of painters, ^' This is an 
admirable picture ; the figures are actually grouped 
together like living beings ! " Considering that 
Homer does make more than one allusion to the 
moving active figures made by Hephaestus ; con- 
sidering, too, what is a signiGcant, if pedantic 
point, the vivid imperfect tense, w/AtAcvj/, ixdypvro^ 

€pvov^ — I cannot see that it is at ail improbable 



[7^*» S. X. July 12, '90. 

that Homer really meant the figures to })e moving, 
fighting, haling corpses, and the like ; though 
whether this was suggested to him by the winged 
figures of Assyria is a totally different and much 
more difficult question. 

Malcolm Dblevingne. 



In another 

of Brathwaite's books, * Strappado for the Diuell,' 
apparently not examined by Dr. Nicholson, he 

Bays, **Vpon the Errata Yet know iudicious 

disposed Gentlemen, that the intricacie of the 
copie, and the absence of the Author from many 
important proofes were occasion of these errors," 
&c. The inference here is plain enough. Brath- 
waite'fl quibbling remarks *Wpon the Errata '^ in 
various of his books, when twisted together, it is 
scarcely necessary to tell students of old literature, 
made the "rope" by which Joseph Haslewood 
traced to him the authorship of ' Barnabee Itine- 
rariuni,' which had previously been attributed to a 
mythical Barnaby Harrington. This discovery was 
'' the chief feather in Hasle wood's toppin," and has 
helped to keep alive an interest in some of the 
more heavy and lumbering of Brathwaite's books. 
The following is a striking instance of care in 
seeing a book through the press. I have a Holins- 
hed's ' Chronicle,' 1577, the first volume of which 
I found had a duplicate leaf in the * Historie of 



Experience having 

made me cautious, I did not hastily take out one 
as superfluous, but began carefully to compare 
them letter by letter ; and at the very commence- 
ment I found they differed. Alluding to the 
Earl of Kildare's enemies, the writer begins the 
page by terming them "the Belweathers and 
Caterpyllars of his ouerthrow, as in those dayes it 
waa commonly bruted." In the other leaf the 



was commonly bruted." This is a very singular 
alteration, and must have been made by the author 
for sufficient reasons. Was one leaf intended to 
cancel the other ? If so, how comes my book to 
have both leaves ? I shall be glad to know if any 
one else has the book with such a duplicate, or with 
the first and more "emphatic" reading; and it 
will be an additional favour if replies are headed 
* Holinshed's Chronicle.* R. R. 

Boston, Lincolnshire. 

Ted, Ned {V^ S. ix. 305 ; and see 5^^ S. iii. 
301, 413 ; iv. 138).— It is evident that Prof. Skeat 
has either never seen or has forgotten a note (5^^ 



at the Beginning of the Diminutives of certain 
Christian Names.' In that note I anticipated his 
suggestion that Ted has been formed from St 


Edward. With regard to his second suggestion, 
that the n in Ned^ Noll, &c., is the final n of mine^ 
it seems to me that if he can support it l3y nothing 
more than "my nuncle," "my naunt," &c., he has 
but very little to go upon. He should show, so it 
seems to me, that men when speaking to men ^ 
were, centuries ago, in the constant habit of pre- 
fixing mine to the Christian names of their intimate 
friends when these names began with a vowel, and 
my in other cases, just as is still done in France 
(see ' Roger la Honte,' by Jules Mary, ii. 331, 338, 
343, 345, where a mother calls her son ^^mon 
Pierre"). ^ ^ 

In my note I have explained this N — which i& 
found also in Natty Nanny, Nancy , &c. (from Anna 
or Ann), and in French Nanette, Ninon^f &c. (Miss 
Yonge, i. 105) ; in the Scotch Nanty (froni An- 
tony, ibid., i. civ); in Nell and Nelly {from Ellen); 
in Nib and Nibbie (from Isabel, ibid., i. 93) 
the same way in which I have preferred to explain 
the T in Ted, viz., by supposing that the N and 
the Tj as well as the other letters of which I have 
given examples, are mere prefixes, but without 
suggesting why they are prefixed, excepting that 
I say that I find that the dentals (t, d, n) are more 
often so prefixed than the labials (p, 6, w), and the 
labials than the gutturals or palatals (c, Jc, g hard 
and soft, j, ch), while the hard checks (f, p) are 
more used than the soft ones {d, b). 

I might well have added — and, indeed, I did 
hint at it in speaking of N — that the prefixed 
letter is often derived from the same or kindred 
letter in the name itself; and thus I prefer ta 
explain the t in Ted {Ted standing instead of 
Ded, which would have an unpleasant sound), 
and the n in Ned and Noll {n being the nasal 
of dj and being exchangeable with ?, as in 
Nillon ='Nmnon or Ninon,t for Anne J). In Nib 
and ^t&&ie= Isabel, also, it seems to me that the 
n may well be derived from the final I ; whilst in 
iVan^y =; Antony and Nell=E\\en the n is almost 
certainly to be referred to the 7i*s in those names, 
just as it is in the Mod. Gr. •Navvo5 = *I(oavv>]S^ 
(Miss Yonge, i. 111). Comp. also -Ba& = Robert 
and B'eppo or Pippo (Ital.)= Giuseppe, in which 

I say "men when speaking to men," because lovers* 
and huBbands and wives were no doubt in the habit of 
addressing each other in this way, but this would scarcely 
be enough to establish the habit among people in general 

t Ninon in this case^Nanon (or Nannon), and the 
initial N is derived from one of the n's in Anne. And 
so again in Ninoun (in Provengal), which Mistral, in his 
* Diet.,' declares to=Catherine, the initial n is derived from 
the n in the last three letters, ine. But Ninon is also used 
in France=Eugenie (this I learn from my daughter, who 
has now for some years been living in France and has a 
friend Eugenie, who is often called Ninon), and in this 
case the Ni is a reduplication of the nie (unless, indeed, 
Ninon stands for Ni-on), whilst in all three cases the on 
(or oun) is a diminutive ending. 

X See ' Etude sur les Noms de Famille du Pa^ 
Lidge,' by Albin Body (Liige, 1880), p. 166. 

- -* ■* 

* -. 

» - 


T"" S. X. July 12, '90. ] 



the 5's and the p have evidently come from the b 
and the p'^ in the two names. And so again in 
Tajf= David, and in iaWie= Sarah or Sally, in 
the Times obituary of May 23. Sometimes, how- 
ever, the initial letter is scarcely to be derived 
from any letter in the name, as in Hob = Robert, 
Ti6&i€= Isabel. 

Another objection to Prof. Skeat's theory is 
that, so far as I can see, it is only to the dimu 
nutives of Christian names that we find these 
different letters prefixed, whereas, according to his 
views, we ought to find not only Ned and Ted, but 
also Nedward and Tedwardy which we do not. 

Those who wish for further information may 
perhaps find it in my previous note, above quoted. 

F. Chance. 

Diabolic Correspondence (7'^ S. ix. 368). 
J. B. Lowell, in the passage taken from the 
'Biglow Papers,' First Series, p. 106, entirely 
misrepresents the letter of St. Peter. When 
Astolph, the Lombard king, besieged Rome, Pope 
Stephen IIL wrote to King Pepin for help. He 
also sent an embassy to him with another letter in 
St. Peter's name: 

" Novo quoque invento, alias literas^ beati ipsius Apos- 
toli nomine tscriptas, ad eundem de eodem argumento 
misit, lit citius opem rebus jam prope deploratis aflferret." 

— * Bpit, ' Annal. Baron,,' a J. Gabr, Bisciola, Lugd,, 
1604, p. 193. 

English readers may see this story in a note to the 
translation of Platina in the Griffith-Farran "A. M. 
Library," p. 190: "Platina omits to record that 
the Pope, rendered desperate by the advance of 
Aist alphas, forged a letter from St. Peter to Pepin." 
See Milman, * Lat. Christ.,' bk. iv. ch. xi. vol. iii. 
pp. 21-3, 1864, for the letter at length. 

I am unable to verify in my 'Biglow Papers,' 
1859, the whole of Mr. Sidney's quotation. 
There is only, so far as I can see, '^ The letter 
which St. Peter sent to King Pepin in the year of 
grace 755 I would place in a class by itself 

(p. 107, W.5.). 

Ed. Marshall. 

With regard to the fourth of these allusions, 
the' blankness of my mind is as the blankoess of 
that of Mr. Sidney. With regard to the third I 
can enlighten him. It is a miracle related of St. 
Gregory Thaumaturgus (about a.d. 265) by his 
biographer, St. Gregory Nyssen, to the effect that 
the saint having passed a night in the temple of 
an oracle, the oracle thenceforward became silent. 
The priest of the oracle threatening the saint, the 
saint wrote and gave him, " Gregory to Satan : 
Enter." The oracle then spoke, and the priest, 
convinced of the power of Christianity, was con- 
verted. See Smith's ' Diet. Chr. Biogr.,' ii. 734 ; 
see also Mr. Neale's ' Deeds of Faith,' who relates 
the story with his usual dramatic force and beauty. 


Longford Coventry. 

0. F. S. Warren, M.A. 

" Down on the nail" (7^^ S. ix. 366).— la 
not this a translation of ^' super unguem," men- 
tioned by your correspondent ? See " super nacu- 
lum"in Nares, and Halliwell's ^Glossary,' Hazlitt^s 
*Dodsley,' viii. 58, and Hazlitt's * Proverbs,' £2,. 
s. V. " Make a pearl of your nail," where reference 
is made to 'N. & Q.,^ 4^^ S. i. 460, 559. '' On 
the nail " the * Encyclopaedia Londinensis * quotes 
from Johnson : 

I' I once Bupposed it from a Counter studded with 
nails, but have since found it in an old record, * solvere 
super unguem.' It therefore means into the hand." 

This seems to refer it to the numerous instances to 
be found in Nares and Halliwell. According to 
^Encyclopaedia Londinensis' it is used by Swift: 

We want our money on the nail, 
The banker 's ruined if he pays. 

Nares's * Glossary ' has, s.v. *^ On the Nail ^ 

When they were married, her dad did not fail 
For to pay down four hundred pounds on the nail. 

* The Reading Garland/ n.d^ 

Waltham Abbey, Essex. 


Nares, in his ^ Glossary,' has, "fOn the Nail. 
Ready money ": 

When they were married, her dad did not fail 
For to pay down four hundred pounds on the nail. 

' The Reading Garland,' n.d." 

See also his explanation of ** Supernaculum^ a kind 
of mock-Latin term, intended to mean ^ upon the 
nail,' a common term among topers." Many quota- 
tions are given, of which the following seems most 
applicable to payment of money : 

As when he drinkes out all the totall summe, 
Gave it the stile of sitpernaculum . 

Taylor's 'Workes,' 1630. 

So in German " Die nagel-probe macheuj to drink 
oflF to the last drop ; to drink supernaculum/' The 
transition to paying in full, to paying ready money 
and so finishing a purchase, or transaction, is 


W. E. Buckley. 

The meaning of '* Faire rubis sur Tongle" waff 
first to drain a tumbler so completely that there 
hardly remains in it one drop of wine, which, being 
put on the nail, looks like a ruby : 

Je sirote mon vin, quel qu'il soit, vieux, nouveau ; 
Je fais rubis sur I'ongle, et n'y mets jamais d'eau. 

Regnard, * Folies Amoureuses,' iii. 4. 

Hence the phrase came to mean to pay punc 
tually : 

La sottise en est faite ; 
II faut la boire: aussi la buvons-nous 

Rubis sur Tongle. 

Piron, ' Contes. 

But may I be allowed to suggest here that the 
" super unguem" of the indenture dated July 15, 
1326, means perhaps to pay down the coins in such 
a way as they can be tested with the nail, to ascer- 
tain that they are sterling and true? The custom 
has been kept in some countries where unlicensed 



[7th S. X. JOLY 12, '90. ; 

comers are not uncommoD. I remember that 
during a tour in Spain in 1866 or 1867 I was cau- 
tioned by my friends never to receive a Spanish 
coin before testing it by scratching it with my 
nail, tinkling it on some hard substance, and even 
biting it with my teeth, the base coins were so 
numerous at that time in the country; and once 
or twice I was a loser for having neglected to fol- 
low this friendly piece of advice. From that 
ancient disparaging meaning the phrase may have 
assumed in time, and when the coinage of money 
was put under stricter regulations, the general 

sense it now has — ** to pay cash." Dnargel. 

** Sudden Death" (7*^ S. ix. 389). — This 
petition is far older than our first English Litany 
of 1544, and therefore than the quoted epidemic 
of Henry VIL's time. It is translated, like the 
rest of the Litany and most of the Prayer Book, 
from the old Latin forms of Sarum. There is no 
reason why it should puzzle commentators, for I 
fear it is a necessary presumption — alas that it 
should be so !— that a sudden death is more likely 
than another to be unprepared for. This last 
phrase was, indeed, added in Sarum, and perhaps 
it is a pity our translators dropped it. But other- 
wise very many, and I among them, would far 
rather pray for a sudden death. 

Longford, Coventry. 

0. F. S. Warren, M.A. 

As emphatic a negative as can be that it was 
from any local or temporary circumstance is the 
only answer which can be returned to the question 
pace C. C. B. In the Use of Sarum it is, " A 
subitanea et improvisa morte libera." It is the 

same in the Eoman Use. 

Ed. Marshall. 

This cannot, I think, be ^^a special insertion," 
as it occurs in old Catholic Litanies; only, it seems 
to my mind, it is better expressed in them, for it 
stands either "ab improvisa morte" or "a mala 
morte," or, if "subitanea" is named, it is qualified 
with '*et improvisa." 

I suppose that the people who pray believe in 
"a future state of rewards or punishments," and 
that what they intend to avert in this petition is 
the being caught unawares. Surely, if they can 
book themselves against this, they would prefer a 
hondjide *' sudden death," without household upset 
and annoyance, to the grim and melancholy and 
repulsive paraphernalia attendant on the process 
of "dying in one's bed"! R. H. Busk. 

Griffith ap Llewellyn (7'^ S. ix. 368).— I 

think it will be found that in a.d. 998 Meredydh 
died, leaving an only child, named An^harad, 
married to Lewelyn ap Seisyllt, who in 1015 be- 



daughter of Elis, second son of Amarawd (who was 

the eldest son of Roderic the Great), and to South 
Wales having married the before-named Angharad. 
In 1020 he was slain. He left a son called 
Gryffydh ap Llewellyn, who in 1037 became Prince 

of North Wales. 


Alfred Chas. Jonas. 

1 I 

It may be difl&cult to trace the ancestry of 
GruflFyd ab Llywelyn further back in the male line 
than his grandfather Sitsylt. It is of the less 
interest from the fact that his pretensions to the 
sovereignty of Wales were derived partly from* 
his mother, Angharad, daughter and heiress of 
Meredydd ab Owain, Prince of South Wales^ ^ 
whom his father Llywelyn ab Sitsylt married, 
and partly from his grandmother Trawst, daughter 
of Elis, second son of Amarawd ab Rhodri Mawr^ 
Prince of North Wales, whom his grandfather 
Sitsylt married. Gruffyd ab Llywelyn and 
Llywelyn ab Sitsylt are both mentioned in the 
pedigree of the Wynn family, not as being of their 
ancestry, but as having disturbed their ancestry in 
the succession to the throne. But that family had 
a relative of the same name two centuries later, the 
Gruffyd, son of one Llywelyn, Prince of Wales 
(the Great), and father of another Llywelyn, Prince 
of Wales (the last of British race), which Gruffyd 
died in attempting his escape from the Tower. The 
Gruffyd now in question is said to have married 
Fleance, son of Bancho, Thane of Lochabyr, whence 
is descended the house of Stuart, which afterwards 

became royal. 


P.S.— I ought to add that at 6^^ S. xL 518 a 
correspondent states of the daughter of Gruffyd 
ab Llywelyn, whom he calls Neota or Guenta, 
that the bards trace her line back to Adam. Does 
he mean through the ancestors of Sitsylt or through 
those of Trawst, his wife ? 

Thomas Campbell (7*** S. ix. 203, 309, 473). 

I see that I have misquoted a line by Goldsmith, 
and made him use which when he really used that» 
The line should be, 

And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind. 

E. Yardley. 

A very large number of the mottoes to the 
" Waverley Novels,^' variously purporting to be 
extracts from old plays, the composition of anony- 
mous writers, &c., were composed by Sir Walter 
Scott himself. Lockhart, in the *Life,' vol. v. 
p. 145, thus explains the beginning of this 
practice : 

" It was in correcting the proof-sheets of the ' Anti- 
quary ' that Scott firiit took to equipping his chapters 
with mottoes of his own fabricatioa. On one occasion 
he happened to ask John Bailantyne, who was sitting by 
him, to hunt for a particular passage in Beaumont and 
Fletcher. John did as he was bid, but did not succeed 
in discovering the lines. * Hang it, Johnnie/ cried Scott, 
* I believe I can make a motto sooner than you will find 
one.' He did so accordingly ; and from that hour, when- 

7* S. X. July 12, '90,] 



ever memory failed to suggest an appropriate epigraphy 
he had recourse to the inexhaustible mines of * old play ' 
or * old ballad/ to which Ve owe some of the most ex- 
quisite verses that ever flowed from his pen." 

These were gathered as ^Miscellaneous and Lyrical 
Pieces' in the popular edition of the poems, to 
which Lockhart in 1841 prefixed a short notice 
giving the collection his imprimatur. There are 
included three such mottoes from 'Old Mortality/ 
those prefixed respectively to chaps, v., xiv., and 
xxxiv., which are signed in that order, "James 
Dufi;" ''Old Ballad," and "Anonymous." Till 
Lockhart^s authority has been superseded we may 
continue to believe that these headings are Sir 
Walter's own. But, indeed, who else could have 
written thus ? 

Sound, sound the clarion, fill the fife ! 

To all the sensual world proclaim. 
One crowded hour of glorious life 

Is worth an age without a name. 

Thomas Batnb, 

\ Helensburgh, N.B. 

. There is not the slightest doubt that the fine 

< Soundj sound the clarion, fill the fife, &c., 

which forms the motto to the thirty-fourth (thirty- 
third in some editions) chapter of ^ Old Mortality,' 
is Scott's own. In the eighty-fourth (concluding) 
Copter of his *Life of Scott' Lockhart says, "Let 
us remember his own immortal words," namely, 
the lines in question, which Lockhart quotes in 
fulL This evidence is, I think, conclusive. 

Week, besides, as all your readers remember, many 
articles from his pen had appeared in the columns 
of * N. i& Q/ The Times (Dec. 13, 1889), in its 
notice of his life and works, omitted to mention, 
the following humorous little brochures : * Tales of 
College Life ' (London, 1856), ' Motley, Prose and 
Verse ' (London, 1855), ' Medley' (London, 1858), 
and ' The Shilling Book of Beauty.' All of these, 
except the first, contained illustrations and parodies. 
Mr. Bradley was, perhaps, as little of an artist as 
Thackeray ; but his sketches, like those in * Vanity 
Fair ' and ^ Pendennis,' enable one to realize the 
author's conception of character, and have the 
merits of truth and life, if not of beauty or senti- 
ment. * The Shilling Book of Beauty ' had a tre- 
mendous sale. It is a miscellany of parodies in 
verse and prose, and in the copy presented to me 
by Mr. Bradley he marked by whom the articles 
were written, his own name appearing most fre- 

can still 


- ^ 

I ^ 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

4 — ^ 

The following lines from Goldsmith's 'Deserted 
Village,' frequently quoted by platform orators, 
have been overlooked by your correspondent, viz. : 

111 fares the land to hastening ilia a prey 
« Where wealth accumulates and men decay: 
Princes and lords may flourish, or may fade, 

- A breath can make them, as a breath lias made ; 

But a bold peasantry, their country's pride, 
. When once destroyed, can never be supplied. 

Henry Gerald Hope. 

6, Freegrove Road, N. 

CuTHBBRT Bede (7^^ S. IX. 203, 258, 336, 415). 

The name of this genial and accomplished gentle- 
man is so inseparably connected with 'Verdant 
Green,' his most successful book, that there is 
some little danger that his other works may be 
generally overlooked. I had much correspondence 
with the late Mr. Edward Bradley, springing in 
the first instance from my insatiable appetite for 
parodies, in which he also took a great interest. 
He had written many, and generously gave per- 
mission for them to be included in my collection, 
indicating where they had originally appeared, and 
under what circumstances. This led to the dis- 
covery that he had at various times contributed 
largely to Punch, Fun, Albert Smith's the Month 
and Town and Country Miscellany, and Once a | was much more 

As a reader and reciter he was much sought 
after, generally selecting humorous subjects, whilst 
there was scarcely a large town in the Midland 
and Eastern Counties in which he had not appeared 
as a lecturer. His most successful eflforts in this 
line were lectures on ^ Modern Humourists,' ' Wit 
and Humour,' * Light Literature,' and * Humorous 


Overflowing with fun and gaiety, there was not 
a line to offend the most delicate reader in all his 
merry little sketches, which were, after all, but 
the recreations of a country parson, whose more 
serious duties were never neglected, and whose 
tastes for history and archaeology were demon- 
strated in books displaying a wider reading than 
many readers of * Verdant Green ' would thmk its 

author serious enough to undertake. 

N. & Q 

vents my writing more, although there is much 
interesting information I could cull from the 
bundle of his letters now in front of me. But I 
cannot refrain from adding these few notes to 
those of your other contributors about one whose 
books amused my childhood's happiest days, whose 
friendship in my manhood I greatly valued, and 
whose memory I shall respect for all time. 

Walter Hamilton. 

Elms Koad, Clapham Common. 

It is impossible to fix the critical standard of 
^^ la d^cence," and I do not know what edition of 

Verdant Green' was used 

M. Taine. But 

there was one representation (I almost thmk it 
was in an illustration only) which the author 
thought fit to omit from the later editions. When 
the hero came home for his first vacation the maid- 
servants declared that " Oxford college had made 
quite a man of Master Verdant," and the picture 
showed him kissing the maids on the stairs. It 

Weller, and 



[7tb S. X. July 12, '90. 

doubt was in bad taste, to say the least. Your 
readers may care to be referred to the Durham 
Univ. Journal^ ix. 10, 35, for biographical and 
bibliographical particulars. W. 0. B. 

Society of the Cambridge Apostles (6**^ S. 

xii. 228; 7^^ S. ix. 432).— With a view to future 
identification, it may be worth while to remark as 
follows upon some of the names given by Mr. 
Boase at the latter reference, especially as they 
are not given in chronological order. 

"John Kemble." I apprehend, but am not 
sure, that this is John Meadows Kemble, the 
Anglo-Saxon scholar. 

. W 

Blakesley died Dean of Lincoln. 



Q.C. and M 

time Attorney-GeneraL It is not so, and Sir 
Henry James is not a Cambridge man. Once 
upon a time there were at Cheltenham College 
two boys, each named Henry James. One of 
them, the present Sir Henry James, was for local 
reasons distinguished as ^* Hereford James." The 
other (distinguished as " Cheltenham James '*) was 



he has stuck to scholastic work, and so has not 


He it 

is who was one of the Cambridge Apostles. His 
intimate friend Julian Fane was also an Apostle, 

as, indeed, may almost be inferred from Mr. Boase's 

" Dr. Butler (head master of Harrow). " Two 
Dr. Butlers, father and son, have been head 

masters of Harrow. The son, who was afterwards 
Dean of Gloucester, and is now Master of Trinity, 
is that Dr. Batler who was a Cambridge Apostle. 

"Sir Frederick Pollock." This, I believe, is 
the Queen's Remembrancer, and not his father 
the Chief Baron. 


"Vernon Harcourt." This is that very eminent 
personage the Right Hon. Sir William George 
Granville Venables Vernon-Harcourt, Q.C. and 


"Frederick Maurice 

This is not the dis- 


tinguished engineer officer and Sandhurst professor, 
Lieut,-Col. Frederick Maurice, R.E., but is his 
"ler, the Rev. John Frederick Denison Maurice, 
A., sometime Chaplain of Lincoln's Inn, and 
founder of the Working Men's College, and (as 
we all know) a beloved and honoured theologian. 

A. J. M. 

Mourning Lace (7»i> S. ix. 388, 494).— May I 
ask Mr. Milne still further to oblige me by stating 
what authority he has for saying that the 63rd 
Regiment wore a black stripe in their lace previous 
to 1831 ? The fact is not mentioned in the pub- 
lished annals of the corps, though various descrip- 
tions of lace are recorded as having been worn at 

different times: yellow in 1763; white, with a 
very small green stripe, in 1768; silver in 1813; 
gold in 1832. Since my original query appeared 
I have been informed that the York and Lancaster 
Regiment (65th and 84th) wear the black " worm" 
in their lace in memory of the loss sustained on. 
the Nive in 1813 by what is now their second 
battalion, and that black gloves were also worn 
at one time by the officers of the old 84th to com- 
memorate the same event. Is this correct ? 


Poem by the Author of * Festus ' (7"" S. ix^ 
407, 495).— I shall be obliged to any one who will 
lend me for a day or two the number of London 
Society which contains Mr. Philip James Bailey's 
poem called * The Divining Cup.' A writer at the 
second reference says that it appeared some twenty- 
seven or twenty-eight years ago. 

Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

^ The Divining Cup/ by the author of ^ Festus/ 
appeared in the December part of London Society 
for 1862, pp. 661-3. The following year Mr. P. J. 
Bailey contributed to the same magazine two 
shorter poems, 'Sweeter than Truth' (July, p. 96) 
and * I Remember ' (August, pp. 222-3). 

Julia H, L. De Vaynes. 

Dispersion of the "Wood of the Cross (7^ 
S. ix. 204, 316, 449).— Mr. Eiley's statement as 
to the dispersion of the wood of the true cross in 
order to avoid capture does not meet with support 
from all writers on this subject. In a little work 
I have, entitled 'Holy Cross: a History of the 
Invention, Preservation, and Disappearance of the 
Wood known as the True Cross,^ by W. C. Prime^ 
LL.D.,thereis aperfectly differ ent account of it. The 
writer seems to be well acquainted with his sub- 
ject, and after giving an account of the finding of 
the cross by the Empress Helena at Jerusalem in 
325, its capture in 614 by Chosroes the Persian, 
its recapture by the Emperor Heraclius, and its 
other vicissitudes of fortune, narrates its final 
capture by Saladin in the year 1187, and concludes 

in the following words (I condense slightly pp. 114 
and 115 of the work) : 

"So on the 5th day of July, 1187, the cross was lost 
on the field of Hattin. It was never again in the pos- 

session of Christians Europe rang with waila of agony 

when the terrible news that the cross was lost reached 
her people. Repeated efi'orts were made by Richard be- 
tween 1190 and 1192 to purchase the cross from Saladin. 
At the siege of Acre in 1190 the Sultan offered to give 
up the cross as part of the terms agreed on, but the 
Christians failed to fulfil their promises, and so did not 
recover it. Then it disappeared. Of its fate no man 
knows anything. History and romance were suddenly 
quiet on the tbeme^ and the true cross became a 

Now which of these two statements, if either, 
are we to believe— Mr. Eiley's, that the cross was 
cut up and divided amongst the churches in order 


7*^ S. X. July 12, '90.] 



to avoid capture, or Dr, Prime's, that it was cap- 
tured and never again in the bands of Christians ? 
One thing is quite certain — both cannot be 


Of the relics found by the Empress Helena at 
Jerusalem there is one, I believe, the authenticity 
of which has never been questioned, that is, the 
tablet put up at the bead of the cross. A con- 
siderable portion of this tablet (that is, the tablet 
found at Jerusalem — I carry it no further back 
than that) is in the church of Santa Oroce at Rome. 
It has been more than once engraved, and there is 
a copy of it in Dr. Prime's book. The wood is 
believed to be oak. . The letters are incised. The 
Greek and the Latin versions read from right to 
left ; the Hebrew portion is quite destroyed. This 
tablet has been referred to before in * N. & Q.' (2^^ 
S. ix. 437, 515). It is, no doubt, a most interesting 
relic, even if it goes back no further than the time 
of Constantino. Between the date of the cruci- 
fixion and the finding of the relics by the empress 
there is an interval of something like three hun- 
dred years, during the whole of. which time history 
and tradition are both silent as to the existence, 
even, of the original cross. It must not be for- 
gotten that at the very time these searches were 
being made in Jerusalem, under the orders of the 
Empress Helena, Eusebius was, it is believed, on 

'^he spot, and that in his ^ Life of Constantino ' he 
narrates fully what was then being done, but he 
says nothing about this discovery. This silence of 
Eusebius is inexplicable, assuming that the relics 
were found, as subsequently believed, in the city 
in which he was living at the time of the discovery, 
or very shortly afterwards. This silence is difl&cult 
to account for or to explain away ; and this diffi- 
culty must be faced by all persons who seek to set 
up by historical evidence the authenticity of these 

■ relics. Matters of religious faith are, however, 
little suited to the pages of ^ N. & Q.,' so I will 
say no further on this point. 

I took the opportunity of referring to Mr. Riley's 
book at the British Museum recently, in the hope 
of finding some mention of the authorities on which 
he relies for his statement, but I was disappointed 


to find he does not give any. 


Is there any reason to suppose that Christ was 
crucified upon any special cross, made specially 
and newly for himself ? Would it not be much 
more reasonable to suppose that he was hanged on 
one of the ordinary public crosses, which had served 
often before for the punishment of malefactors and 
served often afterwards for the same purpose ? We 
are nowhere led to suppose that his cross was a 
new one, or that it was in any way different from 
the crosses of the two thieves. Would not a public 
cross be kept for the punishment of all malefactors, 
as in our own days a public gallows is kept for the 
s^e purpose, without the authorities having to go 

to the expense of a new cross each time it was 


J. K Haiq. 

Solitaire (7**^ S. ix. 348, 433).— In a memoir 
of Rev. T. Gaskin, M. A. (Second Wrangler, 1831, 
formerly fellow and tutor of Jesus College, Cam- 
bridge), published in the Proceedings of the Royal 
Society, June, 1889, and written by Mr. E. J. 
Routh, of Cambridge, it is stated that Mr. Gaskin, 
while residing at Cheltenham, published a pam* 
phlet on the theory and practice of solitaire. By the 
courtesy of Mr. Gaskin's daughter, I am in pos- 
session of a copy of this pamphlet, which I shall 
be happy to lend to Tism if he will communicate 
with me at the address given below. I may be 
allowed to say that the tone of the pamphlet is 
very decidedly mathematical. 

(Rev.) P. J. F. Gantillon. 

1; Montpellier Terrace^ Cheltenham. 

Hone: Hoe (7^^ S. ix. 426).— Johnson (ed. 
1785) defines a hoe as *^ an instrument to cut up the 
earth, of which the blade is at right angles with 
the handle," and he quotes Mortimer, who wrote a 
^ Treatise on Husbandry/ and died in 1736 (* Biog. 
Diet.,' 1809). The hoe described by the lexi- 
cographer was shaped like a cooper's adze, and 
there is a figure of one in Gervase Markham's 
* Farewell to Husbandry' (ed. 1631, p. 6), but 
the latter calls it a hack, and writes of hacking 
the ground, and of ^^ a good hacker, being a lusty 
labourer" (p. 5). J. F. Mansergh. 


It is certainly clear that hone in Tusser is a mis- 
print for houe, i.e., hoe. ^^ How or Hoe^ is the 
spelling in Phillips, ed..l706. It is spelt hough 
by Ellis (1750), and how by Worlidge (1681) ; see 
*01d Country .Words,' ed. J. Britten (E.D.S.). 
The spelling ]^oue is the correct French spelling; 
even Cotgrave, «. v. " Hou^," has, " opened at the 
root as a tree with a HoiiL^^ No doubt the spell- 
ing hone will turn up elsewhere, to countenance 
Tusser's spelling. Ray has how (1691). 

Walter W. Skbat. 

The conjecture of Mr. J. Dixon is very in- 
genious, but it is extremely dangerous to change 
archaic words into modern ones. He6 is the heel, 
and there seems to be a play on the word in both 
the quotations from old Tusser. ^'A hone to raise 
roote, like sole of a boote/' and again, " A hone 
and a parer like sole of a boote. '' The whetstone 
is h&n. It seems to me that hone does not require 
emendation, but rather elucidation. Its connexion 
with hdy a heel, seems the right tack, and the suffix 


E. CoBHAM Brewer. 

Regimental Messes (7'^ S. ix. 388, 476). 
Some thirty years ago I spent a spring in Algiers. 
There were troops in all the larger towns. The 
officers had a mess at the principal hotel in the 
town. I remember one at Blidah very well, for 



[7*h s. X. J0LY 12, '90, 

we travellers had to wait for oar dinner until the I wards removed to the Bose and Crown^ near the 

oflficera* mess was over, when we were served with 
the scraps left. I was told that Napoleon III. 
introdnced this castom in imitation of the English 
mess, which he wished to see established in every 
French regiment* E. Leaton-Blbnkinsopp. 

Harrison Ainsworth (7*** S. ix. 468). — This 

gates of Greenwich Park. 


Thomas Frost. 

Third-Class Eailway Carriages (7"* S. ix. 

285, 469). — Mr. Harney's wrath with the old 
third-class carriages seems to me a trifle super- 

__ ______ fluous. Let him recall, if he can, the state of things 

author^r'^Hoosewith the Seven Chimneys ' was I replaced by these— an outside place on a stage- 

coach. Seat about a foot wide, or something less ; 
rest for the back, if any, the trunks piled on the 

published in book form by Chapman & Hall, under 

the title of 'The Spanish Match,' and now forms 

a volume of Ward & Lock's "Select Library of P^PJ umtheend place, scarcely any support for the 

Fiction.'' Ainsworth altered the name, owing to ^^^^ J length of journey, ten hours for a hundred 

the resemblance to Hawthorne's ' House of the ^^^^s J P"<5e, 265. to 305. Everything goes by 

Seven Gables.' 

3, Choomert Koad, Peckham. 

W, E. Lan2. I comparison. Those who suddenly found that they 

could travel the same distance (at the utmost) in 
half the time for one-third of the price had more 

Ireton (7*^ S. ix. 508).— It is stated in Webb's cause for gratitude than for grumbling. Even now 
* Compendium of Irish Biography' (Dublin, Gill, I sometimes think that a rough unfurnished fourth- 
1878) that the body of Ireton was embalmed before class carriage, conveying passengers at a halfpenny 
its conveyance for burial in Westminster Abbey, I ^ mile, might be accepted by many poor people as 
and after the Restoration it was, with the remains of ^ boon, in place of a third-class practically undis- 
Oromwell, disinterred, exposed on a scaflfold, and tingaishable from the second. O. B. Mount. - 

burned at Tybarn. . 

6, Freegrove Eoad, N. 

Henry Gerald Hope. 

In 1848, on the York and North Midland Rail- 
way (now North-Eastern), the third-class carriages 
at least some of them — were without seats or 

BuRNSiANA (7^^ S. ix. 465). — The epitaph ■ • r !•• j j 

(quoted by Mr. Neale) from Camden's 'Remains,' f«^^"°f *^J f ^.^?5-*\^ passengers were accus- 
edit. 1636, appeared ii^ N. & Q,' 4t«> S. xii. 6 ; horned to take in their boxes, &c., m order to sit 

and on pp. 56, 80, and in two subsequent com- ^^^^ V^^ 

munications in the same volume (I cannot give the 
pagesX one from myself, the other from W. M., who 

As a further contribution to the antiquities of 
railway travel, I note that some of the trains were 

had soggested (p. 66) that the lines (the epitaph) T^^ ,"P ^^^ * ««.**> ^' *^^ f ^/^ outside and 
were Burns's 'Joyful Widower,' the question of tT '^? " carriap, from which he applied his 

the poet's authorship and plagiarism of the poem 
is conclusively negatived. The verses were merely 
furnished by Burns, who had been ^sked to collect 
an olla podrida of "unconsidered trifles" for 
publication. If your correspondent will consult 
4*^ S. xii. he will acquit Burns of having plagiarized 
the ^ Joyful Widower ' from the epitaph. 

Fredk. Rule. 

Ashford, Kent. 

[The other references to which Mr. Rule alludes are 
4tl> S. xii. 98, 139. All are simply headed ' Epitaph,' 
are not indexed under Burnsi and were accordingly not 
easily traceable.] 

The Dromedary {7^ S. ix. 485).— The earliest 

notice of the exhibition of a camel in England which 
I discovered while collecting materials for my * Old 
Showmen' was an advertisement of one of the minor 
shows at Bartholomew Fair in 1748, at "the first 
house on the pavement from the end of Hosier 
Lane.'' In the same year there was exhibited at 
the White Swan, near the Bull and Gate, Holborn, 
a small collection of animals, foremost in the list 
of which was " a large and beautiful young camel 
from Grand Cairo, in Egypt, near eight feet high, 
though not two years old, and drinks water but 

brake. I remember being permitted to sit beside 
the guard on such a seat from York to Whitby, on 
which line at that time trains were drawn up and 
down an incline of about three miles, near Gros- 
mont, by a stationary engine and wire rope. 

E. Hudson. 


English third-class railway carriages of our days 
decidedly afford to the traveller a greater comfort 
than most of those used on the Continent. Still, 
their management seems to lack one thing. Why 
does public opinion not insist upon the rail* 
way companies issuing third-class return tickets 
at a reduced fare throughout the year, as most 
continental railways do 1 Is it due to a penny-a- 
mile parliamentary Act, beyond which no further 
reduction can be demanded by the public ? 


Plover : Peewit : Lapwing (7*^ S. ix. 345, 

415). — Scottish Lowlanders have, in the term 
" peaseweep," one of the very best imitative names 
in the language. It represents very fully both the 
guttural turn of the bird's anxious protecting call 
and the emphasis and open definiteness of its 
close. Any one may readily verify this at be 

once in sixteen days." This exhibition was after- hatching season if he will cross a meadow nd 

' I 

7"" S. X. July 12, '90. ] 



( (17 


carefully attend to the repeated intimations of 
their presence which the parent birds will make. 
Christopher North was a quick and close observer, 
and he used the name *^ peaseweep " in one of his 
most memorable descriptive passages. When ''wee 
Kit" wandered forth, like Horace on the Apulian 
Hills, and lost himself in a moorland mist, he had 
the following experience : 

*^ With crest just a thought lowered by the rain, the 
green-backed, white-breaeted peaseweep walked close by 
us in the mist; and sight of wonder, that made even in 

^that quandary by the quagmire our heart beat with joy 
— ^lo ! never seen before, and seldom since, three wee 
peaseweeps, not three days old, little bigger than sbrew- 

. mice, all covered with blackish down, interspersed with 
long white hair, running after their mother ! '^ 

The whole passage well deserves study, both for 
its descriptive and autobiographical value. It is 
in fytte third of * Christopher in his Sporting 
Jacket ' C Recreations of Christopher North,' vol. i. 

p. 57). 

Helensburgh, N.6. 

- The singing thrush as well as the lapwing has 
three well-known names, all of which are found in 
the Poet Laureate's poems : 

When rosy plumelets tuft the larch. 

And rarely pipes the mounted thrtcsh. 

* In Memoriam/ at. xci. 

Sometimes the throstle whistled strong. 
* Sir Launcelot and Queen Guinevere, a Fragment/ 

Thomas Batne. 

^ t 

' t 


Her song the lintwhite swelleth^ 
The clear-voiced mavis dwelleth. 

.'Ill ii 


Here^ in Suffolk, the word mavis is in common 
use. The lapwing in North Yorkshire is called 
also tewjit and Utoit I have never heard it there 
. cs^ed plover, F. C. Birkbeck Terry. 

; \In Dumfriesshire we sometimes call it the pees- 
weqpy sometimes the teewheet I miss this last 
. variant in Jamieson's * Dictionary/ which, however, 
gives teewhoap as the form used in Orkney, and 
tuquheit and teughit in other parts of the country. 
In the Middle Ages the finely modulated, long- 
drawn-out cry of the bird was interpreted into the 
word thevisneh (* Book of the Howlat ' and ' Com- 
plaint of Scotland*). One might, therefore, fancy 
that it must often have carried dismay to Border 
hearts. Christie's Will, in Scott's ballad, was 
not without his emotions: 

And as he passed the gallow-stane 
, ™ He crossed his brow and he bent his knee. 

The peesweep quite likely gave him a bad turn too 

that is to say, the affections in question are two 
degrees removed from gout, instead of one. 

Longford, Coventry. 

0. F. S. Warren, M.A. 

' \ 

1 1 

Geo. Neilson. 

Kinlike {1^^ S. ix. 444).— Mr. Walford 

appears to take it, and plainly the quoted advertiser 
did, that this word must mean the same as 
^* kindred " used as an adjective. If so, one might 
ask, What is the use of it ? But it can hardly be so. 
*^ Gout and kinlike affections" must mean "gout 
■ affections which are like those akin to gout ": 


City lighted with Oil (7^ S. ix. 208, 296). 

Wimbledon, a town with a population of more 
than twenty-five thousand, has for some years 
been lighted with oil. The illumination is not 
brilliant, but oil lamps cost less than gas; so until 
we can emerge into the full glare of the electric 
light, we shall probably continue to make darkness 

visible with oil. 

Geo. L. Appersqn. 

Englandic : English Speaking (7*^ S. ix. 

425). — The Hon. J. Russell Lowell, when he was 
minister in England, and myself propagated the 
term ^^ English speaking,'^ which has been accepted 
and adopted by statesmen everywhere as express- 
ing what it is intended to express. Tbe suggestion 
for an alteration must have arisen under a mis- 
impression, and "Englandic" does not meet the 
necessity of the case. At the time referred to 
^^Anglo-Saxon race," which has now dropped out 
of use, was the term adopted. It was not accepted 
even by the Lowlanders, who have so much of the 
Anglo-Saxon inheritance, nor by the Highlanders, 
neither by Welsh nor Irish. Even in North 
America the term had its opponents. The St. 
George's societies of the United States and Canada 
had formed a union for joint action, and with the 
hope of bringing about co-operation with the St« 
Andrew's and St. David's societies, and, so far as 
possible, with the Irish, but the Irish are gener- 
ally divided into two societies. I was the corre- 
sponding secretary of the union here^ and we 
formed a St. George's Society in London, for which 
we got considerable support. We have not yet 
acquired the desired influence, but we have done 
some very important work in promoting common 
nationality. By the adoption of the term ^' Eng- 
lish speaking " we acknowledge all in these islands 
and the United States, and we do not infringe 
individual nationalities, neither do we accord a 
superiority to any one. We accept all of every 
race — white, black, brown, the negroes of the 
States, the Indians of Canada, the Eepublic of 
Liberia, the Eaj of Labuan, the Kingdom of 
Hawaii. The idea has met with great approval 
among the native - born Australians, who are 
framing a nationality. We hope to bring in a 
large body from the growing number of the Eng- 
lish speaking in Hindustan. I emphasized the 
idea by providing the now accepted formula of 
" the hundred millions of English speaking men." 
After the census of 1890 and 1891 this will pro- 
bably reach one hundred and twenty millions, and 
possibly more. Thus a great confederation is 
shadowed out, of which the English language is 
the acknowledged tie, but whioh in reality pro- 



[7'^ S. X. JgLT 12, 'SO. 

vides for a community of literature, religion, laws, 
and free institutions. To Mr. Lowell much gratitude 
is due for what he has done in this cause, and 
more particularly to Sir C. W. Dilke, whose 
labours for Greater Britain and Greatest Britain 
have had the widest influence. There may be 
a better term than ^'English speaking,'' and when 
found it can be applied, but ^'Englandic" will 
not effect the same purposes. It may be observed 
that though the French are making great efforts by 
the Alliance Frang^ise to maintain and introduce 
their language and to push out ours, there is no 
organization for the promotion of English. The St. 
George's societies have chiefly benevolent objects 
in North America, though the Sons of St. George 

ure political. 

Hyde Clarke. 

Hesiod (7*^ S. ix. 268).— There were above 
thirty editions of Hesiod prior to 1737, in which 
year Thomas Robinson published his magnificent 
edition at Oxford, in which the number of frag- 
ments is stated to have been augmented, so that 
they had been gradually collected by some of the 
previous editors. All subsequent editions, except 
those for schools, contain them. A tripod was a 
common prize. Two are mentioned by Homer in 
* Iliad,' xxiii., as given by Achilles at the games 
in honour of Patroclus — one for the chariot race 
(at V. 264), another for wrestling (v. 702). It can 
hardly, therefore, be regarded as symbolical, as 

suggested in the query. 

W. E. Buckley. 

\ayov ^Qpnova 

The copy of Hesiod which I have is an early 
one of Dindorfs recension, with the fragments. 
Of these Goller, in a note on Thucydides (vol. ii. 
p. 295) notices a fragment which is not in this 
collection: "Vide Hesiodum apud Diodorum iv. 
85. Hesiodi fragmentum non extat in collectione 
Dindorfiana — *Ho"toSos Se 6 7roLr]Trj<i cf^ri 
vavTiov dva7re7rTa[xevov rov TreXdyov 'up 
irpo^r^C^a'ai to Kara rrjv UekoyptdSa Ket/xevov 

aKp(i>Trjpi0Vy /c.T.A." This is probably in the new 
collections of fragments since then. But it is at 
least a supplement to that of Dindorf. 

Ed. Marshall. 
Execution of Charles I. (7^** S. ix. 446). 

It is questionable if anything of importance can 
be added to what has already appeared elsewhere 
on the subject. Yet I should like to put on 
record in * N. & Q.' one or two things connected 
with the matter which I do not think have before 
been noticed. In Burton's * Historical Remarques 
of London/ published 1691, to which I have before 
now had occasion to refer, there is an engraving of 
the " Trial of the L. Strafford in W. Hall " and 
x)f his execution on Tower Hill. To the latter, 
of course, I particularly now refer, as Strafford is 
represented lying at his full length on the scaffold, 
with his head resting apparently on a piece of 
wood a few inches in height. This surely gives a 

clue to the actual position on the scaffold of those 
about to be executed in 1641. In 1649 Charles 
was beheaded, and it is not likely any great 
change in the method of decapitation took place 
between the two periods. In Sir Richard Baker's 
* Chronicle of the Kings of England,' published 
1674, only twenty-six years after Charles's death, 
it is stated the king when on the scaffold asked 
Col. Hacker if it (the block) could not be higher. 
Now if it was a block such as the one presently in 
the Tow.r, upon which Lords Kilmarnock and 
Balmerino were beheaded, the king could not have 
had any reason, I suppose, for asking the question. 

It is also noteworthy that Baker informs us that 
irons were driven in the scaffold to force the king 
down by ropes if he should resist. Now, unless 
the body was to lie at full length, how could a 
block and rope force a man into a kneeling posi- 
tion, and so bend his head on a block two feet or 
so high ? 

In a small book in my possession, published 
1682, there are copper-plates showing the execu- 
tions of Lady Jane and her husband, and the only 
approach to a block is a small piece of wood, such 
as referred to at the execution of Strafford. 

Alfred Chas. Jonas. 


Spectacles in Art (7*^ S. ix. 368, 470).— Mr. 
Mansergh, in his reply at the latter reference, 
raises a further question, which I think I can 
answer. He refers to a portrait of Don Francisco 
de Quevedo-Villegas, in which that versatile author 
is depicted as wearing a pince-nez. Quevedo died 
in 1645, and I have contemporary evidence that 
some, at least, of his coevals and countrymen did 
not picture him with that adornment ; for in the 
original edition of his verse translation of Epic- 
tetus and Phocylides, printed at Madrid in 1635, is 
a portrait of Quevedo wearing a doublet and collar, 
but no spectacles or glasses. The artist's name 

is Juan de Neart. 

Edward Percy Jacobsen. 

18, Gordon Street, W.C. 

The portrait of Quevedo mentioned by Mr. 
Mansergh is prefixed to his works published 
in 1791. The original is in the possession of the 
Duke of Wellington at Apsley House. 


Henry H. Gibbs. 

May I take the liberty of oflfering to two of your 
correspondents who have written under this head- 
ing, H. H. B. and Mr. J. F. Mansergh, a good 
English substitute for the French pince-nez? I 
would suggest "nose-nippers,'' as an absolute 
equivalent in meaning, while it has the advantage 

of being plain English. 

J. Dixon. 

Sir George Somers (7^^ S. ix. 368).— Sir 
George Summers, as his name is spelt in the 

JU" S. X. July 12, '90. ] 



pirish register at Lyme Regis, was born in that 
town in 1554. His father was John Summers, 
V ho was a merchant in that town, and was reputed 
1 3 be of the same family with Sir John Somers, 
v/hose pedigree may be seen in William Tindale's 
* History and Antiquities of the Abbey and 
IJorough of Evesham/ p. 271 ; in ClutterbucVs 
'History and Antiquities of Hertford,' vol. i. 
p. 457; and in Nash's * Corrections and Additions 
to the Collections for the History of Worcester,' 
Tol. ii. pp. 49 and 54. His arms were Vert and 
gules, a fees dancette, ermine, the same as were 

borne by the Somers family. 


1610/11, and his body was embalmed and carried 
to England by Capt. Mathew Somers, his nephew 
and heir, and buried at Whitechurch, in Dorset- 
shire ; but the heart and bowels were interred on 
the spot where the town of St, George now stands, 
and a wooden cross erected to mark the place 
(^Historical and Statistical Account of the Ber- 
mudas,' by William Froth Williams, p. 16 ; Smith's 
'History of Virginia,' book iii. pp. 118, 119). 

Sir George Somers made his will, bearing date 
April 28, 1609, which was proved August 16, 
1611, by John Somers, his brother and executor 
(Hutchins's ' History and Antiquities of Dorset/ 
vol. ii. pp. 75, 79) ; but an inquisition was held 
^July 26, 1612, in which it was stated that Nicholas 
Somers, his cousin, was his heir (* Domestic Papers, 
James I., 1611-1618,' vol. Ixxix.). It is inferred 
he was never married. J. J. Latting. 

New York, U.S. 

Beenham (7'^ S. ix. 327). — In regard to this 
query, is not " Beenham, in Berkshire," near to 
Newbury ? It only appears to be about five or six 
miles from that town as the crow flies; and, more- 
over, is not Newbury itself in Berkshire ? 

J. F. Mansergh. 

*. .1 



The Registers of St. Alphage, Canterlury, 1558-1800. 
By Joseph M. Cowper. (Canterbury, Privately 

This volume, which is fittingly dedicated to Mr. J. 
Henniker Heatoti, M.P. for the City of Canterbury, con- 
tains a large amount of matter of considerable general 
interest to genealogists, apart from those specially inter- 
ested in Kent; for it records a number of baptisms, 
marriages, and burials of the various foreign importa- 
tions roughly grouped together as Huguenot refugees, 
some of whom still remain, and form a distinct congre- 
gation in the city of Canterbury. Many of these were of 
Dutch and Flemish origin, and are generally distinguish- 
able by the " Van " which forms part of their surnames, 
though, of courae, not every Dutch or Flemish name has 
the " Van." Others were as clearly French, while some 
were neither French nor Dutch, but Walloon. Specimens 
of all these classes may easily be traced in the present 
volume, of which Mr. Cowper may justly be proud. He 
has used eight different registers, he informs us, for the 

purposes of this book, and some of the tales which he 
hag to tell are both curious and full of instruction.. 
The dead set made at the registers with a view to falsify- 
ing the true position of the several children of Thomas 
Denne, Esq., is very remarkable, both for the pertinacity 
displayed and for the blunders which have eventually 
led to the exposure of the falsification by Mr. Cowper. 
Probably the will of Thomas Denne would disclose some 
reason for so persistent an attempt at making the 
parochial records show that Elizabeth was his eldest 
child. That there was a motive can scarcely be doubted,, 
and £,5. d. in some shape, not as yet made clear to us, is 
the most probable moving cause. * The Registers of St. 
Alphage, Canterbury/ contain a fair crop of quaint and 
rare Christian names and surnames, some of which, how- 
ever, Mr. Cowper has apparently not understood, judging 
by the language which he uses in his interesting intro- 
duction. Efham Grene, we believe, represents Euphemia,. 
which is often abbreviated into Eufame and EflFame in 
Scotland, where it is more common than in England. 
We have no doubt ourselves that Hesterjacoba Defar was 
not intended to bear a single portentous sesquipedalian 
name, but the two names Hester and Jacoba, the last 
being a frequent Dutch and Flemish baptismal name. 
Everel Sawyer clearly bore a name which also occurs as 
Averil, and which we have personally known under the 
fuller form of Everilda. Eden as a female Christian 
name we have also ourselves known. For surnames, 
Hedgcock, Marksusan, Slackman, Landman, Machine^ 
Ouldmaide, Tyreman, Tymewell, are a few only which 
we have picked out, by way of samples, from the 
many which have caught our eye in glancing over the 
pages. Kerfoot, Slaughter, Cleaveland, Clemons, and 
Washington should have an interest for American 
readers, while the store of foreign names can hardly be 
more than hinted at in this brief notice. But we may 
say that De Villers and Du Toit should have an interest 
for the Cape of Good Hope, and that De Lasaulx re- 
minds us of Sister Augustine, the Superior of the 
Hospitallers of St. Charles at Bonn, who in the world 
was Amalie von Lasaulx, herself the descendant of 
Huguenot refugees settled in Germany, and probably, 
therefore, of kin to the Canterbury branch of the name. 
Whole pages could be filled with suggestive names, both 
English and foreign, but space is limited, so we must 
content ourselves with thanking Mr. Cowper for hia 
valuable labour of love, and expressing our hope that 
we may soon see on our table the other registers whicb 
he announces as ready. 

The Index Library. Parts XXV. -XXVII. (British 

Record Society.) 
In the present issue we have the first instalment of the 
work which the British Record Society has been formed 
in order to carry on, with Mr. C. I. Elton, Q.C., M.P., as 
the chairman of its council, and the originator of the 
scheme, Mr. W. P. W. Phillimore, B.C.L., as its honorary 
secretary and editor. This triple number, for the 
quarter January to March of the current year, contains 
the conclusion of the valuable * Index to the Signet Bill^, 
1584-1624,' virith introduction and lexicographical index ; 
a continuation of the * Lichfield Wills and Administra- 
tions, 1510-1652,' embracing parts of letters B (1613-24) 
and D (1562-75) and the whole of C (1562-1624), as well 
as a continuation of the ' Chancery Proceedings, Car. I./ 
and the * Berkshire Wills and Administrations, 1508- 
1652,' from Carter to Curre, in alphabetical order. These 
facts will give some notion of the field already covered 
by the issues of the new society, while of its future 
undertakings it may be enough to note that Sir James 
Hannen has given the society permission to print an 
index to the wills proved in the Prerogative Court, 
1383-1558, and it is also proposed to print an index to 



[7**' S. X. July 12, '90. 

Sussex villa, to 1652. With so wide a field of practical 
utility before it, and with the prospect of being joined 
by the Index Society, we cannot doubt that the British 
Record Society has every prospect of a long and useful 
career as a publishing society, if only its work receives 
adequate support from the largeclassof persons to whom 
it must be of the greatest advantage to possess these 
keys to the various records scattered through the length 
and breadth of the land, which are at present neither 
known by nor accessible to the mass of the British and 
American students of family history. We believe, there- 
fore, that the British Record Society meets a widely 
felt want, and we hope that it will receive the hearty 
support of genealogists on both sides of the Atlantic. 

Horatio Nelson and (he Naval Supremacy of England. 
By W. Clark Russell, with the Collaboration of Wil- 
liam H. Jaques. (Putnam's Sons.) 
Southey's ' Life of Nelson ' is one of the best biographies 
in the language. So far as it goes it is well-nigh per- 
fect; but much has come to light that was unknown 
when Southey wrote, and there were subjects of interest 
that could not be discussed when the actors were living, 
where a writer has a free hand now. So far as style is 
concerned, the volume before us must rank lower than 
the older book, but for almost all purposes of instruction 
we should estimate it far higher. | 

Nelson^s heroic career has had an effect on the English 
mind which is shared by no other soldier or sailor of the 
modern time. Marlborough, Wellington, and Olive had 
strong political parties opposed to them, and while alive 
were hated by a section (we believe but a small one) of 
their fellow countrymen. Nelson was a sailor only. He 
seems to have not permitted his thoughts to travel in 
political directions. His death, too, after a series of 
noble exploits, in the midst of a very great naval victory, 
appealed strongly to the imagination of his countrymen. 
The authors have told their story well, and have not 
indulged in the intemperate language which some de- 
light in as to the fate of Caracciolo. We had hoped that 
this volume would have set at rest the questions that are 
always cropping up as to the death and burial of Lady 
Hamilton ; but here we find nothing new. It is not in 
the events of remote ages only that the historian is 
embarrassed by conflicting testimony. The authors tell 
us that ^' she had found a friend in a Mrs. Hunter, who, 
when the unfortunate Emma had breathed her last, 
placed the dead woman in a cheap deal cofiin, covered 
with a pall formed of a white curtain and a black silk 
petticoat. A piece of ground just outside Calais had 
been consecrated, but there was no English Protestant 
clergyman to be found, and the funeral service was 
read, at Mrs. Hunter's request, by an Irish half-pay 
oflScer ! Not a vestige of the grave existed in 1833. 
The late Dr. Doran in that year sought for it, and found 
its locality entirely traditionary." On the other hand, 
the writer of this notice has heard from a quarter likely 
to be well informed that in Lady Hamilton's latter days 
she was a member of the Church of Rome, and was 
buried with the rites usual in that body, the British 
consul at Calais being present at the ceremony. 

The Annual Register for the J^ar 1889. (Rivingtons.) 
With no word of introduction or preface, wholly super- 
fluous in the case of a work so firmly established in 
public favour, without even a number on the title-page, 
the new volume of the Annual Register jnikeB its ap- 
pearance. Since the establishment in 1863 of the new 
series, the Annual Register has become the inseparable 
companion of the statesman, the writer, and all who care 
to keep a faithful record of the past. From the suc- 
cessive volumes a history of the last quarter of a century, 

its politics, literature, art, science, might be compiled, 

■ J 

A special feature is the summary of foreign history 
which is supplied. The study of this renders more in- 
telligible the home history, which is written from a 
moderately Conservative standpoint. The Parnell Com- 
mission also occupies a section to itself. In the second 
portion, or " Chronicle," events are very closely followed, 
the result of the cricket contests between Oxford and 
Cambridge and Harrow and Eton and those of the 
Henley Regatta being given. Full obituary notices 
form a portion of the scheme, references to these being 
facilitated by an ample index. In all respects the 
Annual Register maintains its high position. Almost 
alone among works of reference, it increases annually in 
value, and has nothing to fear from rivalry. In a sense 
its extending row of goodly volumes are complementary 
to * N. & Q.,' linking what is worthiest of preservation in 
the present with what of interest is recoverable from the 

The Handy Assurance Journal of William Bourne, 
F.S.S., corrected up to date, has now been issued. 

The BooJchinder is now published by Messrs. Rathby, 
Lawrence &c Co., Limited. No diminution of energy or 
value attends the exchange, and the recent numbers, both 
in letterpress and illustrations, appeal to the amateur of 
fine bindings as well as to the binder himself. 

A REPRINT in lithographed facsimile of a MS. volume 
of the time of Queen Elizabeth is proposed by Mr. George 
Weddell, of 20, West Granger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne* 
The title will be " Ye Apothecarie his Booke of Recepts 
agaynst alio maner of sicknesses; also howe to bake 
meates, to make Uskabaugbe, to die clothe or woole and 
diuers usefuU thinges besydes.'' 

Dr. Bdleston's reprints of the Gainford parish 
registers will be completed very shortly by the issue of 
the third section, containing the deaths. The volume 
will be published by Mr. Elliot Stock. 

* BiBLiOTHECA Staffordiensis,' Compiled by Rupert 
Simms, will be issued by subscription by Mr. C. A, 
Lomax from the "Johnson^s Head," Lichfield. Com- 
munications concerning StaflFordshire authors and publi- 
cations are invited. 

' London City,' by Mr. W. J. Loftie, will be issued'by 
subscription by Messrs, Field & Tuer. It will be profusely 


- fiaiitti to €txtxtiipan}itnXi. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 
On all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a senarate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer ana such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

George L. Apperson ("FalstafFnot a Coward ").~See 
' N. & Q.,' 2"'^ S. ii. 369 ; iii. 62. Consult ' On the Cha- 
racter of Sir John FalstafF,' by J. O. Halliwell, 12mo., 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'"— Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "—at the OflBce, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no excention. 

( ' 

7'" S. X. July 19, '90.] 



f * 



CONTENTS.— No 238. 

NOTES :— Verses on the Imprisoned Cavaliers, 41— The Duke- 
dom of Clarence, 42-BrowniDg's * Caliban upon Setebos/ 44 
The Corn-poppy—' Sing a Song for Sixpence/ 45— Whitster 
Cafe Procope- Burial-place of Sir T. More's Body— Dab— 
*' Afore t' friend," 46. 

QUEEIES :— University Centenary Medals, 46— The Real 
Shape of the Earth-Heligoland—' Adventures of Young 
John Buir— • Eecueil de Diverses Poesies de Sieur D***'— 
- ^'Pro olla," 47— *'Eump and dozen"— St. Geoi^e— The 
' Telephone — ' How to Catalogue a Library ' — '* Ictibus 
' agrestis "—Bray— Surname of Queen Elizabeth— J. B, Smith 
^ — B. Warcop— Cornells Tromp— Divorce of George I., 48— 
J. Chalon— 'A Sad Disappointment'— " Died of Kage"— 
Unicorn— Authors Wanted, 49. 

REPLIES:— De la Poles, 49— Chapman's 'All Fools,' 50— 
Regimental Messes— Population of Mediaeval Scotland, Si- 
Grangerizing- Americanisms, 52— English Psalter, 53— Rake 
, —St. Saviour's, BouthM^ark— St. Mary Overy, 54— Dr. Scargiil 
—St. Vitus's Dance- James Smyth, 55— Family of Barwis— 
Burnsiana— Morden College— Happify, 56— Dr. Daniel Scott 
—French of *' Stratford atte Bowe"— Great Ormes Head, 67 
—Alcatras— Statue of George IV.— Church Services in Nor- 
man French- Barvrell and Warren Hastings, 58. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Jusserand's 'English Novel of the Time 
of Shakespeare '—Earl of Dundonald's ' Autobiography of a 
Seaman'— Le Strange's 'Palestine under the Moslems'— 

. Masson's 'Works of De Quincey'— Littlehales's 'Layman's 
*^^ Prayer Book*— Lee's * Stratford-on-Avon.V. 

* Notices to Correspondents. 


% , 1655 (BY SIR JOHN DENHAM?). 

rj. . . Lybell of the persons imprysoyCd^ 1655. 

[Endorsement by Hyde.] 

Though the governing part cannot finde in their heart 
' to free the Inapriaoned throng ;- r 
Yett I dare affirme^ next Michaelmas terme 
wee'I sett them all out in a Songe. 

Then Marshall draw neare lett the Prisoners appeare 

and read us they re treasons at large, 
For men thinke it hard to lye under a Guard 
without any probable Chardge. 


Lord Peter wee wonder, what Crime hee fals under 

Unlesse it bee Legem pone, 
Hee has ended the Strife, betwixt hym and his wife 

But now the State wants Alimonie. 

Since the whip 's in the hand, of an other Commaund 
Lord Maynard must have a smart jerke. 

For the love that hee beares to the new cavaliers, 
The Presbetrye, and the Kirke. 

Lord Coventry 's in, but for what Loyall Synne, 

his fellows can hardly gather, 
Yett hee ought to disburse, for the Seale and the Purse 

which were soe long kept by tis father. 

• ■ •/ . 6. 

Lord Biron wee know was accused of a Bow 

or of some other dangerous Plott 
but hee 's no such foole for then (by the rule) 

his Bolt had bynne sooner shott. 


Lord Lucas is fast, and will bee the Last 

b ecause hee 's soe learned a Peere. 
His Law will not doe 't nor his Logicke to boot, 

though hee make the cause never so cleare. 


Lord St. Johns indeed was presently freed 

For which hee may thanke his wife, 
Shee did promise and vow hee was innocent now 

And would bee soe all his life. 


There 's dainty Jacke Russell, that makes a great bustle 

and bledd three tymes in a day 

But a Caulier swore that hee was to bleed more 
before hee gott cleare away. 


Sir Frederike Cornwallis, without any malice 

who carryes more Gutts then crimes 
has the fortune to hitt, and be counted a witt 

which hee could not in former tymes. 


Ned Progers looks pale, but what does hee ayle? 

(ffor hee dyets with that fat Drolle), 
hee must dwindle at length, that spends all his strength 

att the grill and the litle hole. 


Wee prisoners all pray, that brave Shirley may 

bee gently asfiest in your books 
Cause under the line, hee h^s payd a good fiuo 

to the poore Common-wealth of the Rooks. 

13. ^ ^ 

Dicke Nicols (they say) and Littleton stay 

ffor the Governour's owne delight 
One serves hym with play, att Tennis by day, 

And the other with smoaking at night. 


Jacke Paston was quitt, by his band underwritt 

But his freedome hee hardly enjoyed 
ffor as it is sayd, hee drunke hymselfe dead 

on purpose to make his bond voyde. 

. 15. 

Tom Panton wee thinke, is ready to sinke 

if his friends doe not lend tbeyr hands 
Still lower he goes, and all men suppose 

hee swallowed up in the quicke sands. 


ffor the rest nott here nam'd I would not bee blam'd 

As if they were scorn'd by our Lyricke 
ffor Waller intends to use them as ends 

to patch up his next Panegyrick, 

And now to conclude I would not bee rude 

Nor presse into Reason of State 
But surely some cause besydes the knowue 
has brought us unto this sad fate. 

18. ' 

Must wee pay the faults, of our Argonauts 

and suffer for other men's synns, 
Cause like sylly Geese they have mist of the Fleece 

poore Prisoners are shorne to their skyns. 


Jaymaica relations, soe tickle the nations 

And Venables looks soe sullen 
That everyone cryes the designe was as wise 

As those that are fram'd at CuUen. ' 



[7'b S. X. JCLY 19, 'SO. 

Let them turn but our Taxe into paper and waxe 

(As some able men have endeavour'd) 
And wee shall not stand for notes of our hand 

They 're sealed, and wee are delivered. 

Yett the Bonds they exact, destroy their own Act 

of pardon, which all men extoll. 
Wee thought wee should bee, good subjects and free, 

but now wee are Bondmen to Noll. 

I believe this poem to be by Sir John Denham, 
for the following reasons : — 

1. John Denham was arrested with the persona 
mentioned here early in June, 1655. An order of 
the Council dated June 9, 1655, runs as follows: 

''Order, on Lambert's report of the rames of some 
persons apprehended last night in and about London, 
that Lord Newport, Andrew Newport Lis brother, 
Jeffrey Palmer, Francis, Lord Willcughby of Parbam, 
and Henry Seymour be committed to the Tower. That 
Sir Frederick Cornwallis, Ed. Proger?, Thos. Panton, 
and Maj.-Gem Ayrfs be committed to the Serjeant at 
Arms, and that John Denbam be confined to a place 
chosen by bimeelf, not within twenty miles of London." 

« Calendar of State Papers (Domestic), 1655/ p. 204. 

2. In the second place, it is exactly in the style 
of those occasional poems which Denham was 
fond of writing — full of the personal references in 
which he was accustomed to indulge. Compare 
the poems on * Lord Crofts^s Journey to Poland/ 
on 'Killigrew^s Eeturn from his Embassy to 
Venice/ and on *Sir John Mennis going from 
Calais to Boulogne to eat Roast Pig^ (Denham's 
' Poems/ ed. 1671, pp. 67-76). The metre of this 
poem — not a very common metre — is the same as 
that of the poem on Killigrew : 

Our Resident Tom, from Venice is come 
And hath left the Statesman behind him ; 

Talks at the tame pitch, is as wise, is as rich, 
And just where you left him you find him, 

3. This poem is from a copy in the Clarendon 
MSS. in the Bodleian (' Calendar/ vol iii. p. 79). 
Mr. Macray cannot identify the hand, but thinks 
the poem to be a copy, and not an original. It is 
remarkable that a copy of Denham's poem on 
Killigrew is also to be found amongst Clarendon's 
papers (' Calendar/ ii. 143). 

4. If it was not written by Denham, the absence 
of any allusion to so prominent a Cavalier as 

Denham is difficult to understand. 

C. H. Firth. 


{Continued from p,B.) 

vol. ii. p. 162; and Sandford, 'Genealogy/ p. 436.) 
After his father's death in the battle of Wakefield 
he was sent with his brother Kichard to Utrecht 
for safety, and there remained till Edward IV^'a 
accession in 1461. In that year he was created 
Duke of Clarence by his brother in the Parliament 
which met at Westminster on February 22. At 
the same time, in support of the dignity, he re- 
ceived the grant of several manors, the property of 
the attainted Earl of Northumberland, who fell at 
Towton. Shortly afterwards, like his predecessors 
in this title, he was made Lord Lieutenant of Ire- 
land ; but soon recalled. We next meet with him 
as present at the Council held at Beading, when 
Edward made public his already completed mar- 
riage with Elizabeth Woodville, the daughter of 
Lord Grey. Soon afterwards, at the coronation 
of the queen, the young duke officiated as high 
steward. For some time George was regarded as 
next male heir to the throne, for three princesses 
were born to Edward IV. before the Prince of 
Wales. This nearness to the crown was doubtless 
the motive of Warwick, the king-maker, in pro- 
moting a marriage between the duke and his 
daughter Isabella, which was completed in 1469,. 
when Clarence was only eighteen. The earl would 
have been glad of the king's assent, but the sus- 
picious king wrote angrily to Warwick forbidding 
the marriage. Notwithstanding this, the match, 
ill omened as it was, was celebrated in the church 
of St. Nicholas at Calais, with great pomp, on 
July 11, 1469, by the Archbishop of York, the 
bride's uncle. The king, in revenge, deprived the 
archbishop of his chancellorship. Little else than 
misfortune came of this union. The lady was 
haughty and ambitious, like her father; the bride- 
groom thoughtless, vain, and inconstant. Hand- 
some in person and not without talent, his cha- 
racter was unstable and inconsistent. It is clear, 
however, that he had a difficult part to play, as the 
brother of the king and the son-in-law of the 
king's now bitter enemy. The quarrel between 
Warwick and Edward has been variously ex- 
plained. It is said that Warwick had been de- 
puted to the French court to negotiate a marriage 
between Edward and Bona of Savoy, but that in 
the interim the king met with Elizabeth Wood- 
ville and made her his wife, which so incensed 
Warwick that he resolved upon revenge — even to 
the extent of deposing Edward from the throne. 
Clarence was also discontented at the favours 
heaped by the king upon the connexions of his 

The third holder of this title was George, J wife, and Warwick did all in his power to foster 
sixth (and second surviving) son of Richard, the discontent. Hall, the chronicler, tells us that 
Duke of York, and brother of Edward IV. Clarence, while still undecided about taking sides 
He was born in Ireland in 1451, and through with Warwick against his brother the king, ex- 
his grandmother, Anne Mortimer, was a lineal claimed, '^By St. George, if my brother of GIou- 
descendant of Lionel, the first duke, and his cester would join me I would make Edward know 
daughter, Philippa, the lady of Clare. (See that we are all one man's sons, which should be 
*N. & Q.,' 7*** S. ix. 481; Dugdale, ^Baronage,M nearer to him than strangers of his wife^s blood !" 

7* S. X. JuLi 19, '900 




From this time, about 1470, till his death in the evidence. Still, envy, falsehood, and intrigue 

Tower in 1478, the career of Clarence is so inti- 
mately connected with the history of his brother's 
reign that it need not be followed here in detail. 
No part of our history, perhaps, has been more 
fully treated than the brief period during which 


At the 

same time no period, in regard to its treatment by 
chroniclers and early historians, has suffered more 
from misrepresentation and prejudiced tradition. 



length he deserted the latter and was the instru- 
ment of his ruin ; how justly he earned the 
titles of "false/' "fleeting," "subtle," "treacher- 
ous/' and "perjured Clarence/' — is told with ample 
confirmation in all the histories, and by none 
more graphically than Shakespeare. Of the three 
brothers, Edward IV., Clarence, and Gloucester, 
the historians of the past have painted the last 
in the blackest colours. Most modems will agree 
that this is undeserved, and that of the three 
.Clarence was the worst. At any rate, Richard 
was loyal to the king, his brother, and when he 
himself assumed the crown made a better ruler 
than most mediseval kings. Much that appears 
in the chroniclers respecting the House of York 
must be read with a large allowance. Those 
who wrote in Tudor times were under every 
mptation to blacken the characters of the 
princes of this house, and the same is true, in 
great measure, of Shakespeare. The Tudor chro- 
niclers are more tender towards Edward than 
towards his brothers : this was due. 



rhaps, to 

the fact that Henry VII. 's queen, Elizabeth of 
York, was his daughter. Shakespeare spares 
neither Clarence nor Gloucester. The reader 
will recall the charges brought against Clarence 
by Shakespeare in * Richard HI./ I. iv. I refer 
principally to the supposed murder of young 
Edward of Lancaster by Clarence and Gloucester. 
The contemporary chroniclers, Warkworth the 
liancastrian, and Fleetwood the Yorkist, assert 
that he was slain in the field, calling on his 
brother-in-law Clarence for help ; but the gener- 
ally received account is that he was slain in the 
king's tent by Edward's servants. None of the 
earlier writers who record the king's brutality in 
striking his vanquished rival with his gauntlet, 
•mentions either, of the king's brothers as the 
assassin. Hall, who wrote in Henry's VIII.'s time, 
is the first who brings forward this charge. Hol- 
linshed repeats the words of Hall, and Shake- 
speare invariably follows him. Weight is due to 
the note of Prof. Thorold Eggers {' N. & Q.,' 
7*^ S. ix. 423), but the evidence is far from clear. 
At any rate, there is little to connect Gloucester 
with the deed. All three brothers in turn have 
been charged with the murder of Henry VI. in the 
Tower, but upon nothing worthy of the name of 

mark the entire history of the third Clarence; and 
his brother* Edward had every reason to regard 
him with distrust and dread. He seems also to 
have had a bitter enemy in the queen. Edward 
does not appear to have been other than generously 
disposed towards both of his brothers, and he had 
forgiven a great deal before he accused Clarence of 
high treason and sentenced him to death. The 
particulars of the charge are given in Sandford, 
' Genealogy of the Kings,' bk. v. p. 438. The 
king in person appears there as the sole accuser 
and Clarence as the sole defender. 

Some of the charges were ridiculous enough ; 
but the picture drawn by Edward of the favours 
which he heaped upon his brother, and of the in- 
gratitude with which he had been repaid, is not 
overdrawn, Clarence was condemned to die on 
Feb. 17, 1478, and the House of Commons peti- 
tioned for his immediate execution. The state- 
ment of the chroniclers that he was privately 
murdered by his brother Richard, drowned in a 
butt of malmsey, is unsupported by anything like 
evidence. It may be remarked, however, that 
Fabyan, the sheriff chronicler of London, re- 
cords : 

'* This yere, that is to mean, y® xviiit*» day of Febuary, 
the Duke of Clarence and Warwick, brother to the King, 
thanne being prisoner in y® Tower, was secretly put to 
death and drowned in a barell of Malvesye, within the 
sayd Tower."— Fabyan, p. 666 of Ellis's edition. 

Miss Halstead, in her interesting ' Life of Richard 
III.,' vol. i. p. 322, successfully, I think, vindicates 
Richard from this charge : 

" He was [she says] certainly absent from the scene 
of action, and residing in the North ; but the partisans 
of the queen and those of Gloucester mutually recrimi** 
nated hia death upon each other." 

Similar views are adopted in the latest life of 
Richard, Legge's * Unpopular King,' vol. i. p. 146. 
The only fact upon which we can rely is this, 
that Clarence was found dead in the Bowyer Tower 
on the morning of Feb. 18, 1478, with his head 
hanging over a butt of malmsey. Probably an 
order for his death was issued, and that order exe- 
cuted ; but as he was a popular favourite it was 
thought expedient to ascribe the effect to accident. 
Certainly the king took the blame of the deed, 
and appears, if the chroniclers be correct, to have 

afterwards regretted it : 

^' He mourned the loss of his brother to that degree 
that when any one solicited for the life of a condemned 
person he would with sorrow reproach his courtiers, in 
this exclamation; ^0 unfortunate brother, for whose 
life no one would make suit/ "—Fisher, 'Key to the 
History of England/ p. 129. 

Hence there is great probability in the words 
which are put into Edward's mouth by Shake- 
speare (* Richard IIL,' IL ii.) : 

Have I a tongue to doom my brother's death. 
And shall that tongue give pardon to a slave ? 



t?hS.X.JOLY 19/90. 

Who suecj to me for him 1 Who, in my wrath^.^^ _ 

.Kneeled at my feet and bade me be advised? \ : ' 
' Who spake of brotherhood ? Who spa^Q of love ? 
Who told me how the poor soul did forsake 
The mighty Warwick and did fi^ht for me 1 
Who told me, in the field at Tewkesbury, 
When Oxford held me down, he rescued me. 
And said, dear brother live and be a king ] 

That Clarence was acceptable to.the common people 
may be admitted. Hishandsome person and plausible 
exterior would be likely to impress the crowd, as 
such endowments have done in all times. Hia un- 
timely death has also led posterity, as well as 
many of his own contemporaries, to cast a veil 
over his numerous transgressions. That the esti- 
mate of Shakespeare respecting his general cha- 
racter, although some of the crimes laid to his 
charge may be said to be ** non proven," is correct 
in the main may be fully accepted. He died at 
the age of thirty, and bis wife Isabel is said to 
have died from poison administered (? wilfully) by 
a domestic during her confinement. They left issue, 
as is well known, a son and a daughter. To the 
daughter^ Margaret, was allowed the earldom of 
Salisbury, which honour descended to her from 
her grandfather Warwick. The son was generally 
called "Earl of Warwick,'* although the attainder 
of his father was never reversed. The, title of Clar- 
ence was suspended. The fate both of the son and 
of the daughter of this Clarence is known to his- 
tory :' the "Earl of Warwick" was executed 
Nov. 21, 1499 ; and Margaret, Countess of Salis- 
bury, May 27, 1541. With them, the " last of the 
Plantagenets," this royal race became in the direct 
line extinct. 

' The melancholy end of Clarence is commemo- 
rated in the *Mirrour for Magistrates' (ed. of 
1609, 4to., p. 380). Here the crime is directly 
attributed to the Duke of Gloucester : 

/* ; 

His purpose was with a prepared string 
To strangle me : but I be-^tirred me so 
That by no force they could me thereto bring, 
' * Which caused him that purpose to forego ; 

Howbeit they bound me whether I would or no, 
And in a but of Malmesey standing by, 
New christened me because I should not cry. 

The story as generally bruited abroad in England 
was evidently known and believed in France, but 
with a difference. See Martin,' 'Histoire de la 
France,' tome vii. p. 1 : 

'*La haine mutuelle d'Edouard et du due de Clarence, 
fomentee par le troisi^me fr^re, Richard de Gloucester, 
venait d'aboutir a un fratricide : Edouard avait fait a 
condamner i mort et executer secretement son frfere 
Clarence pour crime et haute trahison, L'on pretende 
qu* Edouard ayant laia^e au condamne le choix de son 
genre de morte Tivrogne Clarence choisit d'etre noy6 
dans un tonneau de Malvaise." 

This is taken from the contemporary French chro- 
nicler Jean Molinet, vol. ii. chap. xciv. p. 377 of 

the edition by Buchon, 870., Paris, 1828. Martin 
adds:— ' ■: 

■ *f Jidouayd, apres avoir faifc^ arretjr son frere^ avait de- 
mande conseii S, Louis XI.^ "qui ne repbridit que paKce 
vers de LucaiQ : . ■ ' - ^•'^['^ "< 

ToUe moras; soepe nocuit diflFere paratum."' ' ' 

For the grave of Clarence and the Dachess Isabel, 
his wife, and for the fate of their supposed remains, 
see Blunt's 'Tewkesbury Abbey and its Associa- 
tions,' 8vo., London, 1878, p. 74. 

{To he continued,) 

J. Maskell. 

The writer, quoting a will (7^^ S. ix. 481) 
ascribed to Lionel of Antwerp, allots *^to Edmund 
Mone that [golden circle] wherewith his father waa^ 
created Duke of Cornwall.*' It is not clear whose 
father is meant, and the doubt implied involves a 
host of queries, so I merely ask for an explanation* 

^ ' ^' 




Two or three years ago I was reading Brown- 
ing's ^Caliban upon Setebos,' and as I did not 
follow the drift of the poem clearly, I asked 
a very intelligent lady friend, who is a devoted 
lover of Browning and who is more accustomed to 
his poetry than I am, if she would write me a 
little analysis of it. She did so ; and as her 
analysis is very clear and to the point, and pos- 
sesses the brevity which Polonius calls " the soul 
of wit," I have thought that it may be interesting 
to other readers of Browning who, like myself, are 
true admirers of the poet without always quite 
catching his drift. Speaking for myself, my 
friend's lucid comments have to a great extent re- 
moved the difficulties I found in clearly under- 
standing this remarkable and interesting poem. If 
any of your readers should diflFer from any of my 
friend's conclusions, I need not say that both she 
and myself would be very glad to weigh their 
objections. As the manner of the notes may 
seem to be somewhat staccato^ it must be borne in 
mind that they formed part of a private letter, 
and were written without any thought of publica- 
tion. My friend, in reply to my request for per- 
mission to publish them, says that, if the Editor is 
willing, she has no objection at all to their appear- 
ing in *N. & Q.,' but she does not wish her name 
to be mentioned. 

I ^ 

"I feel half afraid to bore you with my views on 
Browning*8 * Caliban upon Setebos,' Possibly I may be 
quite mistaken as to the meaning, for 1 have read Brown- 
ing entirely alone and without explanatory help. I take 
the first twenty-three lines to be descriptive of Caliban, 
half beast, half man, lying in the mud, something after 
the fashion of a lizard. He ' < 

Feels about his spine small eft-things course, ^ ' ' 
Run in and out each arm and make him laugh, ^ 

their presence exciting no disgust in one so nearly akin 
to themselves. , , r 

A monstrous eft was of old the Lord and Master of ^ 

7H» S. X. July 19, '90.] 



F^r him did his high sun flame and his river billowing 




■%■ % 

} nd he felt himself in his force to be Nature's crowning 
race, ~ , - ... 

8 lys Tennyson ('Maud,' part i. iv.). 

** Through nearly the whole of the poem Caliban seems 
t> speak of himself in the third person,— (he) 'hath 
spied an icy fish/ &c. This form strikes me as being 
j.eculiarly apposite, because I believe that the lowest 
type of savages — earth-eating tribes of South America — 
use the third, and not the first person in speaking of 
themselves. The poem then proceeds to give, with con- 
summate art and skill in word-painting, a description of 
the various creatures made by the great and powerful 
Setebos— the otter, badger, ant, &c.— and man, but 
' weaker in most points, stronger in a few.' Caliban has 
no conception of God, or Setebos, as creating or injuring 
for any other purpose than the gratification of a whim 
or impulse — * Making and marring clay at will ' ; ' Such 
shows nor right nor Wrong in Him ' ; * He is strong and 
Lord.' Caliban can only recognize force as creative 
power, and as an evil strength who must be coaxed and 
bribed not to hurt, much in the same way that the lower 
class Chinese implore the evil spirits not to cross their 
luck, and make oflFerings of various kinds to them. 

'• ' The something over Setebos ' ; ^ The Quiet ': 
Caliban means by this to imply Eternity. Then 

It pleaseth Setebos to work, 

Use all His hands— . 

most of the Indian and African idols are many-handed 

and exercise much craft, 
By no means for the love of what is worked. 

Caliban can comprehend only blind creative power, and 
so tries to imitate this by 

Setting up endwise certain spikes of tree, 
■^ And crowning the whole with a sloth's skull a-top. 

» ' * * * * :^ :|E 

No use at all i' the work. 

"At the close of the poem, in the brute nature of 
Caliban, the lowest depth of slavish dread is manifested 
towards Setebos: — 

Wherefore he mainly dances on dark nights. 
Moans in the sun, gets under holes to laugh ; 

and, if ever caught rejoicing, would make a sacrifice to 
appease the wrath of Setebos, At the end Caliban is 
supposed to crouch down in an ecstasy of terror at a 
thunderstorm and the * white blaze.' 
,*'I shall be interested to know if my ideas on this 

wonderful poem and those of your other friend are 


My "other friend,'' in alluding to the foregoing 
H^few months ago, said, "I remember her admirable 
analysis of Browning's ' Caliban upon Setebos.' " 

I am glad that my friend's notes should be pre- 


Hopley, Alresford. 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

The Corn-poppt.— I was conversing a few days 
ago with a friend who has a considerable know- 
ledge of ^ what I may call the historic botany 
of this island. He affirmed that the common 
corn-poppy {Papaver rhoeas) is not a native plant, 
but has been imported in recent days with foreign 
seeds. _ I felt very doubtful of the truth of the 
allegation, but held iny peace, not having at hand 
any evidence with which to refute him. Shake- 

speare renders no help, and the other dramatists 
are practically indexless. In Sowerby's * English 
Botany/ ed. 1836-8, we read that Papaver rhceas 

of the most troublesome weeds of the 

IS "one 

cornfield, in all soils and situations, but claiming, 
from the rich and vivid scarlet of its large petals, 
to rank among the most beautiful of our wild 
flowers" (vol. v. p. 5). In the same work the 
scarlet pinopernel, or poor man's weather-glass, is 
said to be ^* the only British scarlet flower besides 
the poppy" (vol. ii. p. 40). There cannot, there- 
fore, be any doubt that the writer believed the 
scarlet poppy to be a native plant. I feel sure, for 
many reasons, that in this opinion he was correct. 

I have Dryden on my side, who 

says, m 


Conquest of Granada' (Part i., Act L, so. i,, ed. 
1808, vol iv. p. 36):— 

The undaunted youth 
Then drew; and from his saddle bending low, r 
Just where the neck did to the shoulders grow, 
With hie full force discharged a deadly blow. 
I Not heads of poppies (when they reap the grain 
' Fall with more ease before the labouring swain. 

Than fell his head. 

It fell so quick, it did even death prevent, 
' And made imperfect bellowings as it went. 

Though I do not remember any earlier mention 
of the English corn-poppy, except in our old books 
of botany, I cannot doubt that it has been often 
referred to by poets. 

t may, perhaps, be permitted to mention 
something else in relation to this beautiful flower, 
which has no connexion with the above, but Is 
curious as showing how notions of utility may 
blunt, or even destroy, the sense for beauty. 
Some five-and-forty or fifty years ago, a lady who 
had lived in a part of England where the^ corn- 
poppy was rarely seen went to dwell in a county 
where it was very abundant. She was much 
struck with its great beauty, and expressed her 
feelings to her friends and neighbours. Most of 
these people were the wives and daughters of 
persons " whose occupation was the owning of 
land." They were not only puzzled, but horrified 
also, to find a woman seeing beauty in a noxious 
weed. I well remember a lady — a person of con- 
siderable intellectual cultivation — who expressed 
herself so strongly against the new-comer on that 
account, that it was evident she thought there 
was somethine: sinful in the heart of one who could 
see loveliness in a plant which farmers and rent- 
receivers detested. Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

* Sing a Song for Sixpence.' — The beautifully 
illustrated editions of the old nursery rhymes 
which this generation is supplying to its children 
would alone serve to keep those rhymes alive. 
But as we pictorially improve let us not textually 
deform them. In the late Mr. Oaldecott's * Sing 
a Song for Sixpence' the very title contains an 
alteration quite new to my friends and myself. 



[7tb S. X. July 19, '90/ 

We always sang a song "of" sixpence. This is 
not all. The artist's ingenious interpretation shows 
an old woodcutter with one of his great-coat pockets 
full of rye. We always sang of a " poke." But 
even if it were a pocket, it would not necessarily 
be the pocket of a coat. Witness a pocket of hops. 

W. 0. B. 

Whitster. — No doubt this good English word for 
washerwoman survives somewhere in the provinces, 
but it was not till lately that I came across it in 
official use. Among the salaries of Chelsea Eoyal 
Hospital appears 70Z. per annum for the Whitster. 
It is the exact equivalent of blanchisseuse, the 
woman who makes white ; for, ais Prof. Skeat 
points out in his ^Dictionary' {s.v. '^Spinster"), 
"the A.-S. suffix -estre was used to denote the 
agent, and was conventionally confined to the 
feminine gender only, a restriction which was 
gradually lost sight of." This suffix (irrespective 
of gender) is now more common in Lowland Scots 
than in English, e.g., 6aa;fer= baker, wahster= 

Anyhow, whitster is a good and 

weaver, &c. 

useful word, by many degrees perferable to the 
polysyllabic ^^ washerwoman." 

Herbert Maxwell. 

CAF]fi Procope. — It may be worth while to 
record in ' N. & Q/ the closing of this famous ca/e, 
situated in the Eue de PAncienne Com^die of Old 
Paris, and once patronized by Eousseau, Voltaire, 
and many others of note, on the closed shutters of 
which was to be seen recently the notice, *^ Ma- 

teriel a Vendre '^ 1 

T. F. F. 

The Burial-place of Sir Thomas More's 

Body. — Sir Thomas More's head we all know 
about. But the devout pilgrims who worshipped 
lately at St. Peter ad Vincula were paying their 
tribute to an empty sepulchre ; and I do not think 
a trip up to Chelsea (a much more likely place) 
would have been more accurately historically com- 
forting. The fact is, I believe, no one knows 
where the headless body of the now beatified 
chancellor was interred. H. Pugh. 

Dab. — In Barrfere and Leland's ^ Dictionary of 

Slang,' the only citation for dab, in the sense of an 

expert, isfrom an undated number of Punch, which 

appears to belong to some year in the forties, from 

its mention of Sir Peter Laurie (misspelt Lawrie). 

The word is, however, of much earlier date, as in a 

letter from Lord Chesterfield to Lady Suffolk, 

Aug. 17, 1733, that nobleman speaks of certain 

persons as being "known dahs at finding out 

mysteries " (' Suffolk Correspondence,' 1824, ii. 64). 

The derivation of dab from the verb to dab, or to 

touch with a light and skilful hand, is probably 

There is another signification of dab which is 
not given by Barr^re and Leland. Horace 


of four small rings, says ^'It will be a gentiU%%% to 
sell me these four dabsJ^ In this place the word 
probably means a thing of trifling value. 

Mr. Farmer, in his most valuable work, * Slang 
and its Analogues,' does not give an earlier date 
for the phrase *^ like anything" than 1840. Lady 
Mohun, in a letter to Mrs. Howard, which is 
ascribed by Mr. Croker to the year 1716, asks her 
to tell "dear Molly I like her like anything" 
C Suffolk Cor. ,M. 8). 

An extensive storehouse of slang and strange 
proverbial expressions is a little book called * A Col- 
lection of Welsh Travels,' London, 1738, which 
contains a frontispiece of Dean Swift setting out 
on his journey to Wales. I venture to invite Mr. 
Farmer's attention to this "pleasant relation." 

Jaipur, Eajputana. 

W. F. Prideaux. 

^^ Afore t* friend."— In the Eev. S. Baring- 
Gould's ^ Yorkshire Oddities ' a certain woman is 
said to be living "afore t' friend.'* This phrase, I 
am informed by the author, means *' shifting for 
herself." I have looked into several glossaries 
without discovering it. The phrase is a very 
striking one, but the precise symbolism is not 

easy to follow. 

William E. A. Axon. 


We must request correBpondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 


University Centenary Medals. — When, in 

1884j the University of Edinburgh celebrated its 

tercentenary, a medal was struck in honour of the 

event. The obverse shows a shield bearing the 

university arms (Argent, on a saltire azure, be* 

tween a thistle in chief proper and a castle in base 

sable, a book expanded or) within a quatrefoU, 

ornamented with thistles, and enclosed in a double 

circle, bearing the inscription "Vniversitas Aca- 

demica Edinbvrgensis." On the reverse, within a 

raised circular border of thistles, is the legend 

"Vniversitas Academica Edinbvrgensis annvm 

trecentesimvm feliciter exactvm celebrat a.d. 

MDCccLxxxiv, " Diameter, two and a quarter 

A larger and more artistic medal serves to 
recall the quincentenary of Heidelberg in 1886. 
On the obverse the inscription '* Fridericvs D. Gr. 

Badarvm M.DvxRectorHeid.Perp." surrounds the 
head of the reigning Grand Duke, finely executed 
in bold relief. On the reverse a female figure up- 
holds two medallions, the dexter with the head of 
the founder of the university, the Elector Rupert I., 
the sinister with that of its reorganizer, the first 
Grand Duke, Charles Frederick. Behind, in faint 
outline^ appears the castle of Heidelberg. Below 

7» S. S. JCLI 19, '90. ] 



- t - — 

i^ the legend "Saecvlym sextvm pie avspicatvr 
A,D. MDCCCLXXxvi."; and around, "Vniversitas 
I 'eidelbergensis a Rvperto condita a Oarolo Fri- 
derico instavrata.^' Diameter, three inches. 

In 1888 Bologna, mother of universities, was 
eight hundred years old, and a medal was struck. 
I shall be glad of a description. Can the medal 

he obtained ? 

During the present century the following uni- 
versities, at least, held centenary or jubilee com- 
memorations:— 1809, Leipzig, four hundred years; 
1858, Jena, three hundred; 1860, Berlin, fifty; 
-1865, Vienna, five hundred ; 1875, Leyden, three 
hundred; 1877, XJpsala, four hundred; 1877, 
Tubingen, four hundred; 1877, Marburg, three 
hundred and fifty ; 1877, Innsbruck, two hundred ; 
1879, Copenhagen, four hundred; 1882, Wiirzburg, 
three hundred; 1886, Harvard, two hundred and 
fifty; 1890, Montpellier, six hundred. Did medals 
appear in connexion with any of these ? Doubt- 
less some correspondents can add other names to 

the list. 


P. J. Anderson. 

The Real Shape of the Earth. — Pythagoras, 

and after him Aristoteles and Archimedes, are 
said to have already asserted and geometrically 
proved the spherical figure, or globular shape of 
the earth. What are the main arguments on 
which they based their conclusions ? X. 

[The spherical form of the earth must have early 
suggested itself by the fact that the visible portion^ when 
seen at sea or on a large plain^ always looks round, it 
being obvious, from the distinctDess of objects in the 
offing^ that it is not the mere distance which prevents us 
from seeing further. Thales is said to have been the 
first to teach its globular shape ; but^ of course, correct 
views on the point prevailed only by degrees as more 
and more of the surface was known. Aristotle, in 
his treatise on the heavens (bk, ii.), gives several reasons 
for believing in the earth's sphericity; of these the 
principal is the necessary symmetry of its parts about 
the centre, which can only obtain in a sphere, but he 
mentions others, particularly that its shadow, as seen in 
bclipses of the moon, is always circular. It is true that 
in his ' Meteorologies ' (ii. 5) he speaks of it as drum- 
shaped (oiov TVfiTrdvov) ; but it is evident that he means 

to compare the two hemispheres, considered separately, 
to two drums of the form we should call kettle-drums. 
That the actual shape is not exactly a sphere, but an 
oblate spheriod, is a discovery of modern times, con- 
cluded by Newton from theory, and proved by many 
measurements of long arcs of the meridian taken in 
different parts of the world.] 


Heligoland. — Is not the generally accepted 
etymology of Heligoland— "holy land "—doubtful? 

Among other traditions of St. Willibrord (* N. & 
Q./ 7*^ S. ix. 381) is one to the effect that the 
island received its name immediately after the 
death of this saint, who was instrumental in the 
conversion of its inhabitants, devotees of the god- 
dess Hertha. It seems, however, not improbable 
that at an age when the island was a hundred 

times its present size, and when its chalky coasts 
(now washed away, leaving nothing but the rocky 
nucleus they surrounded) were being perceptibly 
hollowed out by the sea, it was fittingly called 
Hallaglun (Hallig-Land). A note upon this sub- 
ject by Dr. Murray, Prof. Skeat, or some other 
authority upon philological questions would, I 
think, be valued by many readers of * N. & Q/ 

Henry Attwell. 


* Adventures of Young John Bull/— Some 

fifty or sixty years ago I knew the whole of a 
poem — ' The Adventures of Young John BuU^it 
was, I think, called. The youth leaves home with 
his father's advice, of which I only remember a 
line and a half : 

Of this take particular care. 
That whatever you do or whatever you say the name of 

a Briton you bear. 

Young John reaches foreign parts ; and then come 
the lines : 

The follies of Paris we stop not to mention, Bull Junior 

soon left them behind; 
Those wonders of Nature quick caught his attention 

which tourists in Switzerland find. 

Our hero goes to Italy, and his Protestant soul is 
pained by much he sees in Rome ; and at Naples 
he meets a lovely English maiden, but under what 
circumstances, and what he says and does, is, alas ! 
an absolute blank. Somewhere on the way home 
they see a strange ship, and the captain cries out : 

'Tis a pirate as sure as a gun. 

Soon after I remember that the poet tells us that 

John felt like a Briton and fought like a man^ 
But the victory was gained by the foe. 

Again I must confess to oblivion as to his imme- 
diately subsequent fate; but eventually come the 
cheering lines 

About three o'clock he arrived by the coach, and his 

friends were all waiting to meet him, 

*'He 's returned," said his father. '* without self-reproach," 

and his mother was ready to eat him. 

The conclusion follows rapidly : 

To Emma, the maid who at Naples he saw, his heart and 

his hand he then plighted. 
And here is the church where, according to law, this 

amiable pair were united. 

Can any of your readers help me to the remainder 
of this touching tale of adventure, love, and 

marriage ? 

H. Christie. 

Eecueil de Diverses Poesies de Sieur 
D'^'*^^' Londres, 1731.— Who is the author of 


F. M 

340, Wilton Road, Aston, Birmingham. 

[Is it not an edition of Boileau Despreaux 1 We trace 
it in no bibliographical works, French or English.] 

" Pro olla." — This phrase occurs in the Sacrist 
Rolls of Ely Cathedral, in connexion with " O 
Sapientia." Can any correspondent versed in 

^ - 



[7th s. X. July 19, '90. 

mediseval Latin and monastic lore explain it ? I 

cannot find it in Ducange. 

K. H. Smith. 

"Rump and dozen." — Can any of your readers 
help to the explanation of this phrase, or mention 
instances of its occurrence in English literature? 
In Scott's / Guy Mannering ' (p. 270, "Cent. Ed.''), 
Counsellor Pleydell says, " I bet a rump and dozen 
he has it in his pocket." A. W. B. 

[We always understood the phrase to imply a rump- 
steak and a dozen of port. The consumption of this at 
a two o'clock dinner by four well-known worthies, one 
an admiral and the other three lawyers, constituted 
a much discussed, but not unprecedented feat in a 
Northern town somewhere near half a century ago.] 

St. George. — To which family of the name did 
Sir George St. George, of Carrick, co. Leitrim, 
belong ; and whom did he marry ? His daughter 
Eleanor married, in the seventeenth century, Sir 
Arthur Gore, great-grandfather of the first Earl of 

Arran (cr. 1762). 

Kathleen Ward. 

The Telephone. — I have been informed by a 
Belgian gentleman that an electric telephone was 
invented in Belgium in 1858, and might have 
been seen in operation at the College of the 
Josephites at Melle, in East Flanders, a few years 

ago. Is this correct ? 

Emanuel Hospital^ S.W. 

J, Maskell. 

*How TO Catalogue a" Library.'— In the 

Spectator of April 19 it is stated, in a review of 
Mr. Henry B. Wheatley's interesting work, that 
*'it is becoming a question whether it is worth 
while to have a library at all." What was the 
reason that induced the reviewer of the book in 
question to give expression to this sweeping 
opinion? Henry Gerald Hope. 

Freegrove Road, N. 

"IcTiBUS agrestis."— How can I trace this 
quotation, which I find referred to by Chaucer? 
In the 'Miller's Tale' (Group A, 1. 3381), the 
Eilesmere MS. has 

For flom folk wol ben wonnen for richesse. 

And somme for strokes^ and somme for gentilesse; 

and the side-note is, "U 

Ovidius : Ictibus 

Agrestis." I fear Chaucer's memory was at fault, 
as I cannot find it in Ovid. I have also tried 
Virgil, Statins, and Claudian without success. 

Walter W. Skeat. 

Bray. — Is anything known of a Republican 
Capt. Bray, who held a commission in Col. Rey- 
nolds's regiment of horse, and was imprisoned at 
Windsor by the Parliamentary general in 1648, 
apparently for supposed complicity in a general 

mutiny ? 


A. Hall. 
It has be- 

come a custom with certain writers, who consider 

Queen Elizabeth to have been born out of lawful 


wedlock, to speak of her as Elizabeth Boleyn. ., Is 
this correct? I have an impression, not far 
removed from certainty, that illegitimate persons 
can assume either the father's or the mother's sur- 
name, whichever is the more in accord with their 
taste. In fact, it is now generally held that a 
person, whether legitimate or not, can change his 
or her surname at will. In Elizabeth's case a sur- 
name would not be wanted. So far as I remem- 
ber, both before and after she was queen she used 
her Christian name only. 


Joseph Bouchier Smith. — Can any one in- 
form me of the marriage and death of Joseph 
Bouchier Smith, son of Dr. Joseph Smith, LL.D., 
of Oxford? He was lord of the manor of Kidling- 
ton until 1800, and his hatchment is in the church 
there. His wife's arms are upon an escutcheon of 
pretence upon her husband's shield, viz.. Quarterly 
azure and gules, a cross engrailed ermine. Mr. 
Smith did not die at Kidlington. 

M. H. Stapleton. 

Robert Warcop, M. P. for Southwark_ in 
1654-55, Cromwell's second Parliament. 





was he 1 

W. D. Pink. 

CoRNELis Tromp. — Will some kind corre- 
pondent give me the date when Cornells Tromp, 
son of Admiral Tromp, was created Earl of Salis- 

bury ? 

Hugh Owen, F.S.A. 

^n. y 


I ' 

Divorce of George I. — In a recent issue of 
^N. & Q.' a correspondent pointed out a some- 
what serious slip made by a writer in the Edin- 
burgh Review for January last. The reviewer, 
however, seems to know what he is writing about, 
and I should like to learn what is his authority for 
the following statement, contained in a foot-note 
to p- 250 : 

'* Sophia Dorothea died seven months before her hus- 
band; had she survived him, the daughter of Madame 
d'Olbreuze might have been recognized as Dowager 
Queen of England, for Queen of England she indubitably 
was during the reign of George J., there having been no 
divorce to deprive her of her rank and title." 

A writer in the Quarterly Beview for July, 1885, 
referring to this subject, says : 

*' It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to add that Horace 
Walpole was unacquainted with the documentary his- 
tory of the affair. Thus, he declares it to be a doubtfiul 
point whether George I. was ever divorced from his 

In Leslie Stephen's ^Dict. of National Bio- 
graphy ' it is stated (vol. xxi. 147) : 


"Against this princess [Sophia Dorothea] who had 
previously attempted to quit Hanover, and had mani- 
festly meditated a flight with Konigsmark's help, sen- 
tence of divorce was pronounced on the ground of 
malicious desertion." 

Burke gives Dec. 28, 1694, as the date of the 
divorce. As the Edinburgh reviewer must have 
known that this divorce has been accepted as an 

7"! S. X. July 19, '90.] 



historical fact, and as he emphatically states that 
it did not take place^ is it possible that, after all, 
Horace Walpole was justified in entertaining a 
doubt, the mere existence of which, as is seen 
above, was sufl&cient to discredit his testimony ? 
- ' , ' J. Young. 

J. Chalon. — I have some clever etchings after 
Rembrandt, which bear this signature on the face 
of them, and in one case the date 1790. Such 
books of reference as I possess afford no information 
respecting the etcher. Was he a relation of the 
brothers Obalon, the Royal Academicians ? Any 
information will be acceptable. 


Meadd^ Eastbourne. 


*A Sad Disappointment.^ — Can any of your 

readers inform me at what date, and in what num- 
ber of Harper^ s Magazine^ some verses entitled ^ A 
Sad Disappointment,' by Kate Kellog, appeared? 
It was probably before the European edition was 


An Old Rifleman. 

. *' Died of Rage."— On the back of a portrait, 
painted about 1750, is written, on a piece of paper, 
"Robea Sherwin, Father of Joseph Sherwin." This 
is followed by some words written in pencil, now 
very faint. They appear to be, " First husband of 
Mrs. Thorrold died of Rage." Can any one throw 
any light upon the latter t)art of this inscription ? It 
is not certain that the name is Thorrold. The other 
words are more easy to read. I am aware that 
" rage," was used for " hydrophobia." 


Unicorn.— Can any of your readers inform me 
when the unicorn first appeared as a supporter of 
the royal arms ; and why that fabulous animal was 
chosen ? Previous to the reign of James I. a 
dragon (I am told) faced the lion. G. H. R. 

Authors of Quotations Wanted. 

*' Life is at best but a froward child, whicb must be 
coaxed and played with until the end comes." A friend 
writes to me, "I am anxious to chase this home to its 
rightful author, I have seen it attributed to Sir William 

Temple and also to Goldamith." 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

A dream within a dream. 



None without hope e'er loved the fairest fair. 
But love will hope where reason would despair. 

Herbert Maxwell, 

So to the sacred sun in Memnon^s fane, 
Spontaneous concords quired the matin strain; 
Touch'd by his orient beam, responsive rings 
The living lyre, and vibrates all its strings; 
Accordant ailes the tender tones prolong. 
And holy echoes swell the adoring song. 

The author seems to have been thinking of the passage 
m Juvenal :— a *- & 

Dimidio magicae resonant ubi Memnone chordse 
Atque vetus Thebe centum jacet obruta portis. 

* Sat.,' XV. 5, 6. 

John Pickfokd, M.A. 

- ^ 


(7'^ S. ix. 407, 491.) 

If Hermentrude will permit me to say so, she 
appears to have formed the very common, hut 
utterly erroneous, notion of the social status of the 
early London citizens. This family, she writes, 
had a commerical origin, their real " seat '' was 
their draper's shop in Lombard Street. Setting 
aside the fact that unless, like Topsy, they " grew,'* 
they must have had a previous origin, and that 
origin would certainly have been no ignoble one, 
the citizens of London having been invariably 
drawn, until the end of the sixteenth century and 
generally until the middle of the eighteenth, from 
the aristocratic and governing classes. So rigid 
were the civic authorities in enforcing the rule to 
exclude all but those of gentle blood from the free- 
dom, that any one convicted of obtaining it by mis- 
representation was deprived of it. 

I have been at considerable pains in investigating 
this point, and positively I cannot assign an ignoble 
birth to a single member of the Corporation of so 
early a date. Take the case of two doubtful ones. 
Sir Nicholas Brembre is stated to have been a man 
of low parentage — more on account of the obscurity 
of his origin than anything I can discover — but 
his position in the City and the influence he ob- 
tained at Court (being admitted to the Privy 
Council) are sufficient to refute this, taking into 
consideration the extreme aristocratic feeling of the 
time. The little that is known of this man throws 
no light upon his social status. He owned the 
manor of Northall, in Middlesex, but this he may 
not have inherited. Sir William Sevenoke is 
variously stated to have been a foundling and to 
have been the illegitimate son of William Rums- 
hed, his patron ; yet his connexions must have 
been of some consideration to have procured his 
apprenticeship and freedom. The bend sinister 
was viewed in those days with a liberality we 
might well adopt. 

Does Hermentrude fancy, when she speaks of 
their draper's shop, that the De la Poles had an 
open stall, and stood behind a counter measuring 
out stuffs with a yard-measure? No one in those 
days could carry on any business without attaching 
himself to one of the guilds. He might be a 
merchant, importing or exporting all manner of 
merchandise, and attending, or being represented, 
at all the large fairs and markets throughout the 
kingdom ; which by special favour were free of 
toll to the citizens of London. He would live 
in a princely house, and his business trans- 
actions would be effected in the open market, 
at those spots set apart for the exchange of the 
different commodities ; in the same way as mer- 
chants do much of their business, every afternoon, 
at the Eoyal Exchange, to the present day. 




Whittington I need hardly refer to. 


nursery romances which cling around his name 
belong to children's books, and are refuted by his 
well-known descent from a Gloucestershire knight. 
Poor he may have been, but without his gentle 
blood he would have had no chance of rising in 
the City of London — a most exclusive oligarchy. 

What families, not being titled nor ennobled 
ones, could have stood higher socially than the 
Cornhills, Gisors, Frowyks, and Sandwiches, to 
mention a few familiar names not at all exceptional 
in their standing. They were territorial landlords, 
sheriffs of counties (other than London and Middle- 
sex), custodians of some of the kings* most im- 
portant castles and fortresses, and admitted to the 
highest oflSces in the state. Why, so late as in 
King James's reign Sir Baptist Hicks was objected 
to by the Court of Aldermen, as a member of their 
own body, because he held a retail shop ; which so 
disgusted him that when, a few years later, he was 
elected by the ward of Bread Street, he employed 
the king's personal influence in order to obtain the 
acceptance of his resignation. 

As for the De la Poles, Kichard de la Pole, 
Vintner, is described as of Edmonton in 1310 ; 
and was elected Alderman of Biahopsgate in 1330 
(Riley's * Memorials '), whilst John de la Pole pur- 
chased a house, called Gisors House, at the same 
place^ of William de Gisors, in the reign of 
Edward III., 1326-77 (Lysons's 'Environs'). Even 
the Michael de la Pole alluded to as insisting 
upon his right to the " de la," held such offices as 
Admiral of the Fleet and the Chancellorship, and, 
no doubt from his being a favourite of the king 
and concerned with Tresillian and Brembre, made 
many enemies, and had numerous detractors as 
the tide of the king's popularity began to ebb. 

John J. Stocken. 

3, Weltje Road, Ravenecourt Park, W. 

Hbrmentrude is always so exact that one would 
like to ask the authority for the statement that the 
De la Poles sprang from 'Hheir draper's shop in Lom- 
bard Street." The evidence seems quite conclusive 
that this merchant family sprang from Hull, their 
only connexion with Lombard Street being that 
some houses in that street, belonging to the Bardi, 
were granted to William de la Pole by Edward III. 
in 1340 (Frost, p. 113). There does not appear to 
be anything contemptuous in the designation *' atte 
Pool," which is used indifferently for " de la Pole " 
in a large number of instances ; e. g.y Walsingham, 
ii. 141, 146, 147, 149, 309 ; ' Annales/ 312 ; ^Ee- 
gistrum Roffense,' 655 ; ' Rot. Pari./ v. 397, 401. 
The name is no doubt a local designation, like 
" del see," or '' atte see," '' atte welle," ko. 


Hamilton W 

Chapman's ^ All Fools ' (7*** S. vi. 46 ; vii. 
7, 513). — In the second, I think, of the above 

notings I stated that I could see no marks of 
Chapman, neither in wording nor rhythm, in the 



unique copy in his possession of the edition of 

Now I would further quote Chapman's 



gedie of Byron,' two plays published together in 
1608, to the same Sir Thomas, and to his son: 

*^ Sir, though I know, you ever stood little affected to 
these uprofitable rites of Dedication ; (which disposition 
in you, hath made me hetherto dispence with your right m 
my other impressions) yet, least the world may repute it 
a neglect in me, of so auncient and worthy a friend ; 
(having heard your approbation of these in their pre- 
sentment) I could not but prescribe them with your 


Here not merely the words I have italicized, but 
the tenour of the whole passage, make against his 
ever having dedicated one of his previous works to 
him, even had he withdrawn it before the whole 
impression had been worked off. In no way am 
I able to take them as the words of one who had 
already, and but three years before, set forth a son- 
net-dedicatory to his friend and patron. Nay, it 
seems to me that had he done this and then with- 
drawn it he would have naturally alluded to it/ as 
emphasizing both his patron's little affection for 
these unprofitable rites, and also his own desire to 
withhold what he had done, in accordance with 
his friend's known opinions. In the third place^ 
having applied to Messrs. Eobson & Kerslake, as 
kindly suggested by Col. Prideaux, they tell me 
that they have neither record nor remembrance of 
having either purchased or sold the copy of ^ All 
Fools ' in the sale catalogue of Mr. Oiivry's books. 
Fourthly, I have asked in vain in these columns and 
privately as to the whereabouts of this supposed 
copy, as also for the name of its present possessor. 
Fifthly, there is nothing in the said catalogue 
proving that the copy therein set forth was the one 
from which Mr. Collier took his " reprints," and 
this, and what it fetched, viz., \l. 12s. — a price 
much too small for a unique copy sure to have 
been bid for by the British Museum and by 
others — render it more probable that it was 
a copy of 1605, with one of Mr. Collier's 
alleged reprints inserted. Sixthly, in accordance 

Collier's lifetime, or since his death, or at or since 
Mr, Ouvry's sale, has, so far as can be ascertained, 
ever seen this 1605 copy. And with this I may 
join the fact that no one has ever seen an all but 
unique copy of a map which Collier stated — I think 
in the Athenceum — that he had so soon as the pos- 
sessor of the unique copy had announced his trea- 
sure trove. One person who called to see this 
Collier copy was told that it had been mislaid 
in some of his old folios ; but neither he nor any 
other has seen it from that day to this. Seventhly, 
Dr. Garnett, who on my asking him about the ^All 


Mr. 4 

X. July 19, '90.] 



Fools ' kindly and of his own accord examined the as a suite of rooms, an application of the word 



after his 


death, could find no entry of it. And here I 
would remark that Mr. Collier had not very long 
before announced in the Athenceum the theft from 
his room of several valuable books, curiously 
omitting — as it occurred to me at the time, and 
without a thought of the interpretation I would 
now put on it — any mention of their names. I 
thought, and naturally thought, that he would 
(have mentioned what they were, if only to aid in 
.the detection of the thieves, and to set purchasers 

on their guard. 

Col. Prtdeaux speaks of Collier having some- 
times been accused of forgery on slight grounds, 
know not to what " sometimes " he refers, I not 
^ having busied myself with such matters unless 
they came in my way. But on sure and certain 
grounds it has been proved that he was a forger ; 
and keeping other instances in the background 
if being so well known they can be so kept — I 
would refer any one to the late Dr. 0. M. Ingleby's 
tractate ' Was Lodge a Player ? * This decisively 
shows CoUier^s habitual inaccuracy in transcribing, 
his intentional misleadment as to the effect of the 
.worm-holes of the original, and his introduction 
into his transcript of the Dulwich MS. of the words 
"of him as a player" — words which were not and 
"^ould not have been there, and for which words, in 
order that they might make sense, he was obliged 
to omit a previous *' of me. " 

Since, then. Collier did forge, I, having dispas- 
sionately considered the facts that I have set forth, 
have been compelled to believe that this sonnet- 


And till I have a 

sight of this unseen copy, or the concurrent testi- 
mony of more than one expert shall assure me 
that they have seen it, and can vouch for the son- 
net having been printed in 1605, I shall place it 
-within prison brackets. Br. Nicholson. 

« I 

Eegimental Messes (7*^ S. ix. 388, 476 ; x. 

35), — Foreign officers have not " a mess " by regi- 
.ment, but several. A French regiment contains 
so many officers that there are in it always at least 
two messes, that of the lieutenants and that of the 
higher ranks. B. 

The modern migration of mess from England 
to France is shown by the wording of Littr6's de- 
finition : " Mot anglais dont on se sert quelquefois 
aujourdhui chez nous pour designer une table 
d'officiers qui dinent ensemble." I find in a comic 
paper of later date a sketch which shows the 
novelty of the term. One of two ladies arriving 
at barracks addresses a soldier, who is polishing a 
pair of boots, " Le capitaine X. s'il vous plait." — 
*^Le gabidaine il etre au mess." — "Gontran a la 

que ton mari reviendrait enfin 
k la foi de ses p^resl" Dnargel may see in 
this some confirmation of his definition of a mess 

messe, est ce 

absent from dictionaries, not only French but Eng- 
lish, although in England the term has long been 
applied in practice to the mess premises. 


Population of Scotland in the Middle 
Ages (7^*» S. ix. 427).— Into this large and in- 
teresting general question of Mr. Bouchier's I 
cannot profess to enter. But I entertain a firm 
belief that Scotland in the Middle Ages was not 
so very thinly populated. No doubt the sufferings 
in war-time were terrible ; but we know from the 
facts in France under Napoleon that protracted 
war increases the ratio of growth of population 
marvellously. Though the towns of the Scots were 
much smaller in early times than now, many of the 
rural districts, on the other hand, were far more 
populous. There has been a tremendous falling 
off in some country districts in course of the present 
century. Clearances are not confined to the High- 
lands. Within a radius of half a mile from my 
home in Annandale, seven hamlets, or rows of cot- 
houses, have disappeared since sixty years ago. 

Battle statistics are necessarily misleading. It 
is the policy of each side to deceive the other. 
Passing lightly over the defective information and 
the inevitable bias of historians of all times, is it to 
be wondered at that Middle Age estimates of num- 
bers are so often glaringly astray ? A battle is nat 
a parade, and even in parades heads are hard to 
count. In our own day the newspaper accounts 
of meetings and demonstrations are continually 
showing by their gloriously divergent Bgures that 
the trained intelligence of the fourth estate in this 
century of light and leading has not yet mastered 
this difficult branch of arithmetic. The early 
chronicler was nothing if not patriotic, whether 
bent on magnifying the glory of a victory or mini- 
mizing the stigma of defeat. Bower tells us that 
at Bannockburn the defeated force consisted of 
340,000 horse and nearly as many foot ! Not a 
bad day's fighting for the men who won, being 
only 30,000 plus 15,000 camp followers who did 
not count ! The estimate, however, is rather high 
even for a Scot^s stomach. Most authorities allow 
from 80,000 to 100,000 as the English total. The 
latest critic, Mr. Joseph Bain, in his ' Calendar,' 
vol. iii., preface p. xxi, is nearer the mark when he 
gives Edward II. 50,000 and Robert Bruce 16,000. 
Suppose we say 20,000 for the Scottish army on 
that occasion. It is not probable that the average 
fighting strength of Scotland in the fourteenth cen- 
tury was more. In 1333, at Halidon Hill, 
assembled for a most important national campaign, 
the Scots (according to Wyntown, viii. ch. 37), 
" Sowmyd-^ sexty full thowsand.'' But Knyghton 
gives an exact and sensible account, representing 
their number to have been under 15,000. It is, 

* Summed; made a total of. 



[7tt S. X. July 19, '90. 


therefore, impossible]^to believe that 14,000 fell on 
that fatal day. 

The quotation which Mr. Bouchier makes from 
Prof. Creighton's ' Carlisle ' is easily explained. 
In a compressed narrative it is almost impossible 
to avoid mistakes, and the passage in question con- 
tains one. The force which besieged Carlisle in the 
spring of 1296 was not " the men of Annandale," 
it was the national army, consisting of the followers 
of the seven earls. The facts given by Prof. 
Creighton are, directly or indirectly, from Walter of 
Hetuicgburgh. Walter had an interest in Annan- 
dale. Being a canon of Gisburn, he more than 
once refers to Annan in a kind of proprietary way. 
Its church is ^^our*' church; the teinds of corn 
there are " ours '^ too. And so they were ; they 
had been gifted to the monastery by one of the 
first of the Annandale Bruces. But Hemingburgh 
does not say the 40,000 besiegers were the men of 
Annandale. He says they marched through 
Annandale (Heming. Eag. His. Soc. edition, 
p. 94), which is a tolerably explicit contradiction of 
any idea that as a body they were natives. Ad- 
mittedly Rishanger and Trivet and Walsingham all 
say, "collecto exercitu valido in Valle Anandiee" 
(Rish., j. 156; Trivet, 159; Wals. i. 55, Rolls 
series editions), words which facilitate an erroneous 
inference that the army was recruited in the Annan 
valley ; but I take the true meaning to be that it 
met there. At any rate there is nothing more cer- 
tain than this, that the 40,000 were not " the men 

book made of stout white paper, big enough to 
contain the largest plates without folding, and 
place the engravings loosely between the leaves. 
The volume should be kept in an horizontal posi- 
tion, and then the various articles will not slip out. 
The advantage of this plan is that the collection 
may be added to from time to time without diflS.- 
culty, and inferior plates may be removed when 
better ones come to band. I know of a society 
possessing a very valuable collection of topo- 
graphical engravings, which is kept in this way, to 
the great satisfaction of all who wish to consult it. 
If, however, Mr. Lindsay is determined to 
grangerize his collections, I would suggest that 
before he does so he should examine the illustrated 
Clarendon in the Bodleian Library, which has the 
character for being the most magnificent granger- 

ized book in existence. 

K. P. D. E. 

If Mr. C. Lindsay is ever at Oxford and would 
inquire at the Bodleian for the Sutherland Collec- 
tion, he would find that the work which he pro- 
poses to do has been done on a stupendous scale^ 
and might gather some hints which would be use- 

ful to him. 

Samuel R. Gardiner. 

Americanisms (7*^ S. ix. 406, 424). — This is 

not a small matter, and it was well worth mention- 
ing. The people of the United States have as much 
right to the English language as we have, and if 
they choose to spoil it that is their affair, and we 
cannot stop the spoiling. But, after all, the lan- 
guage is English; and we, as Englishmen, are bound 
to see that our own literature does not fall below 
the old standards of right and wrong. English 
publishers have until lately done this, so far as 
spelling is concerned ; but every club table now 
further, to be inartistic. I believe a better method 1 bears witness that they do not always resist the 

of Annandale." 

Geo. Neilson. 

Grangerizing (7^^ S. ix. 507).— I have heard 
this method denounced as barbarous, and have 
been informed that it has led to much wanton 
destruction of illustrated books. It seems to me, 


is to keep the prints in a portfolio, or to have a 
proper scrap-book made for the purpose. In this 
way no copy of a book need be sacrificed, and all 
damage to the prints can be avoided. They can 
still be used to illustrate the book by keeping the 
scrap-book and the volume on the same table. I 
am convinced that no one who adopts this method 
will ever regret it. Walter W. Skeat. 

The best edition of Lord Clarendon's * History 
of the Rebellion ' for the purpose Mr. Lindsay re- 
quires is that in three volumes, folio, 1702-1704. 
It is printed on good paper of a large size, and 
may be picked up for a small sum. Mr. Lindsay 
no doubt knows that all editions of Clarendon are 
imperfect before that edited by Dr. Bandinel in 
1826, which was produced from a careful collation 
of the original manuscript. 

If I may be permitted to make a suggestion, I 
would remark that there is a more excellent way of 
preserving engravings and autographs relating to a 
particular time or subject than binding them up 

between the leaves of a book. Have a large folio 

American innovations. 

The most difficult case, perhaps, is that of an 
English author who sells his work to American 
publishers. If he is wise, and is popular enough 
to insist, he should stipulate formally beforehand 
that the English spelling shall be used in his book. 
But even then he is not safe. Such a stipulation 
was lately made, and put into due legal form; and 
yet the earlier numbers of the novel to which it 
related were issued by the American publisher 
with all the English spellings altered. The author, 
a man who writes pure and excellent English, in- 
sisted on an immediate compliance with his terms, 
and carried his point. So the book in its first issue 
is parcel-English parcel- Yankee in spelling. 

A. J. M. 

Having been a resident in America for over 
three years, I at all times take the greatest interest 
in the above subject. Hermentrqde asks whether 
tbe words postals^ sacks, trade, and posted, respec- 
tively, for letters J jachets^ shopping, and to hioWj 

are American provincialisms. My experience 


7^ ?. X. July 19, '90.] 



points to the fact that these words, with the ex- 
ception of trade, are very generally used through- 
out the American continent, and not confined to 
any particular district. In Canada and in many of 
the States they go ^^ shoppiog/* md use the word 
trade where the English would "use exchange or 

' barter. .. — . - - 

Such phrases as "He hought a coat, not only, 

but a hat too,".^' He told his father, not only, but 

his brother also," are, I should say, not American- 

of style on the part of 

isms, but eccentricity 
*^ Pansy." 


Readers interested in this subject should read 
^ The Mysterious Stranger,^ a novel published by 
Digby & Long. Many of the characters are Ame- 
rican, and the author has explained in an appendix 
the words and phrases they use, together with 
the origin of some of them. I quote from 
his list some of the words which are invariably 
used throughout the United States and Canada: 
candy, stores, mucilage, dry-goods, supper, lunch, 
rubbers, clerk, fire a rock, bureau, an elevator, 

freight-tram, get 
Here are their 

up, hurry up or hustle, say. 
English equivalents : — sweets, 

gum, drapery, tea (the meal), supper, 
goloshes, shopman, labourer, throw a stone, chest 
of drawers, a lift, gee up, be quick, I say. 
I "Gum" in America is a confection to chew. 
Space will not permit my making known the 
American meaning of the words chestnuts, rats, 
^nd fix; but it will all be found explained in the 

book I refer to. 

C. H. Thorburn. 

' 12, Kent Place, Great Yarmouth, 

I am much amused by an expression in Mr. 
W. E. Norris's letter to the Times quoted by 
KiLLiGREw at the above reference, namely, "I 
wrote to Messrs. Longman with the tears running 
down my pen," and I shall take the liberty of bor- 
rowing it on occasion. It may be compared with 
Pancrace's defiance of " un ignorant" in Moli^re's 
*Le Mariage Forc4,' scene vi., "Je soutiendrai 
mon opinion jusqu'a la derni^re goutte de mon 
encre." With regard to the Americanisms so 
justly reprobated by Mr. Norris, I can only say 
for myself that if I were to write a book, and were 
to find it, when published, disfig'ured by this de- 
testable American spelling — " offense," *^ theater," 
*^ traveler," and so on — I should simply have to 
imitate the legendary Scotchman, who, on a cer- 


occasion, not 

finding his own room wide 

enough for the purpose, went out into the road 
and " swore at large " ! Jonathan Bouchier. 

Some of these phrases are by no means peculiar 
to any single writer. ^^Boughten" and "posted" 
are common enough in England, and though the 
latter may be an importation, the former is native 
to our speech here in Lincolnshire. I have heard 
the space between the counters of a shop called 
**the aisle" in Liverpool, and shopmen are**clerks" 

all over the States. The use of *^ necessities" for 
necessaries is a common ignorant blunder. 

C. C. B, 

I think all the expressions quoted here are not 
Americanisms. Necessities and sacks, for instance, 
are given as English words used by true English 
writers in Webster's * Dictionary': 

** Necessity 3. That which is neceBsary, a necessary; 

a requisite, used chiefly in the plural : — 

These should be hours for necessities 

Not for delights. 


What was once to me 

Mere matter of the fancy, now has grown 

The vast necessity of heart and life. 


'^ Sach A loosely hanging garment for males or 

females, worn like a cloak about the shoulders (written 

also $acgue)J*^ 

The French for it is paletot sac, which is a " paletot 
non ajust^ a la taille, espfece de paletot d'^t^" 

" Boughten, purchased ; not obtained or pro- 
duced at home/' is marked by Webster as *^ Local 


^^ To post 6. To acquaint with what has oc- 
curred, to inform ; often with -up," is marked as 

"colloquial." The same for ^'Notion 4. A 

small article, a trifling thing ; used chiefly in the 
plural, as Yankee notions.^^ 

The same dictionary gives, without any particu- 
lar mark, " ClerTc 5. An assistant in a shop or 

store, who sells goods, keeps accounts, &c." 

I regret to be unable to account for the other 
expressions peculiar to "Pansy" mentioned by 

Hermentrude. Dnargel, 

English Psalter (T'*' S. ix. 345, 398, 612). 
Overlooking the fact that the year 1466/7 was one 
of those in which the printed lists are more than 

usually at sixes and 

sevens, I 

am obliged to 

G. E. 0. for drawing; my attention thereto. I will 
be more explicit. Of course it *^ gives one pause" 
to controvert so eminent an authority upon 
weightier matters as Mr. Gairdner. His time is 
far too precious to be wasted over the humbler 
matters of the law, and he doubtless followed one 
of the ordinary lists. It is then that the inob- 
trusive work of the literary mole becomes useful, 
although I remember being told by a City knight 
that my work was absolutely worthless. The fact 
is there were four sheriffs in that year, both the 
original holders having died, probably of the 
Plague. Orridge gives their names correctly, but 
in inverted order. By means of the Harleian 
MSS, Nos. 6076 and 6829 their positive succession 
is determinable. They are John Browne, mercer, 
who died in office, and was buried at St. Leonardos, 
Foster Lane ; John Derby, buried circa 1466 
(Stow) at St. Dionys Backchurch ; Henry Brice, 
elected loco Browne, died April 23, 1469, and 

buried at St. Martin's, Outwich ; John Stockton, 




mercer, elected loco Derby. John Broomer, fish- 
moDger, was alderman, but I cannot find he was 
ever sheriflf, and as his death occurred in 1474, 
being buried at St. James's, Garlick Hill, he 
could not have been sheriff in 1466/7, taken in 



The discrepancies of the printed lists of sheriffs 

are marvellous: roughly speaking, no two positively 

agree. The earliest divergence, I think, occurs in 
1298, - - - 


Stortford, and is rectified (?) by the omission of 
Richard Rothing and Roger Chauncelor in 1326. 
These Stortfords are ignored by Stow, having been 
Crown nominees, vice Thomas de Suffolk and Adam 
of Fulham, displaced (1297/8). Grafton carries on 
the error in an extraordinary manner down to 
1452, and then rights himself in a stranger way 
by the omission and entire suppression of Richard 
Lee and Richard Alley ; yet both these men be- 
came Mayor, and have otherwise no shrievalty 
assigned to them. I say both these men advisedly, 
for in a paper I am preparing I shall endeavour to 
demonstrate— and successfully, I believe— that Sir 

Richard Lee, Mayor 
from the Mayo 

J X — — — 

that, in fact, one of them 

was no other than the t j, .^, 


My own list of sherifife is based upon the lists in 
the Cotton and Harley collections, then compared 
with Stow, and finally checked with every deed 
and every authority I come across. A work of in- 
cessant labour, but it has satisfied me that, putting 
aside its omissions, Stow's list is substantially 

The family of the Brownes has been somewhat 
fully discussed in the fifth volume of the present 
series of * N. & Q.' I am not sure, but possibly it 
may confirm the death of the sherijff of 1466. 

John J. Stocken. 

3, Weltje Road, Ravenscourt Park, W. 

"Rake" in Topography (7*»» S. ix. 508).— In 
1673 a man was fined for allowing his cattle to do 
damage "infra subosc." at Arundale House, West 
Scrafton, North Riding of Yorkshire, "infra le 
Black Rayk" (Yks. Arch. Jour., x. 422). In 
North Riding Record Society's Publications, i. 77, 
n., it is explained as "a range or stray." 

W. 0. B. 

There is a farm at a village called Eccleston, 
close to Eaton Hall, the residence of the Duke of 
Westminster, which bears the name of " The Rake 
Farm." T. Oann Hughes, M.A. 


The term raJce is applied by the lead-miner to 
veins of galena in the North of England and 
Derbyshire, which occur in vertical joints of lime- 
stone that have been widened by solution. In this 
sense there appears to be a survival of the old 

meaning of crack or crevice pointed out by Mr. 
Hall. Writing in 1747, William Hooson, a Derby- 
shire miner, defines the term rahe in the following 
manner : 

'* This Word is used commonly for Vein, yet we may 
observe some Difference therein ; one shall never hear 
a Miner say I have found a new Rake, but it is com- 
mon to say I have found a new Vein, but after Work 
is made in it, and two or three Shafts sunk, and a 
Company of People employed thereon, then to call it a 
Rake seems fit enough."— '* The Miners' Dictionary. 
Explaining not only the Terms used by Miners, but also 
containing the Theory and Practice of that most useful 
Art of Mineing, more especially of Lead-Mines. Printed 
for the Author and T. Payne, Bookseller in Wrexham. 


Bennett H. Brough. 

Royal School of Mines. 

Of. the Lady's Rake, a narrow pass between the 
hills by Derwentwater, over which the lady of that 
ilk is said to have escaped with her jewels in 1715. 

C. C- Be 

There are two places in the parish of Saddle* 
worth, CO. York, ending with rahCj Foulrake and 
Stonerake, probable meaning of these names being 
Foulpit, Stonepit. John Radcliffe. 

Furlane^ Greenfield^ Oldham. 

St. Saviour's, Southwark (7^ S. ix. 447). 
Two privately printed copies of * Some Account of 
St. Saviour's, Southwark, London ' (in verse), by 
Hannah Jackson Gwilt, "Filia Architecti,'' will 
be found in the British Museum Library. Both 
are presentation copies from the authoress, and 
bear her autograph inscription. That dated 1865 
contains an address (in MS.), ^*24 Hereford Square, 
S. Kensington." The other, being the second edi- 
tion, bears date 1874, " the Year of the Transit of 

Venus over e Sun," 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

This poem was privately printed in 1865, and a 
second edition in 1874. Miss G wilt's name occurs 
in the list of members of the Royal Archaeological 

Institute for 1889. 

De V. Payen-Payne. 

St. Mary Overy, now St. Saviour's, South-- 

WARE (7'^ S. ix. 209, 277, 433).— I have seen 
something like this etymology before, but when it 
appears in *N. & Q.' I do not think it ought to 
pass without protest. I hope Mrs. Boger will 
excuse me if I say it is an impossible etymology, 
and not a whit less absurd than the derivation 
from Mary of the Ferry. The rey of Surrey and 
the vie of Overie have nothing in common. May 
I also ask where the word rea is to be found ? It 
is not in Bosworth's ^Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.' 

1. The earliest form of Surrey is Suth-rige (see 
^ Saxon Chronicle '). Now if rea, in which there 
is no gf, were really an Anglo-Saxon word, meaning 
a river, it could not have given rise to Suth-rige, 
which is the form to be explained. Apparently 
Suth-rige was a plural form, meaning the people, 





7U« S. X. July 19, '90. J 



j^hile Suth-rigea (singular) denoted the district 
DUth-rige or Suth-rigea appear to contain the 
i.-S. hricg, hrycg, hrygy Early English rigge, 
which has become ridge in modern English. Suth- 
rig, therefore, equals South-ridge, referring to the 
beautiful range of hills to the south of the Thames, 
of which Leith Hill is the culminating point. By 
the usual phonetic changes Suth-rige or Suth-rigea 
becomes Surrey. A similar contraction occurs in 
Peckham Rye (rye = rig = ridge\ and also in 
Keigate, which seems to mean the gate, or opening, 
or entrance in the rye^ rey^ or ridge. 

% St. Mary veries has a totally different origin. 
In Bosworth's * Anglo-Saxon Dictionary/ under 
the word "Ofer," masculine noun (genitive ofres, 
dative ofre\ meaning a margin, brink, bank, shore, 
is this extract from Somner : " St. Marie Oferes, 
St. Mary Overies or Overs : Sancta Maria ripse, 
ad ripam vel ripensis." Here we have a derivation 
that exactly answers to what is required, and de- 
scribes the situation of the church— St. Mary of 
the Bank, or on the Bankside. The form Overie, 
or Overy, may have resulted from the dropping of 
the s under the erroneous supposition of its being 
a plural, like the modern vulgarism Chinee from 


Henry B. Whbatley. 

De. Scargill (7*** S. ix. 407). — The annexed 

extracts are from " The Recantation of Daniel 

^Scargill, Publickly made before the University of 

Cambridge, in Great St. Maries, July 25, 1669," 

Cambridge (printed), 1669, 4to. : 

"Whereas I Daniel Scargill, late Batchelour of Arts, 
and Fellow of Corpus Christi CoUedg, in the University 
of Cambridg, being through the instigation of the Devil 
possessed with a foolish proud conceit of my own wit, 
* and not having the fear of God before my eyes : Have 
lately vented and publickly asserted in the said Uni- 
versity, divers wicked, blasphemous, and Atheistical 
positions, (particularly, That all right of Dominion is 
founded only in Power : That if the Devil were Omni- 
potent, he ought to be obeyed : Thatall moral Righteous- 
ness is founded only in the positive Law of the Civil 
Magistrate : That the Scriptures of God are not Law 
further than they are enjoyned by the Civil Magistrate : 
That the Civil Magistrate is to be obeyed, though he 
should forbid the Worship of God, or command Theft, 
Murder, and Adultery) professing that I gloried to be an 
Hobbist and an Atheist : and vaunting, that Hobba 
should be maintained by Daniel, that is by me. Agree- 
ably unto which principles and positions, I have lived in 
great licentiousness, swearing rashly, drinking intemper- 
ately, boasting my self insolently, corrupting others by 
my pernicious principles and example, to the high Dis- 
honour of God, the Reproach of the University, the 
Scandal of Christianity, and the just offence of mankind. 
And whereas the Vicechancellour and Heads of the said 
University, upon notice of these my foul enormities, 
upon a ful examination and clear conviction of these 
premised offences, after suspension from my Degree, did 
expel me out^ of the said University : Now I the said 
Daniel Scargill, after frequent consideration, strict 
examination, and serious review of the said Positions, 
do find that they are not only of dangerous and mis- 
chievous consequence, but that they are utterly false, 

the suggestions of a lying spirit, wholly against my own 

judgment resolved upon better consideration, as well as 

against the common sense of mankind I do disclaim, 

renounce, detest, and abhor those execrable Positions 

asserted by me or any other This Recantation, and 

sincere Profession, I make willingly and freely of my 
mind and choice/^ &c. 

Daniel Hipwell, 

34, Myddelton Square, ClerkenwelL 

With regard to the query headed *Dr. Scargill/ 
the following references^ kindly furnished to me 
by the Professor of Latin, will be of help to Mr. 
Tate. "Dr." is probably a misreading for Ds. 
(Dominus = B.A.) or for D. (= Daniel). 

"Daniel Scargill, B.A., his recantation publickly 
made before the University of Cambridge, in Great 
St. Maries, July 25, 1669. Printed by the printers 
to the University of Cambridge. 1669. 4to.," 
reprinted in ' Somers's Tracts,' ed. Scott, vii. 370, 
Cf. Cooper's * Annals of Cambridge,' iii. 532; 
Ant. Wood, *Athen. Oxon.,' ed. Bliss, iii. 1215, 
Registry Box 63. The whole of the papers tran- 

scribed in Baker's MS. xxvii. 143, 144. 


'Catalogue of MSS. in Cambridge University 

Library; v. 263.) 

Dan. Scargill of Corpus, Rector of Mulbarton, 
Norf., widower, and Sarah Garman, of Alhallows 
in the Wall, London, spinster, thirty-four, and at 
her own disposal, marriage licence (St. Martin's, 
Ludgate, or St. Helen's, London, March 20, 


Donald MacAlister. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 

St. Virus's Dance, its Cure (7^^ S. ix. 466). 

St. Vitus is the patron saint of dancers and 
actors, as also of those who do not rise early. But 
the legend consists of a curious jumble. The saint 
was a young Sicilian nobleman, converted to Chris- 
tianity by his nurse. His father, discovering this, 
scourged him and threw him into prison. There 
the angels came and danced to him amid dazzling 
light. The father looked in and was struck blind. 
A dancing mania in Germany seems to have been 
called "Chorea Sancti VitL" Forsyth says that 
the saint's devotees disordered their intellects by 
dancing, and could not be restored till the next 
anniversary of St. Vitus (June 15). But how the 
convulsions known as St. Vitus's dance came to be 
so called is not clear. There is an interesting 
reference to the dancing on Whit Monday at the 

chapel at Ulm pt S. iii. 241. 


C. A. Ward. 

James Smyth, Collector, of Dublin (7'^ S. 

viu. 327, 393; ix. 76).— Foster's 'Peerage/ 1880, 
describes Mary Smyth, mother of the first Vis- 
count Guillamore, as " dau. of Jas. Smyth, Esq. 
(son of Right Rev. Thos. Smyth, D.D., Bishop of 


Allow me to append a query relative to the 
collector's (or Skeffington Smyth) branch. The 
Dublin, Chronicle^ May 4, 1793, mentions in the 



[7'hS.X. JuLYl9/90. 

obituary notice of Mrs. Talbot, wife of William 
Talbot, Esq., of Lougherp, King's Co,, that she 
was ^* a near relation to Lord Llandaff and Lady 
Morres." Mrs. Talbot, nee Frances Smyth, was 
sister of William Smyth, Esq., of Borris-in-Ossory, 
Queen's Co., and her youngest brother was Valen 
tine Smyth, of (I believe) Hamilton's Place (now 
Roundwood), Qaeen's Co. What was the "near" 
relationship alluded to? I examined Add. MS. 
23,686 without getting any light on the point. 
The collector's daughter, Alice Smyth, married 
Francis Mathew, created Lord LlandaflF. The 
relationship between the families of Smyth and 
Morres I have not ascertained. Pue^s Occurrences, 
January, 1733, mentions a case affecting lands in 
Tipperary ia which the persons interested are 
William Smith, Ann his wife, and others, ad- 
ministrators of Redmond Morres, Esq., deceased, 
Anne, Dowager Lady Middleton, Sir Redmond 
Morres, Darby Clark, executor of Robert Smith, 

The name appears spelt either 

Charles S. King. 

deceased, &c. 

Smith or Smyth. 

Corrard, Lisbellaw, 

Family of Barwis of LANGRiaa Hall (7^^ S. 

ix. 66). — A portrait of the great Barwise is at 
Dovenby Hall, Cumberland. See Catalogue of 
Archaeological Museum formed at Carlisle in 1859 
by the R.A.L See Nicolson's * Visitation of Dio- 
cese of Carlisle' (Westward and Wigton), Ja. 
Baines's * Monuments,' and Hutchinson's * Cum- 
berland'; also Tullie's * Account of the Siege of 
Carlisle,' 1644-5). I cannot give exact references, 

being from home. 

R. S. Ferguson. 

BuRNSiANA (7*^ S. ix. 465 ; x. 36).—* The Joy- 
ful Widower' is not in any of Burns's works pub- 
lished in his lifetime, and so far as I know the 
only authority for ascribing the song to him is 
Stenhouse. The song appeared as No. 98 of the 
first yolume of the ' Scots Musical Museum ' with- 
out any author's name. Burns, having made the 
acquaintance of Johnson the publisher, before the 
first volume was completed in 1787, contributed 
two original songs, ' Green grow the Rashes ' and 
^ Young Peggie.' He also sent 'Bonie Dundee,' 
the first four lines of which formed part of the first 
stanza of an old ballad. In the index of this first 
volume of the * Museum' * Green grow the Rashes ' 
is the only piece as written by " Mr. Burns." 
' Young Pepgie ' was, however, his, as he sent it in 
a letter to Miss Peggy Kennedy, in whose honour 
he wrote it ; and * Bonie Dundee ' he sent to his 
friend Cleghorn, describing the portion he wrote. 

'The Joyful Wido 

has no author's name 

attached to it. Stenhouse wrote illustrative notes 
to the 'Museum,' which he completed and had 
printed in 1820, but not published until 1839. On 
'The Joyful Widower' he says ''These three 
humourous stanzas were written by Burns. They 

Lauder.'" Stenhouse does not quote any autho- 
rity for the statement; and, as his uncertain reputa- 
tion is well known, it is needless to say that in* 
this case he has led the public astray. It is pos- 
sible that Burns may have sent the song to John-' 
son, but it is quite clear he never claimed to be 
the author. It is not inserted in any good edition 
of Burns's works ; but if it is to be found in any 
collection it is solely on this transmitted paragraph 
which Stenhouse wrote and which I have quoted. ■ 

J. Dick. 

11, Osborne Avenue, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

Biographers state that Burns sent communica- 
tions both to Johnson and Thomson for their pub- 
lications which were not his own compositions, • 
but dressed and altered by him to suit a Scotch 
tune, in Scottish attire. Burns never claimed this . 
song, and it is mentioned as one of these communi* 
cations. It is not in Ourrie's edition. I have now 
before me the original manuscript of this song. It 
varies in the following particulars from your ver-> 
sion. '^For Mr. Thomson's Collection. The Joy- 
ous Widower." Line 3, '* She made me weary o' . 
my life"; line 10, "Js man and wife thegether'^i 
line 11, "At length /rag me her course she steered^^; 
line 12, "And gone I know not whether ^^; line 20,> 
" The deil could ner abide her." Note, "This is 
a vain conceit, and may not suit your Fancy. If 
so, you must leave it alone. — Robt. Burns.'' Mr. 
Neale will also find this plagiarism in ' Yair's 
Charmer,' 1751, vol. i., with Charles Coffee's name 


Ye godg, you gave to me a wife. 

J * 

Having acquired Burns's manuscripts, collected for 
the use of Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, and 
Motherwell, the poet, for their edition of Burns's 
* Works,' I shall be very glad to answer any queries 
regarding Burns. 


James Stillib. 

« i 

are adapted to the well-known air 


MoRDEN College (7^^ S. ix. 489).— This col- 
lege was founded by Sir John Morden in 1695 for 

•'poor, honest, sober, and discreet merchants who shall 
have lost their estates by accidents, dangers, and perils 
of the seas, or by any other accidents, ways, or means, 
in their honest endeavour to get their living by way of 

It affords a home, together with maintenance, 
attendance, and an annual income of 72Z,,to about 
forty pensioners, and is still in existence. 

EvERARD Home Coleman. ' 


71, Brecknock Road, 


A few weeks ago I was able to send to the Eev. 
the Hon. John Harbord, Chaplain of Morden Col- 
lege, Blackheath, a copy of a curious farewell ser- 
mon preached in the chapel of that college in 1711 


by Samuel Asplin, then chaplain. 

W. 0. B. 



Happify (7^^ S. ix. 508).— Joshuah Sylvester, 
known as *^the silver-tongued Sylvester," who 

r ' 

7thS. X. JX7LY.19, m] 



lourished about the end of the reign of EHza- 
Deth and beginning of that of Jaihea (1563-1618), 
he author of "Tobacco Battered and the Pipes 
Shattered (about. their Ears that idely Idolize so 
base and barbarous a Weed ; or at least-wise over- 
love so loathsome a Vanitie : By a Volley of Holy 
Shot Thundered from Mount Helicon," makes use 
of the word in his poem of ' Henrie the Great ' : 

This Prince unpeerd for Clemency and Courage 
Justly eurnam'd the Great, the Good, the Wise, 

Mirour of Future, Miracle of Fore-Age, 

One short Mishap for ever Happfies. 

See the * Complete Works of Joshuah Sylvester,' 
by Rev. Alex. B. Grosart, LL.D., 1880,11. 639-42. 

• ■■ 'i . , . EvERARD Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

Dr. Daniel Scott (7'^ S. \x. 406).— In the ac- 
count of him found in Gent. Mag., 1779, vol. xlix. 
p. 315, it is said that he "died suddenly in a re- 
tirement near London, March 29, 1769." His 
will, dated April 21, 1755, proved April 12, 1759 
(RO.O. 147, Arran), contains certain directions as 
to his burial : 

^^^ I Daniel Scott now living in the Parish of Saint Lukes 

in the County of Middlesex It is my desire that my 

funeral be private and fi ugdl and that I may be buried 
in the place where I die. If I die a lodger Boarder or 
Visiter I desire my Executor to make a present to the 
people of the House where I die proportionable to the 
"trouble my Illness and death shall occasion not exceed- 
ing Ten pounds besides paying necessary Charges." 

J r 

The testator refers to his houses at Bishopstort- 
ford, in Hertfordshire, and in Ratcliff Highway, 
in Middlesex, and mentions his nephews Dr. 
Joseph Nicol Scott and Mr. Samuel Scott, iron- 



Daniel Hipwell. 


. 34, Myddelton Square, ClerkenwelL 

■ • ■ . 

French op " Stratford atte Bowe " (7'^ S. 
ix. 305,414,497).— Although I observe that in 1883 
Dr. Morris himself, in his Clarendon Press edition 
of the * Prologue,' &c., distinctly adopts the view 
that there is a satiric touch in Chaucer^s words, I 
heartily endorse Mr. Bayne's commendation of 
the sweet reasonableness of Prof. Skeat's opinion, 

which doubtless Dr. Morris 


there are so many proverbial phrases, each with a 
sting in them, that one must hesitate before ad- 
mitting that the question is closed. In view of 
the French of Marlborough and the French of the 
furthest end of Norfolk, it is not easy to reckon 
the French of Stratford quite free from satire. It 
may, however, be relevant to point out a curious 
passage in the * De Laudibus Legum Anglise,' edi- 
tion of 1682, chap, xlviii. pp. 110, 111. In that 
work, full of out-of-the-way suggestiveness. Sir 
John Fortescue, Lord Chief Justice and Chancellor 
of Henry VI., touches incidentally on the relative 
places occupied by Eoglish, French, and Latin in 
the study and practice of the law. After giving 
some account of the introduction of French and 

the scope of its use by the legal profession, and 
mentioning the fact that it was formerly used in 
pleading, that the reports are generally in that 
tongue, and that many of the statutes are in 
French, he goes on to say (I quote from the old 
translation, which is very faithful) : 

"Whereof it hapneth that the common speech now 
used in France agreeth riot nor is not like the French 
used among the Lawyers of England, but it is by a cer- 
tain rudeness of the common people corrupt. Which 
corruption of speech chanceth not in the French that ia 

ueed in England, forsomuch as the speech is there oftner 
written than spoken." 

A bold criticism ! By the way, has any one dealt 
with the grammar and history of English-French ? 

Geo. Neilson. 


In sporting parlance this is "hedging,^' and un- 
satisfactory at the best. If French of Norfolk is 
English, why not French of Stratford atte Bow 
alsol If French of Stratford atte Bowe is real 
French with insular pronunciation, why not class 
French of Norfolk in the same category. 

Chaucer's remark is certainly a sneer or an 
apology. Then look at the name Jurnepin, arising 
out of the alleged assault of the Norwich Jews on 
a youthful male Christian; the name is certainly 
of French extraction. May we not assume as 
final that Chaucer's era marks the epoch when 
conversational French was dying out and the 
language we now call English becoming popular ? 

Great Ormes Head (7**^ S. ix. 507). — If 

0. B. K. follows the Welsh coast-line southward 
he will find this name repeated in another form in 
ialamorganshire. Ormes Head is the same as 
Worm's Head, the one being the Norse, the other 
the Anglo-Saxon form. This word is not uncom- 
mon in place-names. We have two Ormsbys in 
Lincolnshire, there are others in Yorkshire and 
Norfolk, and an Ormskirk in Lancashire. Further 
south the Anglo-Saxon form is common enough. 




stance. Attached to many of these places there 

are legends like that of the Lambton worm or the 



place held by the serpent in the minds of our fore- 
fathers. Even at this day it does not require much 
imagination to see the seipent^s head rising above 
the waves as one approaches the Great Orme from 


C. 0. B. 

The connexion between the Great Ormes 
Head and Governor Ormes, the great-grand- 
father of your correspondent, is extremely remote. 
The surname Ormes is a patronymic derived from 
Ormr, one of the commonest pf Scandinavian 
names, which occurs more than twenty times in 
the Landnd-mabok. It means a snake or serpent, 



[V^ a. X. July 19, '90. 

and is cognate with the English worm. The Ormes 
Head in North Wales and the Worm's Head in 
South Wales were so called from a fancied resem- 
blance of the rocks to a sea-serpent Village names 
like Ormeaby and Ormsthwaite are from the per- 

sonal name Ormr. 

Isaac Taylor. 

The Great and Little Ormes Head take their 
name from the Norse ormTj a serpent, the Scan- 
dinavian form of the Anglo-Saxon wyrm. As the 
Vikings sailed round the coast of North Wales the 
likeness of these promontories to the heads of huge 
serpents rising out of the sea stamped itself on 
their impressionable minds and gave rise to the 
designation. It appears as Worm's Head on the 

coast of South Wales. 

Edmund Venables. 

Alcatras (7'^ S. ix. 422). — Mr. Ward is, of 

course, aware that this name has been given to 
other birds besides the albatross. Nares (who, by 
the way, misquotes Drayton's lines) says that 
Olusino and others give it to the Indian hornbill. 
Sir K. Hawkins (^Purchas/ vol. iv. p. 1376, quoted 
by Miss Phipson) applies it to the tropic bird. 
He spells the name alcatrace, and his description 
of the bird is quite inapplicable to the albatross. 
Miss Phipson also quotes from Gonzalo de Oviedo's 
ffeport of the Indies (^Purchas/ vol. iii. p. 979) 
another account of "certaine fowles or birds, which 
the Indians call alcatraz/^ and applies it to the 
pelican, though possibly the albatross was intended. 
What is remarkable in this account is that the 
name should be spoken of as Indian. Halliwell 
defines alcatras as ^^a kind of sea gull," and quotes 
Drayton in support of his definition. This is par- 
ticularly unfortunate if it be true, as one would 
suppose from the accounts of naturalists that there 
is a sort of natural antipathy between these birds 

was a mill, the miller of which, in the early days 
of Edward VI., was set in the pillory and had his 
ears cut cfi" for uttering seditious words against the 
Duke of Somerset. It is hard to realize that only 
a century and a half ago a coach was stopped, by 
a highwayman at Battle Bridge, containing two 
ladies, a child, and a maid, who were "despoiled 
by him, but not uncivilly." For this the high- 
wayman — J. Everitt by name — was hanged at 
Tyburn, February 20, 1731/2. E. Venables. 

Samuel^ Palmer, in his ' History of St. Pancras 
Parish,' states that the statue was taken down in 
1842, when the pedestal was turned into a police 
station; and the Morning Advertiser of Thursday, 
January 30, 1845, reported the commencement of 
the demolition of the building on Monday last by 
a large body of labourers. 

EvERARD Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Eoad. 

So far as my memory serves me, I believe that 
this statue was made of plaster, like the rest of the 
cross, and was finally carted away as rubbish—" a 
good riddance,^' &c. To this day the extreme 
hideousness of the statue haunts me, though I was 
only a boy when it was demolished ; the effigy of 
Havelock at Trafalgar Square is Pheidian com- 

pared with it. 

H. W. D. 

and gulls. 

C. 0. B. 

Statue of George IV. (7'^ S. ix. 508). 
There was a very sufficient reason why the exe- 
crable statue of George IV. which surmounted 
the building — watchbox below and clock-tower 
above — which fifty years ago disgraced the junction 
of Gray's Inn Lane and the New Koad could not 
be removed when the structure was taken down. 
The wretched thing was built up of brick, coated 
with cement, and moulded into the royal form. 
Naturally, when the removal was attempted, the 
whole of the mock statue fell to pieces. It is not 
a little remarkable, and certainly greatly to be 
deplored, that this contemptible erection, whose 
whole existence was comprised within fifteen years, 
should have wiped out so efi^ectually the old historic 
appellation of the spot, and that " King's Cross " 
should have taken the place of the time-honoured 
" Battle Bridge," the reputed site of the engage- 
ment between Suetonius and Boadicea (Tacit., 
' Annal./ xiv. 33, 37). The bridge crossed the 

*^ River of Wells," where, some centuries later, 

Church of England Services in Norman 

French (7*^ S. ix. 348, 413).— There can be no 
doubt that Mass and the Hours were said in Latin; 
although in the parish churches what Hours, be- 
side Vespers — if even they were said — must, I 
presume, be a matter of conjecture. But as to 
preaching, Jocelin de Brakelond says, in his ^Chro- 
nicle/ that Abbot Samson '^ Anglice Sermocinari 
solebat populo,8ed secundum linguam Norfolchie'' 
(Camd. ed., p. 30). Denton, in his ^ England in 
the Fifteenth Century,' refers to * Pet. Blessensis 
Op.,' t. iv. p. 299 (edit. Giles) on the same matter, 
but does not give what Peter of Blois says. 

H. A. W. 

Barwell and Warren Hastings (7^ S. ix. 

328, 414).— The title of the little book referred to 
by your correspondent M. is ' Echoes from Old 


being Reminiscences of the Days of 

Warren Hastings, Francis, and Impey,' by H, E. 
Busteed (Thacker & Co., Calcutta and London, 
1882). It is a very interesting history of the 
times of Philip Francis (he was not Sir Philip 
until 1806) and his connexion with Madame Grand, 
a Creole, afterwards the wife of Prince de B^n^vent 
(0. M. de Talleyrand), the first diplomatist of his 
time. As regards the Christian name of Mr. Bar- 
well, I may remark that in the work by Mr. Bus- 
teed ^^ Richard Barwell " is quoted at p. 134 ; but in 
my copy of the * Memoirs of Sir Philip Francis,' 
by Joseph Parkes and Herman Merivale, M.A. 

(Longmans & Co., London, 1867), •^ W. Barwell" 

7'h S. X. July 19, '90.] 



fppears in the index! Sir Philip Francis ap- 
I tears to have entertained a deep hatred for Mr. 
jJarwell, and gave expression to his opinion of his 
character in the following words, viz. ; 

'* Mr. Bar well, I think, has all the bad qualities com- 
mon to this climate and country, of which he is in every 
Menae a native. He is rapacious without industry, and 
amhitious without an exertion of his faculties or steady 
application to affairs. He will do whatever can be done 
by bribery and intrigue. He has no other resource. 
Though he does not appear to want capacity, he is more 
ignorant than might be expected from the common 
education of Westminster School.'*— Firfe ' Life of Sir 

Henry Gerald Hope. 

Philip,' vol. ii. p. 62, 1867. 

_ r 

Freegrove Road, N. 


Probably some information might be found con- 
cerning Richard Harwell, who could have been no 
ordinary man. in * Memoirs of the Life of Warren 


Macau lay 


* Memoirs of the Life of Sir Elijah Impej 

SOD, Elijah Harwell Impey. 

John Pickford, 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

I have in my possession a volume entitled : 

The History of the Trial of Warren Hastings. Esq., 
Late Governor of Bengal, before the High Court of 
Parliament in Westminster Hall on an Impeachment by 
the Commons of Great Britain for High Crimes and 
Misdemeanours. Containing the Whole of the Proceed- 
ings and Debates in both Houses of Parliament, relating 
to that celebrated prosecution, from Feb. 7, 1786, until 
his Acquital, April 23, 1796. To which is added, An 
Account of the Proceedings of Various General Courts of 
the Honourable United East India Company held in con- 
sequence of his Acquital. London : Printed for J. De- 
brett['?], opposite Burlington House, Piccadilly; and 
Vernon & Hood, Birchin Lane, Cornhill. 1796. 

Can any of your readers tell me who was the editor 

of this publication ? 

Henry R. Plomer. 


» •« 


The English Novel of the Time of Shakespeare. By J. J. 

Jusserand. Translated by Elizabeth Lee. (Fisher 

It was a fortunate day for England when Dr. Jusserand 
accepted a diplomatic post in this country. During 
his residence here Dr. Jusserand has explored our early 
literature with a patient fidelity which few English- 
men can rival. To this we owe ' English Wayfaring Life 
in the Middle Ages/ in praise of which we have already 
spoken, and the present volume. Both are translations. 
Both have, however, been executed under the super- 
vision of the author, who has revised and considerably 
augmented the works. In the handsome and finely illus- 
trated volume now issued by Mr. Fisher Unwin it is, 
indeed, difficult to recognize the modest yellow-covered 
volume sent to us a couple of years ago. A diligent and 
conscientious student, Dr. Jusserand has waded through 
not only such works as the ' Morte Darthur,* the ' Utopia,' 
and the * Arcadia,' but the very numerous works of Tudor 
times which followed the appearance of * Euphues and 
his England,' It is only within recent years, and owing 

to the private enterprise of Dr. Grosart and Mr. Arber, 
that the works of Greene, Lodge, Nash, and other early 
novelists have been accessible to the scholar. Now even 
they have been studied by few except the philologist, un- 
daunted and unwearying in his chase after words. Dr. 
Jusserand, however, who is to some extent a follower of 
Taine, has perused them with a purely literarypurpose, 
and is responsible for a system of classification. Re begins 
at an early date with Beowulf, and writes in thoughtful 
and admirable style concerning Chaucer and Caxton. 
With his third chapter, however, in which he tackles 
' Euphues,' the most stimulating portion of the volume 
begins. As legatees of L^ly he classes Greene, Lodge, 
Warner, Nicholas Breton, Munday, and other less-known 
writers. Another school, that of pastoral romance, find-s 
its head in Sir Philip Sidney, whose reputation Dr. 
Jusserand traces in the eighteenth century. Concerning 
the influence of Sidney in France he has much that is 
very curious and deeply interesting to say. The Picar- 
esque and realistic novel, mean time, finds its chief in 
Thomas Nash, of whose ' Jack Wilton ' a capital analysis 
is given. Successors of Nash are Chettle and Decker, 
and distant heirs are traced in Defoe and Swift. The 
study of the novel 5s continued until the times are reached 
of Mrs. Behn, and the whole closes with a chapter de- 
scriptive of the connexion between " the master novelists 
of the eighteenth century and the prentice novelist of the 

The subject is treated in masterly fashion, and the 
volume, which will be a delight to the scholar, will also 
interest the general reader. It is, moreover, illustrated 
in brilliant style with woodcuts and other illustration& 
of highest interest, extracted from old books, MSS., &c., 
both French and English. So numerous are these de- 
signs, a mere list of them occupies ten pages. In all 
respects, indeed, the volume is one to be coveted, and 
there are few students of past times that will not assign 
it a place on their shelves. 

The Autohiography of a Seaman. By Thomas, Tenth 
Earl of Dundonald. With a Sequel edited by his 
Grandson, Douglas, Twelfth Earl of Dundonald, 
(Bentley & Son.) 

Among the few really welcome new editions we have 
notice of one that more than justifies republication. * The 
Autobiography of a Seaman' (Admiral Dundonald) is 
being reissued by Messrs. Bentley with an additional 
sequel that embodies the admiral's services under foreign 
flags, his successes in liberating the Spanish and Portu-^ 
guese colonies of South America, and his share in the 
war of Greek independence. Coupled with his naval 
achievements is an interesting account of his subsequent 
home life and his pursuits as an inventor and scientific 
investigator. The book is likely to interest a wide circle 
of readers. In it are adventures that will hold the atten- 
tion of a schoolboy, political intrigues that give an in- 
sight into party politics of the past and throw light on 
later developments, suggestions of naval reforms since 
carried out by both Liberal and Conservative govern- 
ments, but for the advocacy of which at that time Capt. 
Lord Cochrane suffered long and severely. The work is 
well got up, and the illustrations, which are good, include- 
an excellent portrait, 

Palestine under the Moslems. By Guy Le Stranee. 
(Watt.) ^ 

Northern ^Ajliin, 

These two volumes are published under the auspices of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund. In the first Mr. Le 
Strange has set himself the task of translating and 
digesting into something like order the large mass of 
information about Syria and the Holy Land which has 

By Gottlieb Schumacher. (Same 



[7"> S. X. JoLr 19, '90. 

hitherto lain buried in the Arabic texts of the Moslem 
geographers and travellers of the Middle Ages. The 
material available seems to be of vast amount, Mr. Le 
Strange citing twenty-four writers as his chief autho- 
rities, which range from Ibn Khurdadbih (about A.B. 
864) to Mujir ad Din (a.d. 1496). From these little- 
known travellers he quotes at first hand, and his book 
impresses the reader as giving the results of much close 
and conscientious labour. It might profitably be read in 
connexion with the * Jerusalem ' of Mr. Besant (to whom 
the volume is appropriately dedicated) and Prof. Palmer, 
and in continuation of the ' Early Travellers in Pales- 
tine,' edited by Mr. Wright. The chapter on the seven 
sleepers of Ephesus, and other legends and marvels, will 
be of interest to folk-Iorists. By a momentary lapse Mr. 
Le Strange, reversing the true order of things, makes 
the Persian farsang a derivative of the Greek irapa- 

ffdyyag (p. 60). 

' Northern 'Ajlun ' is the outcome of a somewhat 
hurried exploration made by Mr. Schumacher in the 
little-visited region of Decapolis, a reminiscence of which 
name still survives in the modern El-Kefarat, " The 
Villages." But few ancient monuments are found in this 
district, on account of the friable nature of the stone used 
in their structure ; the remains, however, of a fine Roman 
theatre and baeilica at Umm Keis, the ancient Gadara, 
are important and striking. The caves of Jedar, near 
his town, still preserve its original name, just as Beit 
R&s, "House of the Head" (or **Chief"), calls up the 
ancient Capitolias. These and other similar identifica- 
tions are interesting, and Mr. Schumacher gives a liberal 
supply of plans and sketches made on the spot. 

The Collected Writings of Thomas de Qnincey. Edited 

by David Masson. (Edinburgh, A. & C. Black.) 
Vol. IX. of the new edition of De Quincey is occupied 
with political economy, and supplies on the title-page a 
portrait of David Ricardo, who occupied a place in De 
Quincey's select list of eminent thinkers. It opens with 
the essay on * Malthus on Population,' gives the slightly 
tetchy letter of Hazlitt concerning it, and the author's 
satisfactory and temperate, if not wholly conciliatory, 
reply. * Dialogues of Three Templars on Political Eco- 
nomy' follow, and are themselves succeeded by the 
* Logic of Political Economy.' Later come some political 
essays, the tone of which the editor regrets. He holds, 
however, that they are among the best of De Quincey's 
essays, and says that " a more subtle, and in some re- 
spects more instructive, insight into the history and phi- 
losophy of British party politics may be obtained from 
them than from anything in Hallam or Macaulay." 


A Layman^ B'\Pr a yer Booh in English. Edited by H. 
Littlehales. (Rivingtons.) 

Mr. Littlehales has here reproduced in excellent fac- 
simile fourteen pages of an imperfect manuscript 
Prymer in the British Museum. These are the earliest 
• English versions known of the canticles and prayers of 
. the Church in England, dating from the year 1400, and 
should be compared with those given in Canon Simmons's 
edition of the *Lay Folk's Mass Book.' Very few of 
theee old service books survive, owing, as Mr. Littlehales 
points out, to the very stringent Acts of Parliament 
which were issued from time to time for their destruc- 
tion, in order to secure a monopoly for newly authorized 
editions. We notice in the version of the ' TeDeum 'an in- 
teresting use of a word familiar to us nowas *^ squeamish " : 
**Thou were xin^i skoymes to take ]>e maidenes wombe." 
In the Same document the rendering " Make him to be 
rewarded wij) pi seintes in endeles blisse " shows that 
the writer had before him a Latin text with the reading 
"munerari" instead of numerariy for which, indeed, 
there is very respectable authority. 

Stratford' on- Avon from the Earliest Times to the Death 

of Shakespeare. By Sidney Lee. (Seeley & Co.) 
Mr. Lee's admirable account of Stratford-on-Avon has 
been issued in a new and an attractive edition. With 
its forty-five illustrations by Mr. Edward Hull, and its 
interesting and valuable letterpress, it constitutes a 
tempting companion to the tourist as well as a book of 
painstaking research. Some changes are perceptible in 
the present edition. From recently published collections 
of archives Mr. Lee has enlarged his account of the 
Guilds, and he has supplied much new and important 
information concerning the troubles in Warwickshire in 
Shakspeare's days as to enclosures. With these addi- 
tions and some few other alterations the volume puts 
forward fresh claims upon attention. 

No. 2 of Billiographical Miscellanies, by Wm. Blades 
(Blades, East &: Blades), contains a valuable account, 
illustrated, of * Books in Chains.' This subject will be 
continued in the three forthcoming numbers. A view 
of the chained library in Wimborne Minster constitutes 
the frontispiece. This is accompanied by a catalogue of 
the books in the library, representing ** very fairly the 
literary taste and religious bias of the seventeenth cen- 
tury." Like all works of Mr. Blades, the present book^ 
when completed, will be a great boon to aTitiq[uaries. 

An excellent Catalogue of the Reference Department of 
the Free Public Library of Wigan is being issued by Mr. 
H. T. Folkard, the librarian. The part nefore us con- 
tains the letter D only. The entire work will have uses 
extending beyond local service. 

The second volume of Le Livre Moderne opens with 
an article entitled * Un Erudit Oubli6.' This deals with 
F. G. S. Trebutien, a bibliophile and editeur litteraire, 
concerning whom nothing is known in this country. The 
memoir, which is accompanied by a portrait, casts more 
light upon Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly than upon its sub- 
ject. ' Amuselles Bibliographiques ' gives a list of 
parodies thedtrales. M. B. H. Gausseron has some ad- 
mirable * Notes d'un Liseur,' dealing with the new books 
of the last month. 


HatUti to CorrfjtfpanQenU. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 
On all communications must be written the name and 

address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 

as a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication '* Duplicate." 


John Hughes (''Mena tschim").— Two words, pro- 
nounced menasz-chim, signifying overseer. . ^^ 

Mrs. Levy.— The death of Madame de Broc took 
place in 1813. The date of the Queen's visit to Gresy, 
the scene of the accident, some correspondent may be 
able to supply. 

■^ CoRRiGENDDM.— P. 32, col. 2, L 26 from bottom, for ! 
'* Neota " read iVe£<a. ' 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" — Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "—at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, B.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

7U> S. X. July 26, '90. J 






J •! 

CONTENTS.— N« 239. 

NOTES :— " Uncle Remus," 61— The Dukedom of Clarence, 62 
i— Aulas— Scotch and American Secretaries— Chained Books 
— Edouarfs Silnouettes, 65— Epitaph— 'Essex Papers'— Un- 
fastening a Door at Death— Register, Registrar— Memorials 
of Cowper's Family— Tobacco unnoticed by Shakspeare— 
Names of Authors, 66— Marriages of the Fifth Earl of 

Argyle 67. 
QUERIES : — Churchmen in Battle — '* Truckle Cheese " : 

** Merlin Chair,*' 67— The Church of SS. Anne and Agnes- 
Forest Gate— Jorum— Victorian Coins — Ainsty—Hercy— 

^George Hickes— Genealogical — Ugborough Church— Mont- 
eagle— Pleshey Castle— Thos. Messingham— Portrait, 68— 

- 8t. Bernard's Hymn— Treasure Trove— Gallego— Eating of 
Fish Prohibited— Copley Family— Lord Stafford's Interlude 
Players -First Earl of Durham— Census of Ancient Rome- 
Church of Scotland— Henshaw Quarterings, 69. 

REPLIES :— Singular Custom, 70— Thomas de Holand— Enid, 
71— Tomb of Heame— Jews in England— •* One law for the 
rich," &c., 72 — Roman Catholic Registers — Garrulity — 
"Man-traps and spring-guns," &c. 73— Sir A. Hamilton of 
Redhall— King James I —Volunteer Colours— Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem, 74— Emma Tatham—*' Psychological 
Paedagogics"— Spurs— Arrow Throwing— Bible Family Re- 
cords, 75— Bibliography— ** King of Arms"— The Game of 
Polo— Swad— New Castle Ruin, Bridgend, 76— Banian- 
Clayton : Medhop—** Don't "—Writers of the Life of St. 
Agnes— Peter Stuyvesant— National Flowers, 77— Leprosy 
in the Middle Ages-Gin Palaces, 78— Suicide. 79. 

J^OTES ON BOOKS i-Baines's 'Records of Hampstead'— 

' 'Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological Society' — 'Jour- 
nal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland '— * Gentle- 
' man's Magazine Library.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

*' f 

. s . 




■ 'I, 1 



» i .. . 

'J It has been justly remarked that the man who 
pretends to be ** good all round " at anything is in 
reality good for nothing ; and this seems to me 
especially the case of folk-lore students who pro- 
fess to be thoroughly well acquainted with the 
popular fictions of all countries. There is no such 
man in existence^ and in all likelihood there never 
will be.* In no department of literature is 
^' division of labour " more necessary than in the 
comparative study of folk-lore and folk-tales. Life 
is so short, men's ordinary avocations take up so 
much of that brief span, that all that can be ex- 
pected of a siugle labourer in such a vast field is 
merely to dig a little or, to vary the metaphor, 
contribute a few bricks towards the slowly rising 
pile. In an able and interesting paper on * Gipsy 
Folk-tales' in the National Beviewiox July, 1888, 
my friend Mr. F. Hindes Groome remarked that 
I seemed f' strangely ignorant of the existence of 
gipsy folk-tales, of the fact, too, that not a few 
gipsies are professional story-tellers" (p. 660). As 
an ignorant sinner, however, I had good company 
to keep me in countenance, since Mr. Groome 
brings the same charge against ^'Dasent, Cox, 

* We shall, however, know a good deal about folk-tales 
''all round" when the Folk-lore's Society's '* tabula- 
tion" is completed and published. ' 

Ralston, Lang." But, thanks to Mr. Groome 
himself (the only specialist in gipsy tales in this 
country), I have mended my ways very consider- 
ably in this respect, and the charge is no longer 
applicable to me. Some French critics, again, 
complained that in my ^Popular Tales and Fictions' 
(1887) I had overlooked French folk-tales, which 
I deny ; but one, with the exaggerated courtesy 
which characterizes our Gallic neighbours, was 
good enough to declare : " Ce que Clouston a lu 
en fait de contes orientaux est inoui." 

And again, several friendly American critics 
complained of the absence of negro parallels to some 
European popular tales, as found in *' Uncle Remus" 
and elsewhere. The reason why the entertaining 
tales of "Uncle Remus" found no place in my 
book was the belief, which I then held, that they 
had been derived from Europeans or persons of 
European descent, and I therefore considered them 
not worth reproduction in such a work, as the only 
interest they could possess to others than the 
'^general" reader lay in the fact that they had 
undergone changes in passing through the negro 
mind. But I have since examined these' curious 
recitals more carefully, and have come to the con- 
clusion that in many cases they owe little to "de 
white folks," and should not be overlooked or 
omitted in the comparative study of folk-tales 
generally. I now purpose, therefore, to store in 
* N. & Q. / mean time, some analogues and variants 
from "Uncle Remus" of familiar European popular 
fictions ; and as my preamble has taken up so 
much space, I shall confine myself in the present 
paper to one of the shorter examples. 

In European fables and tales the fox usually 
outwits all the other animals ; but in these negro 
tales he is constantly the victim of the rabbit's 
clever tricks ; indeed ^* Brother Rabbit," with the 
exception of his celebrated encounter with the 
" Tar-Baby," and perhaps one or two others, comes 
out of all his difficulties and dangers with flying 

Brer Rabbit bags Brer Fox's Game. 

On one occasion the rabbit spies the fox on his 
way home with a large bag of game slung over 
his back, and determines to get it for himself. To 
this end he runs through the wood and lies down 
on the road as if he were dead, some distance 
ahead of his destined victim, and the venerable 
story-teller thus proceeds: 

Brer Fox he come 'long, he did, en see Brer Rabbit 
layin' dar. He tu'n Mm over, he did, en 'zamine 'ira, en say, 
sezee : " Dish yer rabbit dead. He look like he bin dead 
long time. He dead, but he mighty fat. He de fattes' 
rabbit w'at I ever see, but he bin dead too long. I feard 
ter take 'im home," sezee. Brer Rabbit ain't sayin' 
nuthin'. Brer Fox, he sorter lick his chops, but he 
went on, en lef Brer Rabbit la} in' in de road. Dreckly 
he wuz outer sight, Brer Rabbit he jump up, he did, en 
run roun' thoo de woods en git befo' Brer Fox agin. 
Brer Fox he come up, en dar lay Brer Rabbit, 'periently 



[7th S. X. July 26, '90. 

cole en stiflF. Brer Fox, lie look at Brer Rabbit, en he 

Borter sfcudy. Atter while, he onslung his game bag, en 
say ter hisse'f, eezee : " Dese jer rabbits gwine ter was'e. 
I '11 des 'bout leave my game bag yer, en I '11 go back 'n 
git dat udder rabbit, en I '11 make fokes b'leeve dat I 'm 
ole man Hunter from Huntsville," sezee. En wid dat 
he drapt his game en loped back up de road atter de 
udder rabbit, en w'en he got outer sight, ole Brer Rab- 
bit he snatch up Brer Fox game en put out fer home. 
Nex' time he eee Brer Fox, he holler out : '* Wat you 
kill de udder day. Brer Foxl" sezee. Den Brer Fox 
he sorter koam his flank wid his tongue, en holler back : 
*•! ketch ahan'ful er hard senee, Brer Rabbit," sezee. 
Den ole Brer Rabbit he laff, he did, en up en 'spon*, 
sezee : " Ef I 'd a know'd you wuz atter dat, Brer Fox, 
1 'd a loan't you some er mine," eezee. "^ 

Here we have a droll variant of an incident in 
the well-known Norse tale of the master thief who 
has undertaken to steal an ox from a man as he 
drives it to market. The youth places on the road 
the man is coming along a pretty shoe virith a silver 
buckle. The man sees it, but as it has not a fellow 
he thinks it not worth while picking up. After he 
has passed the youth takes up the shoe and, run- 
ning through the wood, places it on the road 
farther on. When the man sees what he supposes 
to be the fellow of the shoe he had left lying on 
the road, he determines to go and take up the 
other, and having tied his ox to the fence, he 
hastened back. Meanwhile the youth takes the ox 
and goes off with it, and he afterwards steals two 
other oxen from the same man by imitating the 
cry of an ox, thus inducing the man to believe it 
was the cry of the animal he had lost during his 
shoe-hunting expedition. 

A similar incident occurs in the Gaelic tale of 
the shifty lad (CampbelFs collection), and it is 
also known to modern Greek, Bengali, and Arabic 
fictions, while there is an English variant in which 
a clever cobbler by the same device steals a calf 
from an Essex butcher. (See my ^ Popular Tales 
and Fictions,' vol. ii. pp. 43-52.) 

W. A. Clouston. 

233, Cambridge Street, Glapgow. 

(To be continued.) 


{Concluded froin p. 44.) 

An interval of more than three hundred years 
elapsed before another creation of a dukedom of 
Clarence occurred. The fourth royal personage 
who bore this title was William Henry, third son 
of George III., elevated to the dukedom May 19, 
1789. He was also Duke of St. Andrews in Scot- 

* * Uncle Remus ; or Mr. Fox, Mr. Rabbit, and Mr. 
Terrapin.' By Joel Chandler Harris. With 50 Illustra- 
tions by A. T. Elwes. London, Routledge, n.d.; but, 
as the woodcuts are dated 1882, probably a reprint of 
the original American edition (No, xv.). This, it should 
be mentioned, is a quite different collection from * Nights 
with Uncle Remus,' by the same author. 

land and Earl of Munster in Ireland. In con- 
sequence of the death of his two elder brothers he 
became king in 1830, when these titles were merged 
in the crown. At an early age, as it was not 
thought probable that he would ever ascend the 
throne, he was put into the navy, to win his way ta 
distinction like ordinary mortals. He was born in 
1765, and entered as a midshipman at the age of 
fourteen, on board the Prince George, the flagship 
of Admiral Digby,in 1779, and saw a good deal of 
service, first with the Channel fleet and sub- 
sequently in the North Atlantic. On June 17, 
1785, he was gazetted lieutenant, serving under 
the illustrious Nelson ; in the following year he 
was promoted to be captain; and on Dec. 3, 1790, 
received a commission as Kear-admiral of the Blue. 
Returning home without official leave, he was never 
again actively employed ; yet he was regularly 
promoted through all the gradations of the service, 
and became a full admiral in 1801. There are epi- 
sodes in his life which will not bear the strictest 
moral scrutiny ; but as his disposition was frank, 
sociable, and generous, coinciding remarkably 
with the brusqueness and open-heartedness so 
often seen in seafaring men, the " sailor prince," 
as he was called, was generally popular. To his 
close friendship with Canning he owed his pro* 
motion to be Lord High Admiral in 1827. Want 
of tact in that high office led to much inconveni- 
ence in the service and to his own resignation 
after a few months' tenure of the office. For his 
marriage and for his accession and coronation the 
ordinary histories may be consulted. As a king he 
was invariably popular. Like his father, his intel- 
lect was narrow and his education defective ; but 
he had sufficient good sense to be guided by pru- 
dent political advisers. He evidently understood 
the duty of a constitutional monarch better than 
either his father or his brother, his immediate pre* 
decessors on the throne. 

The history of this prince is too recent and his 
life of too uneventful a character to be treated 
typically or at any length. He was less before the 
public than either of his two elder brothers, and 
fortunately came to the throne at an age when 
lessons of experience have been learned and the 
passions of youth are stilled. His wise discretion 
as a king, in a period of disquiet and revolutionary 
change, probably saved the monarchy in England, 
and laid the foundation of that respect for royalty 
which the Georges had well-nigh forfeited, and 
which, under the rule of the present sovereign, has 
risen even to enthusiasm. Moderation and good 
sense, added to a certain shrewdness and business- 
like habit, greatly atoned in the case of the *' sailor 
king " for the absence of those brilliant qualities 
which distinguished the Clarences of earlier times. 
The last Clarence cuts but a prosaic figure by the 
side of Lionel, Thomas, and George ; each person- 
ally interesting and remarkable even in his errors 

7* S. X. July 26, '90.] 



and delinquencies^ as well as in the circumstances 
of his life. 

Of the present holder of this royal title, Albert 
Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale and Earl of 
Athlone, the grandson of a sovereign whose domestic 
virtues and queenly discretion have endeared her 
to the hearts of all her subjects, everything that 
is royally the best may be anticipated. "Quern 
Deua Omnipotens conservare et dirigere velit." 

An elaborate account by Dr. Donaldson of the 
origin of the titles of Clare and Clarence, as well as 
of Clarencieux King at Arms, differing much from 
Noble, is given in the first volume of the Proceed- 
ings of the Bury and West Suffolk Archaeological 
Institute, 8vo., 1849. 

f I am much obliged both to Hermentrude and 
to Mr. Blenkinsopp for their notes and intended 
corrections. It seems, however, difficult to believe 
that Lionel was married to Elizabeth of Clarence 
before 1354. In 1342 he was but a boy of four 
years old ; he was, indeed, betrothed in that year, 
but his marriage was never consummated till he 
was nearly sixteen years old, in 1354, when he was 
created Earl of Ulster in right of his wife. Does 
not the Issue Eoll quoted refer to the contract of 
espousals only ? In reply to Mr. Blenkinsopp, I 
oalled the sons of Edward IIL "princes'' in the 
general sense, not in any technical sense. They 
are so called in Hardy nge, the rhyming chronicler, 
who belongs to the same century, or nearly so. 

tion of the year is decided by the testimony of the 
Issue Roll, 16 Edw. III., which clearly proves it 
to have been 1342 (when the royal bridegroom was 
three and the bride ten years old), and not in 
1354, as stated by Mr. Maskell. The patents 
of creation of Prince Lionel as Duke of Clarence 
and of his brother Prince John as Duke of Lan- 
caster bear the same date, viz., Nov. 13, 1362. 
Such being the case, the elder brother would natur- 
ally rank as the second duke (Edward the Black 
Prince being the first), and the younger as the 

Elizabeth de Clare, the grandmother of Eliza- 
beth, Duchess of Clarence, was not the sole heir 
and representative of her brother Gilbert de Clare, 
the last Earl of Gloucester and Hertford of that 
family. The representation fell among the De- 
spensers, the issue of Eleanor de Clare, the eldest 
sister and coheir of Earl Gilbert. His heir general 
and representative at present is the Right Hon. 
Mary Frances Elizabeth (Dowager Viscountess 
Falmouth and). Baroness Le Despenser, the lineal 
descendant of the said Eleanor. Elizabeth, the 
third sister, married John de Burgh, son and heir 
of Richard, Earl of Ulster, and was mother (not 
wife) of William, the young earl who was mur- 
dered in 1333. Elizabeth, Duchess of Clarence, 
died in the end of 1363 or the beginning of 1364. 
Her only daughter, the Princess Philippa, was 
married to Edmund Mortimer, afterwards Earl of 
March, before her (Elizabeth's) death. This mar- 
riage took place in 1359. 

Giovanni Visconti, the brother of Violante, Duke 
Lionel's second wife, married Isabel, the sister (not 
daughter) of King Charles V. of France. 

In Lionel's will he leaves to Thomes Walys the 
golden circle with which ^^his brother and lord 
(Edward) was created prince and to Edmund Moore 
a like circle with which he himself was created 
duke." His father. King Edward III., never was 
Duke of Cornwall. 

Thomas Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, was 
born in 1388, before Sept. 30 of that year, and 
was not more than eleven or twelve when made 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. His grand-uncle, 
Lionel, Duke of Clarence, was regent of the king- 
dom at the age of ten. The date of his creation as 
duke was July 9, 1411. He never had a brother 
Richard. His brother Humphrey was at Troyes 
with him and their brother Henry V. on occasion 
of the betrothal of the Princess Katherine to the 
King of England. His wife was the third daughter 
of Thomas, Earl of Kent, and sister and coheir of 
Edmund, the last Holland Earl of Kent, but she 
herself was never Countess of Kent. The marriage 
of Thomas with the widowed Countess of Somer- 
set took place before July 16, 1412. Her first 
husband, John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset (some- 
time Marquis of Dorset), died March 16, 1410. By 
marriage has been much disputed, but the ques- him she had four sons and two daughters. Her 

Emanuel Hospital, S.W. 




anticipated. "His father" should be his brother 

(see ' N. & Q 

As to the use of his. 

we are limited in English to only one possessive 
pronoun of the same gender, but the sense can 
generally be readily ascertained by an intelligent 
perusal of the context. His^ on p. 481, clearly 
refers to the testator. 


May I be permitted to point out a few inaccu- 
facies in Mr. Maskell's interesting notes 
the dukedom of Clarence ? 

This dignity did not actually become extinct at 
the decease of its possessor in each of the four 
previous cases in which it has been conferred. In 
the case of Prince George Plantagenet, its third 
possessor, it was forfeited owing to his attainder in 
1477. ^ Otherwise his son, Prince Edward, Earl of 
Warwick, would have succeeded him in the usual 
course. In the case of Prince William Henry, the 
last possessor of the title, it merged in the crown 
npon his accession to the throne in 1830. 

Prince Lionel was only two years of age when 
he was betrothed to Lady Elizabeth de Burgh, the 
daughter and sole heir of William, Earl of Ulster, 
she being his second cousin once removed, of royal 
blood by descent from Edward I. The date of this 



[Tt'' S. X. July 26, '90. 

eldest son Henry, who eucceeded his father as Earl 

of Somerset, died Nov. 25, 1418. 

0. H. 

In Mr. Maskell's note on the ^Dukedom of 
Clarence' at 7*^ S. x. 1 there is a mistake for 

which Miss Strickland seems to have been originally 
responsible. No such spear as that referred to is 
shown in the Abbotsford curiosity shop. The 
knight Sir John Swinton, who is supposed to have 
nnhorsed the duke — if he was not then fighting on 
foot after crossing the bridge, as one chronicler 
relates — was himself, with nearly all the Scotch 
allies of the Dauphin, exterminated three months 
afterwards at Vernueil, and his spear could not 
have got back to Scotland. According to the con- 
temporaneous Monstrelet, after that battle the dead 
were at once stripped. It is rather curious, too, 
that the duke, if not killed at the first onset, was 
not saved alive for ransom, instead of being brained 
by the Earl of Buchan. The best real evidence is 
that a chronicler relates that a knight of the name 
of McCausland got possession of the coronet of pre- 
cious stones round the helmet of the fallen English 
leader, and sold it for a sum named. It is pro- 
bable (pace Scott and Buchanan) that the im- 
petuous duke was not at first recognized in the 
meleBy and that when the battle passed on in the 
evening his body was afterwards found. Mr. 
Maskell does not precisely indicate where he 
found the passage beginning, "Being betrayed by 
his scout-master, a Lombard." Monstrelet simply 
gives the fact of the duke's death. It did not con- 
cern him who had helped to kill him. 

K. B. S. 


With your permission, I should like to remark 
in reference to the quotation, 

*■ The duke, mixing himeelf in the throng of the battle, 
dismounted and attacked singly Swinton, the Earl of 

Buchan, who wounded him in the face, and finally dis- 
patched him with his spear," 

in Mr. Maskell's learned communication on the 
dukedom of Clarence— that the honour of having 
killed the duke at the battle of Baug6 has been claimed 
by several competitors ; and, in connexion with 
the matter, perhaps it may not be out of place to 
mention the following, viz.: While at dinner on 
March 22, 1421, the Duke of Clarence was in- 
formed that the Earl of Buchan and his Scottish 
warriors were in his vicinity. The duke instantly 
exclaimed, " Let us attack them ; they are ours. " 
He then made a rapid march to Baug^, in the hope 
of surprising the Scots ; but the latter were in- 
formed of the movement of the English, and were 
in order of battle to receive them. In the en- 
counter which followed Clarence, conspicuous by 
the richness of his armour and the golden coronet 
which he wore over his helmet — the uniform worn 
by royal dukes when in battle is not now quite so 
gorgeous, for instance, that of the Duke of Con- 
naught when in command of the Guards at Tel-el- 

Kebir — was first attacked by John Kirkmichael, 
who broke a lance over him, then wounded in the 
face by Sir William Swinton, and at last brought 
to the ground and killed by a blow of a mace by 
the Earl of Buchan. 

G. Chastelaine states that he was slain by Charles 
le Bouleiller, a French knight (vide *(Euvres,' vol. i. 
p. 225, Bruxelles, 1863). Father Anselme says 
that Gilbert de la Fayette killed the duke "by his 
own hand." A. Stewart, in his * History of the 
Stewarts,' p. 123, claims the honour for John 
Kirkmichael, chaplain of Lord Douglas and after- 
wards Bishop of Orleans ; and, according to an old 
tradition, another Scot, "Sir John Swinton de 
Swinton, unhorsed the duke and wounded him in 
front." However, if reliance may be placed in a 
record on the subject in the *Book of Pluscarden,' 
ib certainly was not one of the claimants I have 
named, but a Highlander, Alexander Macausland, 
of Lord Buchan's household, who is to have the 
credit of having been the slayer of the Duke of 
Clarence. Conflicting as all these statements are, 
the tradition that "the merit of the victory belongs 
to the brave Swinton" is supported in modern 
times by the very interesting presentation, said to 
have been made by the last Swinton de Swinton 
to Sir Walter Scott, of " the point of the weapon 
with which his ancestor accomplished this deed of 
prowess. The lance of Swinton is still to be seen 
in the collection of antiquities at Abbotsford." 
(Fide ^The Scots Guards in France,' Taylor's 'His- 
tory,' and also Ty tier's ' History of Scotland.') 

6, Freegrove Koad, N, 

Henry Gerald Hope. 

Mr. Maskell 

the account of the Duke of Clarence's death at the 
battle of Baug6 ; but the writer would appear to 
have fallen into the error that Sir John Swinton 
of Swinton and John Stewart, Earl of Buchan, 
were one and the same person. I believe there 
are no fewer than one French and four Scottish 
claimants to the distinction of having killed the 


English duke. (See 'The Scots Men 

by William F 

* History of the House of Douglas*' (p. 125) gives 

the name of Swinton as the first assailant, and to 

him Sir Walter Scott attributes the glory of the 

encounter in the well-known lines ('Lay of the 

Last Minstrel/ 

And Swinton laid the lance in rest 

That tamed of yore the spa 
Of Clarence's Plantagenet. 

A. S. L. C. S. 

Mr. Maskell 

son of Henry IV., says that "it is not known where 
or when this prince was born"; and a few lines 
below, referring to his appointment as Lieutenant 
of Ireland, he says that "he was then scarcely 
more than eighteen years old." He is known to 
have been appointed Lieutenant of Ireland on 

Vb s. X. July 26, '90. ] 



June 27, 1401, so that by this reckoning his birth 
would have been in 1383. • But this is certainty 
too early. In Doyle (i. 397) the date of his birth 
is given as September 29, 1387. The extract from 
the ' Irish Annals' refers to his second visit to Ire- 
land in 1408. His expedition to France in 1412 
was not " to help the Duke of Burgundy/' but to 
help the Dukes of Berry, Bourbon, and Orleans 
against the Duke of Burgundy ; and he could not 
have boasted that he went "to win backAquitaine 
for the English drown," seeing that it had not yet 
been lost. The date of his marriage with Margaret 
Holand, widow of the Earl of Somerset, may be 
approximately fixed. The earl died March 16, 
1410. On June 20, 1410, and December 22, 1410, 
she is still referred to as his widow (Pat. 11 H. IV. 
2, 10, and Iss. Roll 14 H. IV., Mich., January 25, 
1413). She first appears as wife of the Duke 
of Clarence on July 16, 1412 (Pat. 13 H. IV. 2, 6), 
so that it is probable that the marriage took place 
shortly before he started for France. 

J. Hamilton Wylie. 



V The Etymology of '^ Anlas."— The inter- 
esting word anlas^ a kind of dagger or knife, 
occurring in Chaucer's * Prologue,' is fully explained 
by Dr. Murray in the *New English Dictionary.' 
All that is known about the etymology is that it 
first occurs in the thirteenth century, and is said 
by Matthew Paris to be a native English word. 

It is, therefore, compounded of two Middle Eng- 
lish words ; and these I take to be simply an and 
laas^ i.e., "on" and *Mace"; and that the knife 
was so called because hung on a lace^ and thus 
suspended from the neck. 

' 'There is a precedent for this in the A.-S. name 
for a kind of pouch. It was called a In-gyrdel^ i. e.j 
a " by-girdle,'^ because hung at the girdle. Note 
that in this word the accent was on the prefix. 
This is clear from the alliterated line in * Piers the 
Plowman^ A. ix. 79; and Dr. Murray clearly 
explains that such was the fact. 

With on^ we have on-set^ dn-slaught^ with the 
accent on the prefix. The spelling an for on occurs 
in M.E. an-lich^ alike, and in several compounds 
noted by Stratmann, s.v. "an." 

That laas or las^ a lace, was the precise word to 
use,^we know from Chaucer, ^Prol.,' 392 : 

A dagger hanging on a laas hadde he, 

^^ t 

Perhaps we may yet find the variant onlas. 


•'' ' < Walter W. Skeat. 

Scotch and American Secretaries. — It 

worth recalling the fact, now that the creation 
of a Secretary for Scotland has of late years 
been hailed as a novelty, though a most desirable 
one, the present Scotch Secretary being, of course. 
Marquis of Lothian, at Dover House, White 

the death of Queen Anne to the Rebellion of 1745) 
"there was a third Secretary" — i.e., in addition 
to the two previous Secretaries of State — "and 
from 1768 to the loss of America in 1782 there 
was one for the Colonies." Vide Stockdale's ' New 
Companion.' But my authority does not state this 
fact quite correctly. I take it that the official in 
question was not called the Colonial Secretary, but 
the American Secretary. The above book (p. 80) 
gives as Secretaries for the Colonies (not for Ame- 
rica specifically) from 1768 to 1782 the Earls of 
Hillsborough and Dartmouth, Lord George Ger- 
main, and Welbore Ellis, Esq. The Chief Clerk 
in the Plantation Department was Grey Eliot, Esq. 

The points worthy of historical notice are, (1) 
that the American Secretary naturally disappeared 
when American independence was established ; 
and (2) that the reason for suppressing the office of 
Scotch Secretary was the desire (after Culloden) 
to unify Scotland administratively with England. 
Now that Culloden is simply a memory (and so is 
Waterloo), it has been natural enough for Scots- 
men to ask — and they have obtained their request 

for a secretary "of their own.'' Two points may 
be noticed in conclusion. The idea that any 
secretary is specifically created for, or appointed 
to, a department is erroneous. Several cases have 
occurred (and will occur again) in which a secre- 
tary has been transferred from one department to 
another. No efibrt at re-election, i.e., his "appeal 
to the country,'' is necessary. The Secretaries of 
State are all legally described, and are described 
individually, as " one of Her Majesty's principal 
Secretaries of State." The assignment of a spe- 
cific department to them, or of special functions, 
is one of those natural and salutary growths which 
greatly explain the stability of British institutions, 
and is sometimes vaguely ascribed to that excel- 
lent outcome of political common-sense, that ad- 
mirable and informal compromise, or rather " re- 
sultant," between opposing forces, called " the 
British Constitution." H. de B. H, 

Chained Books.— The following valuable note 

on the removal of chains from books in Mr. 
Macray's * Annals of the Bodleian Library, Oxford/ 
second edition, 1890, p. 121, seems worthy of a 
place in the pages of *N. & Q.': 

"As late as the year 1751 notices occur in the 
librarian's account books of procuring additional chains 
for the library. But the removal of them appears to 
to have commenced as shortly afterwards as 1757, and 
in 1761 there was a payment for unchaining 1448 books 
at one halfpenny each. In 1769 some long chains were 
sold at twopence each, and short ones at three-halfpence, 
and then en masse 19 cwt. of 'old iron' at fourteen 
shillings per cwt. Several of the chains are still pre- 

served loose, as relics. 

H. B. W. 

. ^ ^ , , Edouaet's Silhouettes. — About a year ago an 

hall, that this is an error. For a short period (from inquiry appeared in ^ N. & Q.' as to what had 



[7th s. X. July 26, '90. 

become of M. Edouart's collection of fifty thousand 
silhouette portraits. Those who are curious will 
find the question answered in an illustrated paper 


t k 



Pqnning Epitaph. — In a collection of old 

American-Dutch poems* I find an epitaph written 
by Selyns (1636-1701) on Peter Stuyvesant (7*^ S. 
ix. 269, 374^ 455), which quaintly begins with a 
pun on the name of the deceased and an allusion 
to his bombastic ways : 

Stuyft niet te seer in 't sai 
Want daer leyt Stuyvesant 


Raise not the dust too deep, 
Dustraiser here doth sleep. 

New York. 

* Essex Papers/— Mr 


his preface to vol. i., just published by the Cam- 
den Society : 

''Mary of Modena, who 'knows not how to set one 
foot before another with any graceful n esse,' and upon 
whose entry, ' when the King called for a chaire for her, 
all the ladies who were in the presence-chamber ran out 
of the room, as thinking themselves of equal quality to 
the Dutchesse of Modena.' " 

The reference is to p. 145. 




Court behaved so discourteously. The duchess 
accompanied her daughter to England. Evelyn 
saw them both on St. Andrew's Day, 1673 ; and 
in the ^ Essex Papers,' p. 159, we read : 

" The Dutchesse of Modena is gonne away this morn- 
ing [December 30] in great wrath and displeasure with 
most of the Ladys of our Court, and the Duke hath 
already made his visitts to Mrs. Churchill." 


Unfastening a Door at Death.-— A lady 

friend of mine in Liverpool has an Irish maid- 
servant who lost her mother some weeks since. A 
few nights afterwards my friend was disturbed in 
the night by the continual rattling of a chamber 
door, and upon making inquiries of her maid next 
morning as to the cause, was told that she had 
always kept her door open since her mother's death, 
as it was the proper thing to do. She could, how- 

^ Manley and Corringham Glossary ' i 
those who have not the book at hand : 

" Register.— A registrar. 

' It was provided by a statute of the Common- 
wealth, anno 1653, chap, vi,, that the parochial 
registers were to be kept by a person chosen by the 
parish and approved by a justice of peace, and it 
was enacted that " the person so elected, approved, 
and sworn shall be called the Parish Register.^'' '— 
Scobell's 'Acta and Ordinances,' ii. 237. 

'LJndsey} May the 15th. 1654. 

* William Collison, of Northropp, being chosen by 
ye inhabitants of ye said towne to be their parisJx 
Register^ to enter all Marriages, Births, and Buriales 
that shall happen in their said towne according to 
ye Act of Parliament in that case prouided, was 
sworne and approued by me whose hand is here vnder 
subscribed, being Justice of Peace for ye parts afore 
said.'— Chris. Wray, * Northorpe Par. Reg.' " 

It would be interesting to know when the change 
took place. In H. Herbert^s translation of Fleury's 
'Ecclesiastical History,' published in YI^Q^regisUr 
is several times used in this sense, e. g. : 

" The name of the Register who was to take down this 
sentence was Cassianus." — Vol. i. p. 605. 

The governour Dulcentius being upon his tribunal, 
Artimensaa the register said to him: If you please, I will 
read the information," — Vol. i. p. 544. 

In the first volume of the Archceologia^ published 
in 1770, we find in the introduction, p. x, that at 
one time William Hake will *' was Reaister to the 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Memorials of the Poi 


Edward Peacock. 

OF THE Poet Cowper's Mother 

AND Family. — In the vestry of the church of St. 
Peter, Berkhampstead, is a flat stone with the fol- 
lowing inscription : 

Beneath this stone lyes the Body of Catherine Donne 
who dyed May the xxix. in the year of our Lord 
MD.ccxxxiiL Aged lviii. 

Here also lyes interred the Body of Ann Cowper 
her daughter, and late wife of John Cowper, D.D. 
Rector of this Parish who dyed November the xiii. As also the bodys of Spencer, John, 
Ann, Theodora, Judith, and Thomas, the children of 
the said John and Ann Cowper who all dved Infants. 

Temple Chambers. 


Tobacco unnoticed by Shakspeare. 


ever, give no reason for it. 

O. C B, 

read hoc. 

Register, Registrar. — The registrar of births, 

marriages, and deaths, and his deputies are here | Melbourne, 
always called the register. This I have often heard 
spoken of as a vulgarism. It is, however, nothing 

General Index to Third Series, under '^Tobacco, 
unnoticed by Shakspeare," add to references there 
given the following : vi. 324. On p. 325 of same 
volume, col. 2, 1. 20 from bottom, for *'hac fonte'' 

Alex. Leepbr. 

Names of Authors Supplied. 


of the kind, but an old word, which has survived Knight, in his * Passages of a Working Life,' 
in the folk-speech, but died out in literary English, names the authors of the following books which 
rru„ i?,ii • r .t , . .... . ^^j,^ published anonymously, he being the pub- 

lisher :—* Memoirs of a Working Man ' and ' The 

The following passage from the last edition of my 

H. C. Murphy's * Anthology of New Netherland.' 



7^ 8, X, July 26, '90. ] 




p. 13; "Library of Entertaining Knowledge," 
^ The Menageries/ vols. i. and ii. (apparently not 
eol. iii.)i by Charles Knight, 2, pp. 113, 117; and 
^ Paris and its Historical Scenes,' by George Lillie 
Craik, 2, pp. 143 sq. The authorities are either 
silent or misleading as to this matter. 

whom Egidia, the eldest^ is said to have married 
by contract dated May 15, 1576, as first wife of 
Hugh, fourth Earl of Eglintoun. I can find no 
mention of her having previously married the Earl 
of Argyle. The other daughters were Agnes, 
married November 15, 1564, as second wife of Sir 

J. Power Hicks. John Colquhon of Luss (father of Sir Humphry 


Memoirs of Queen Mary 

mentioned above) ; Christian, married Sir James 
Hamilton of Avondale ; and Elizabeth, married 

written bj Craw tod o7 Drumsoy: hi, torio- ^^^ «-»»lr :' S'TXS "l 

grapher to Q 

As stated above, the adhesion of Argyle and 

fn iV the>owbg oarioas pa^sag'e in Annexion foyd '» the Regent's side is ascribed by Drajasoy 


Argyle and Lord Boyd of Kilmarnock to the side 
of the Eegent ~ 

"Everybody was Burprised to find the last of these 
tempted to revolt, who had been hitherto indefatigable 
in the service of his Queen ; and the first too much con- 
firmed those suspicions raised of his honesty, from his 
conduct at Langside. Bat this treachery to the Loyalists 
was not to be performed for nothing, for each of these 
noblemen had a notable allowance out of the Church 
revenues; and by the Regent's and Morton's authority 
Argyle was, without a just cause, suddenly divorced from 
his wife and married to Boyd's eldest daughter, who was 
indeed the most beautiful young lady in her time. 
'Twould appear from this that Boyd was drawn in to have 
his daughter preferred to the Earl's bed, because, the 
infected clergy being entirely in the interest of the 
Associators, 'twas impossible otherwise to obtain the 
Divorce, without being terribly cried out upon, and 
these zealous good men (to the scandal of their pro- 
fession) could shut their eyes and wink at adultery for a 

friend. But however 'twas, this was matter of fact, the 
two Peers were well bribed, and the marriage actually 
followed upon an unjust divorce,"— Pp. 223-4. 

I can find no confirmation of the divorce and 
marriage so categorically asserted. Archibald, 
fifth Earl of Argyle, born about 1532, died of the 
stone, without issue, September 12, 1575, in the 
forty-third year of his age, having married (first) 
Jean, natural daughter of King James V. by 
Elizabeth Bethune, who afterwards married 
John, fourth Lord Innermeath. This countess 
was alive in 1566, for she acted as sponsor for 


Eh'zabeth at the baptism of James VI. 

The Earl was censured by the general assembly 

that met in December, 1567, for separation from 

his wife, " though he alleged that the blame was 

not in him/* She is said to have been buried in 

the royal vault in Holyrood House ; but I can find 

no statement of the year of her death. It is stated 

in Wood's 'Douglas's Peerage, Wol ii. p. 717, that 

sue had letters of legitimation under the Great Seal 

October 18, 1580. According to the peerages, the 

earl's second wife was Lady Joanna (otherwise 

Jean, Joneta, or Janet) Cunningham, youngest 

daughter of the fifth Earl of Glencairn, who is said 

to have survived him, and remarried 1583 as first 

wife of Sir Humphry Colquhon of Luss, but died 
s.p. 1584. 

Robert, fourth Lord Boyd, born 1617, died 
January 3, 1589, having had four daughters, of 

to July, 1571, and he seems to imply that the 
divorce and marriage followed that event. The 
earl was made Lord Chancellor on January 17, 
1572, and died in 1575, and Egidia Boyd married 
the Earl of Eglintoun in 1576. 

Drumsoy, though Historiographer Boyal, is fre- 
quently inaccurate ; but he can hardly have in- 
vented so circumstantial a story. If there is a 
grain of truth in it, that grain has been carefully 
and mysteriously concealed by peerage writers. 


We mast request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
oames and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers mav be addressed to them direct. 

Churchmen in Battle. — What was the last 

occasion on which churchmen fought in battle ? I 
do not mean as volunteers, as in the case of George 
Walker at Londonderry and the Boyne, but as 
part of the regular forces. According to Scott, 
'Tales of a Grandfather,' chap- xxiv., the Scotch 
at Flodden (1513) left on the field two bishops 
and two mitred abbots. Also, is it the case that 
churchmen went into battle armed only with a 
mace, in order to avoid the text, " He that taketh 
the sword shall perish with the sword '^ ? At the 
battle of Bouvines (1214), "the English on the 
right were broken by a fierce onset of the Bishop 
of Beauvais, who charged mace in hand, and 
struck the Earl of Salisbury to the ground " (J. E, 
Green, ^ Short History of the English People,' ed., 
1889, p. 126). If the following is to be under- 
stood literally, it would seem that if mediaeval 
bishops did not take the sword they had no scruple 
about taking the lance. Mr. Green, in his account 
of the peasant revolt in 1381, says, "The warlike 
Bishop of Norwich fell, lance in hand, on Litster's 
camp, and scattered the peasants of Norfolk at the 
first shock '' (76id,p. 254). What badge or crest, 
if any, did churchmen wear in battle, in order to 

distinguished them from lay warriors ? 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

" Tbucklb Cheese ": '^ Merlin Chair." 

These are both mentioned in a letter written by 
the Kev. Edward Smedley, dated May 4, 1835 



[7"> S. X. July 26, '90. 

(Smedlev's * Poems, with a Selection from his 
Correspondence/ &c,, 1837, pp. 428-9). What 
are they ? G. F. E. B. 

The Chttrch of SS. Anne and Agnes. — Mr. 
Wood says, in his * Ecclesiastical Antiquities of 
London and its Suburbs/ p. 121, that the Church 
of SS. Anne and Agnes, to the north of the Post 
Office (that is in Gresham Street), formerly known 
as S. Anne-in-the- Willows, was in the gift of the 
Dean of S. Martin's. It is mentioned under its 
present title in the * Valor Ecclesiasticus * of 
Henry VIII. A. J. Eempe has no notice of it in 
his * Historical Notices of the Collegiate Church or 
Eoyal Free Chapel and Sanctuary of S. Martin-le- 
Grand,' London, 1825. When was it built ? To 
what guild or company did it belong ? 

A. Fradelle Pratt. 

9, Prideaux Road, Clapham Rise, S.W. 

Forest Gate. — Can you or any of your readers 
inform me where I can obtain or inspect an 
authentic picture or drawing of the old (five- 
barred) gate, and its then immediate surroundings, 
from which the village of Forest Gate, Essex, 

took its name ? 

Claude Trevelyan. 

Jorum. — Can this word be traced further back 
than to John Cunningham's little poem, ' New- 
castle Beer ' ? And is there anything to corroborate 
the conjecture that it is simply a corruption of 
Jordan ? The latter is, I believe, nearly obsolete ; 
but, so far as my experience goes, jorum differs 
now from it in this respect, that it is applied to 
mean an allowance or quantum of food of any 
kind as well as drink. " " 


Victorian Coins. 

W. T. Lynn. 

Dates of first issues required 



any sixpences issued in the years 1847, 1849, and 



Ainsty. — Can any one tell me the derivation of 
the word ainsty — ainsty of York ? I came across 
it for the first time (1879) in Murray's ^Modern 
Geography,' p. 126, and hitherto I have not been 
able to find the derivation of that word. 

Dorothea M. Haage. 

Wanted, in- 


formation as to the family of Theophilus Hearsey, 
Common Councilman, Billingsgate Ward, 1798 ; 
supposed to be a cousin of Sir John Bennet 
Hearsey, K.C.B., who died in 1865. A tradition 
that ancestor Theophilus was out in the '45 and 
attainted. Supposed arms : Three owls proper. 
Crest : Saracen's head wreathed, issuant from 

ducal coronet. 
51, England Lane. N.W. 

C. J. Hersey. 

George Hickes, Nonjuror, Bishop. 
Additional MS. 32,502, f. 33, there is a curious 


letter from "George Hickes, to his father." ^ As 
Hickes was then seventy years of age, and titular 
Bishop of Thetford, the letter can scarcely be his. 
(See *N. & Q.,' 6'^ S. xii. 401.) Was it written 
to the bishop by a son ? It commences " Hon^ 
Sir." Was Hickes married; and to whom? - 

J. Maskell. 

Emanuel Hospital, Westminster. 


Can any reader of ^N. & Q.' 
suggest the best means of ascertaining what has 
become of the pedigree advertised in the Times ^ 
September 16, 1824, as under ? 

^^ To Genealogists.— By Mr. Caudsell, on the premises 
No. 5, Spital Square, tomorrow, September 17, at one 
precisely, by direction of th^ administrators of the late 
Geo. Terry, Esq., an Historical and Genealogical Scroll 
of immense production and antiquity entitled a Genea- 
logical History of the Serene and Illustrious Family of 
Giffard, or Gifl'ord, with the issue of that noble stock to 
the year 1710, especially that line which is now united 
to the ancient British family of Vaughan, &c. May be 
viewed, with catalogues (price Is. each), during the whole 

of both days' sale, by applying to Mr. Caudsell, 10, Nor- 
ton Folgate." 

H. F. G. 

XJgborough Church. — I should be mu 



obliged if you or any of your readers could give 
me any information about the dedication and early 
history of XJgborough Church, near Ivybridge, 
South Devon. W. E. Windle. 

XJgborough Vicarage, Ivybridge. 

MoNTEAGLE. — In the parish of Yateley, Hants, 
is an ancient farmhouse called Mount Eagle. 
Tradition connects this with the discoverer of the 
Gunpowder Plot. Till a few years ago a black 
eagle was to be seen over the porch of the house. 
Can any one throw light on the above tradition ? 

C. S. Ward. 

Wootton St. Lawrence, Basingstoke. 

Plbshey Castle. — A stone slab was discovered 
underneath a house at Pleshey some years since 
carved in old English, " Ricardus Rex II." Can 
any of your readers ascertain whether King 
Richard II. was imprisoned at Pleshey Castle, and 

where he was buried ? 

J. A. 

Thomas Messingham. — Is anything known as 
to the family of Thomas Messingham, the Irish 
priest who wrote the *Florilegium Insul«e Sanc- 
torum ' ? Messingham is a name that it is hardly 
possible to receive as Celtic. There is a village of 
that name in Lincolnshire. Is it possible that 
Messingham's forefathers were English folk, who 
took their name from this place? Com. Ling. ' 

Portrait. — I have a portrait of a gentleman in 
armour, and there is on the back of its frame what 
remains of an inscription on paper, by which I 
gather that he was a colonel of a regiment of foot, 
and died on the 4th of some month in the year 
1723 or 1733, apparently the latter year. The 




1 fame appears to be Wills or Willis— the former, I 
think — or it may be the contraction for William as 
the Christian name, but I believe not. Can any of 
your readers assist me to identify this portrait, and 
}^ive me some particulars of the person represented? 

— %" ", / ' H. W. 

Chatham, '^ ' 

* .-. 4 

r ^« ' 


St. Bernard's Hymn for the Dying.— Of 



**Then the old woman quickly lighted the candle for 
him and set herself to recite St. Bernard's Hymn for the 
dying; but ere she had reached the third verse, lo ! he 

had departed*" 

o < 

.' '' 


H. A. W 

Treasure Trove. — A Roman in digging under 
a house found a large treasure of money, and being 
in some doubt of informers, notified the fact to the 
emperor, and got back the laconic reply, " Use it." 
His heart yet failed him, so he wrote again it was 
a sum much larger than at first he had imagined, 
and the dissyllabic answer was, "Abuse^ it." Is 
this in SuetoniuSj or where? 


Gallego. — Is there any glossary of the dialect 
of Gallicia ; or what works are there, arid in what 
languages, on the folk-speech of that part of Spain? 
It is said to be like Portuguese ; but probably has 

tively whether this was so ; and, if so, whether he 
belonged to the Batley, Spotborough, Nether Hall, 
Wad worth, or Skelbrook branch of the family ? 

J. J. Heaton. 

47, Queen's Road, Manningham, Bradford. 

Lord Stafford's Interlude Platers. — In 

the Launceston municipal accounts for 1577 is the 
entry among the payments, " To the enterlude 
players, viz., my L. Stafford's men, 135. 4d." 
(Peter's ' History of Launceston,' p, 211). Who 
were Lord Stafford's men ? 

Alfred F. Eobbins. 

John George Lambton, First Earl of Dur- 
ham. — Who was his first wife, and when did the 
marriage take place? Burke (1890), Foster (1883), 
and the Gent. Mag. for February, 1812, differ con- 

siderably on this point. 

G, F. R, B, 

0. A. Ward. 

The Census of Ancient Rome. — I should be 

obliged if any of your readers would furnish me 
with references to passages in classical authors 
quoting the figures of the Roman census. I am 
aware of the passages in Livy (i. 44; iii. 24; xxxv. 
9; xxxviii. 36; and xlii. 10), also of Tacitus's 
account of the census in the reign of Claudius 
(^ Ann.,' xi. 25). Gibbon, alluding to this, gives 
a different number, presumably quoting another 



peculiarities of its own. Arglan. | Church of Scotland Oampvere Holland. 

^ 'In the account of the life and writmgs of the 

Eating of Fish Prohibited.— In Hook's I historian Eobertson, by Dagald Stewart, prefixed 
^ Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury,' i. 175, | to his * Works,' I find this passage : 
it is stated that what Wilfrid probably did was 
to persuade the natives of Sussex to eat fish, 
** which some among the pagans supposed to be 
unlawful. Eels were always an exception." To 
what pagan rules does he refer? M.B. Cantab. 

** The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is 
composed of representatives from the Presbyteries ; 
from the Royal boroughs; from the four Universities; 
and from the Scotch Church of Carapvere, in Holland. 

This Church sends two members^ one minister, and 

one lay-elder." 

Copley Family. -Can any one give informa- ^,^^^ ^^^^ ^^s^ill; and where can I find a history 

Mr. William 


of the rise and progress of the Campvere church ? 

D. F. 0. 

half of the last century, and of whom I have heard Henshaw Quarterings, &a — After unsuccess- 

the following particulars? He 

ful search in all the heraldic books at my command, 

worsted factory in Hunslet, and lived in the house 1 1 am constrained to apply for help. An armorial 

seal is Quarterly, 1 and 4 Henshaw, 3 Clinton, and 


- . Mr 

He married a lady named 

Rose L^scelles, said to be of the Hare wood family. 
He is supposed to have invented or adapted a 
*^ wool mill" or "teazer," now known as "the 
devil." On his introducing this machine into his 
own factory the building and plant were wrecked 
by his operatives ; he was ruined, and migrated to 
America with his sons. This is said to have been 




He was 

known in Leeds as "County Copley," and is believed 
to have been a member of the well-known Copley 
family of Yorkshire. Can any one say authorita- 

2 a coat of which I take the blazon to be Gules, a 
castle between two wings expanded argent. The 
cutting is so minute that the charge may be a 
castle between branches of laurel or palm, though 
I think them wings, and they may not be argent. 
Of what family is this the coat ? 

Further, What, if any, arms were borne by 
Richard Wistow, of London, chief chirurgeon to 
Queen Elizabeth ; Anne Turvin, of the parish of 
St. Mildred, Poultry, 1698 ; and Anne Beverley, 
of Fifield (co. Essex, according to Sir B. Burke, 

* > 4 rf 


but query co. Oxford), 1733? 

Frank Rede Fowkb. 

24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea, S W. 




[7^*^ S. X, July 26, '90. 


(7»^ S. ix. 328, 395, 478.) 

Will you permit me to take exception to the im- 
plication in Mr. Pickford's quotations from Sir 
Walter Scott's novel * Woodstock ; or, the Cavalier,* 
that it was invariably the ^^ analogous custom to 
drink the king's health during his exile in a kneel- 
ing posture*'? The reverential action alluded to 
by your correspondent, I may remark, was certainly 
not practised in every case. For instance, on refer- 
ence to the Jacobite ballad entitled * The White 
Kose over the Water ' (Edinburgh, 1744), in G. W. 
Thornbury's charming edition, p. 102, of ^ Songs of 
the Cavaliers and Eound heads, Jacobite Ballads, 
&c.* (London, Hurst & Blackett, 1857), Mr. Pick- 
ford will find that the custom for all to stand 
during the ceremony — as at present observed when 
Her Majesty's health is proposed — was in vogue in 
Scotland in 1744. The following verses from the 
ballad I have already named may interest your 
correspondents, viz. : — 

Then all leapM up, and joined their hands 

With hearty clasp and greeting, 
The brimming cups, outstretched by all, 

Over the wide bowl meeting. 
"A health," they cried, •' to witching eyes 

Of Kate, the landlord's daughter ! 
But don't forget the white, white rose 

That grows best over the water." 
• • • . • 

" But never forget the white, white rose 

That grows best over the water." 
Then hats flew up and swords sprang out, 

And lusty rang the chorus— 
'* Never," they cried, '* while Scots are Scots, 

And the broad Frith 's before us." 

Again, need I draw Mr. Pickford's attention to 
the meeting of the "English Jacobite Club," as 
related in Ainsworth's ever interesting tale * The 
Miser's Daughter,' and to George Cruikshank's 
graphic illustration of each member standing, and 
holding a filled glass over a bowl of water, or to 
remind him of Randolf Crew's reply when asked to 
drink, " Here 's to the king's health ^ over the 
water ' " ? 

With regard to the opinion of Dr. Nicholson 
that the word toast, as used in connexion with 
the drinking of healths, originated in the habit 
of our ancestors " flavouring their cup with 
toasted bread and toasted apples"; and also to 
the article in Chambers's ' Book of Days,' vol. ii. 
p. 496, 1878, in which it is stated that the word 
in question was acquired from Capt. Ratcliff's 
doggerel poem entitled 'Bacchanalia Coelestia,' pub- 
lished in 1680, in which *^ toasted " biscuit is thus 
referred to : 

Neptune this ocean of liquor did crown, 
With a hard sea-biscuit well baked in the sun. 
This bowl being finished a health wag begun, 
Quoth Jove, •* Let it be to our creature called man " 

perhaps your correspondent will allow me to re- 
mind him of the '^ singular custom" of Us amourev^ 
of old France in '^flavouring their cup" to toast 
beautiful women, and alluded to by learned and 
witty Samuel Butler 

While Butler, needy wretch, was yet alive, 
No generous patron would a dinner give. 
See him when starv'd to death and turn'd to dust. 
Presented with a monumental bust^ 

as follows, viz.: when the lady in 'Hudibras/ 
part ii. canto i., c. 856 (1663, 1664, and 1678), is 
endeavouring to persuade her lover to whip him- 
self for her sake, she says : 

It is an easier way to make 
Love by, than that which many take, 
Who would not rather suffer whipping, 
Than swallow toasts of bits of ribbon ? 

Relative to this quotation, it is right to mention 
that in a tract printed in 1659 the information 
is given us that French gallants " in their frolics 
spare not the ornaments of their madams, who 
cannot wear a piece of perret-ribbon, but they will 
cut it in pieces and swallow it in wine, to celebrate 
their better fortune " {vide ' Hudibras,' edited by 
H. G. Bohn, vol. I p. 167, London, 1859). 

While it must be admitted that the origin of the 
word toast is very doubtful indeed, the ladies, it 
may not be out of place to remark, have in drink- 
ing healths a modest way of excusing themselves, 
thus felicitously described by Goldsmith in his de- 
lightful poem ^ The Deserted Village,' published in 
May, 1770 : 

Nor the coy maid, half willing to be prest, 
Shall kiss the cup to pass it to the rest. 

Henry Gerald Hope. 

6, Freegrove Road, N. 

A Highland regiment — I forget now the num- 
ber — was quartered at Gibraltar during a part of 
the Crimean war, in which was a son of Mr*^ 
Kobertson of Kinloch-Moidart. It was on his 
ancestor's estate that the standard of Prince Charles 
was raised in 1745. On the occasion of Mr. Robert- 
son visiting his son there the officers drank to the 
memory of Prince Charles, and made Mr. Robert- 
son drink it on his knees* 

E. Leaton-Blenkinsopp. 

The following extracts from the * History of 
Toasting,' by the Rev. Richard Valpy French, 
refer to the custom of drinking heaths in a kneel- 
ing posture. 

In Caxton's ^ Chronicle ^ the account of the death 
of King John represents the cup to have been filled 
with good ale ; and the monk bearing it knelt 
down, saying, " Syr, wassayll for euer the dayes so 
all lyf dronke ye of so good a cuppe.'' 

Thomas Hall bears testimony in his * Funebria 
Florae,' a pamphlet setting forth the wholesale 
depravity and wantonness engendered by the May- 
pole festivities, amongst the abuses of which was 
undue toasting. "In some places," says he, 


' .-I i 

^ J 

7tfa S. X. July 26, '90.] 





"maids drink healths upon their knees. 
Tile in men, but abominable in women." 

In one of Dekker's plays, published in 1630, 
one of the characters is asked, *' Will you fall on 
your maribones and pledge this health, 'tis to my 
mistress?". Ward also refers to " pot- wits and 
spirits of the buttery," who bared their knees to 
drink healths, and Thomas Young confesses, to his 
grief of conscience, that he himself had been an 
actor in the business of drinking healths kneeling. 

In * Oxford Drollery' is a song in which the 
following passage occurs : 

I will no more her servant be 
The wiser I, the wiser I, 
Nor pledge her health upon my knee. 

Hall states that there were some who drank 
healths on their knees^ as the scholars at the 

At the marriage festivities of Lady Ross, in 1693, 
at Belvoir Castle, there was a great cistern of sack 
posset, which after an hour's hot service had not 
sunk an inch, " which made my Lady Rutland call 
in all the family (domestics), and then, upon their 
knees, the bride and bridegroom's health, with pros- 
perity and happiness, was drunk in tankards brim- 

ful of sack posset. '' 

f # 

EvERARD Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

I confess that I cannot at this moment give the 
reference for which Dr. Nicholson asks me. I 
can only say, in his own word?, that my general 
reading seems to have led me into the belief, 
which he will probably set down as an instance of 
the wild writing from which he so kindly says 
that I am generally free. 

Longford, Coventry, 

0. F. S. Warren, M.A. 


"Thomas dk Holand, comes Kantije" (7 

S. viii. 127; ix. 214, 618).— The * History of the 
Eoyal Family,' published by "R. Gosling, at the 
Mitre and Crown, against St. Dunstan's Church 
in Fleet Street, 1713," is an abbreviated copy of 
Sandford's famous * Genealogical History of the 
Kings of England,' to whom the author (whose 
name does not appear) owns himself indebted. I 
have a copy of the work; but no one having access 
to Sandford would care to refer to it. The author 
has carefully repeated all Sandford's errors, and 
added some on his own account. If your corre- 
spondent Y. T. will refer to Mr. F^iret's query 
(7*-^ S. viii. 127) he will see that replies were 
requested to be sent to that gentleman's address 
direct. I, therefore (and doubtless others also), 
furnished him privately with the information re- 
quested. It is a mistake, accordingly, to suppose 

the query was unanswered. 

C. H. 

If A. H. will look in Moule's ' Bibliotheca 
Heraldica/ suh anno 1713, he will find an account 

of the book in question. It is said by Moule to 
be ** confessedly an abridgment of Sandford's 
^ Genealogical History of our Kings/ " in which an 
account of the family similar to that quoted by 
Y. T. is given. Full particulars will be found 
in Belty's ' Memorials of the Most Noble Order of 
the Garter/ s.v. " Thomas, second Earl of Kent." 

F. K 0. 

[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

Enid (7'** S. ix. 448).— I cannot give Sponsura 
any information as to the meaning of this name; 
but the following note in Lady Charlotte Guest^s 
edition of * The Mabinogion,' 1849, vol. ii. p. 164, 
may interest your correspondent. With regard to 
the Welsh quotation, I wish to say that I have 
copied it literatim as it stands. I do not know 
the Welsh 

" Throughout the broad and varied region of Romanes 
it would be difficult to find a character of greater eim- 
plicity and truth than that of Enidj the daughter of Earl 
Ynywl. Conspicuous for her beauty and noble bearing, 
we are at a loss whether most to admire the untiring 
patience with which she bore all the hardships she wa& 
destined to undergo, or the unshaken constancy and 
devoted affection which finally achieved the triumph she 
so richly deserved. The character of Enid is admirably 
sustained throughout the whole tale [i.e, * Geraint Ab 
Erbin,' ' Geraint the Son of Erbin '] ; and as it is more 
natural because less overstrained, so, perhaps, it is evea 
more touching than that of Griselda, over which, how- 
ever, Chaucer has thrown a charm that leads us to forget 
the improbability of her story. There is a Triad in 
which Enid's name is preserved as one of the fairest and 
most illustrious ladies of the court of Arthur, it runs 
thus : ' Tair Gwenriain Llys Arthur : Dyfir wallt euraid; 
Enid ferch Yniwl larll ; a Thegau Eurfronn : Sef oeddent 
Tair Rhiain Ardderchawg Llys Arthur ' (T. 10^). The 
Bards of the Middle Ages have frequent allusions to her 
in their poems ; and Davydd ap Gwilym could pay no 
higher compliment to his lady-love than to call her a 
Second Enid." 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

Dr. Charnock, in his * Prsenomina,' gives thia 
name as another form of Enaid, a Welsh female 
name, signifying soulj life. Enaid, with its other 
form?, en, enydhy is cognate to the Cornish mefy 
the Armorican ene^ the Irish anam^ and the Latin 
animus. Miss Charlotte M. Yonge, in her * His- 
tory of Christian Names ' (1863), gives it the same 
etymology. The tale of Geraint and Enid was in 
the ^ Mabinogion/ and Chrestien de Troyes put it 
into French verse, but it had not been admitted 
into the general cycle of the romances until Tenny- 
son rescued it from unmerited oblivion. 

De V. Payen Payne. 

Miss Yonge, in her ' History of Christian Names/ 
remarks, with reference to the names Geraint and 

" These are two of the characters whom Tennyson has 
recently rescued from unmerited oblivion, and raised to 
their true dignity among the chivalry of the Round 
Table. Their story was, indeed, in the * Mabinogion/ 

and Chrestien de Troyes had put them into French verge 



[7^1^ S. X. July 26, '90. 

W. C. H 

by the names of Erec and Enide ; but they had not been 
admitted to the general cycle of the romances^ though a 
Triad mentioned Enid as one of the three celebrated 
ladies of Arthur's court. She is as beautiful a picture 
of wifely patience as Grisell herself, and does not go to 
roch doubtful lengths of endurance. Her name is the 
Keltic form of animus, the soul ; and if Geraint ever 
meant, as Davies explains it, a ship or vessel, it would 
be tempting to see in the story an allegory of the scenes 
through which a soul is dragged by its mate, the ship 
that bears it." 

The Welsh^word for soul is enaid. 

F. 0. BiRKBECK Terry. 

Tomb of Thomas Hbarne (7'^ S. ix. 286, 377, 
493) — I have just, after a careful search, found 
the tomb of this celebrated antiquary in the church- 
yard of St. Peter-in-the-East at Oxford, and must 
say that it is in a woefully dilapidated condition. 
The inscription is almost illegible, the lettering 
being filled with moss and lichen, and the tomb 
itself is almost hidden from view by a lilac tree 
overshadowing it. It is now very near the east 
wall of the graveyard which divides the precinct 
from New College garden, and my impression is 
that it has been removed from its original position. 
The quotation given by me at p. 493 of the last 
volume from^Brand's * Popular Antiquities,' edited 
x,r ^ "izlitt(vo]. ii. p. 217), corroborates, 
apparently, my opinion on this point. 

Thirty years ago, to the best of my recollection, 
the tomb was placed near the middle of the grave- 
yard on the south side of the church ; and I can 
well remember taking a friend of mine, then prin- 
cipal of St. Edmund Hall, to inspect it, and we 
read the inscription together. Be it remembered 
that the tomb was originally erected more than a 
hundred and fifty years ago, though in recent years 
restored by a descendant. 

It may, however, be not unuseful to mention 
that the antiquary is commemorated by the follow- 
ing inscription in roman capitals on a brass plate 

affixed to a pillar on the north side of the 
chancel : — 

In the adjoining churchyard 

Lie interred the remains of 

Thomas Hearne M.A. 

Who by his will desired 

This simple inscription 

To be placed on his tomb. 

Lieth the Body of Thomas Hearne A.M. 

Who studied and preserved 


He died 10 June 1735. 

Aged 67 Years. 
* In Memoriam Viri tarn eruditi 
Hanc tabulam aheneam 
E.. C. Hoare, Wiltunensis 

Poni curavit a.d. mdcccxxxiii. 

It may be further noticed that in the vestry is 
an old engraving of St. Peter-in-the-East and its 
old parsonage, longf since destroyed, after a draw- 
ing by another Thomas Hearne, F.A.S., dated 

May 14, 1796, which has apparently been taten 
from Hearne's * Antiquities of Great Britain,' a 
fine work of art known as "Hearne and Byrne." 
Thomas Hearne the younger, as he may be called, 
is buried in the churchyard of Bushey, Hertford- 
shire. John Pickford, M.A/ 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


Jews in England (7'^ S. vi. 79 ; ix. 208, 229, 

257, 329, 433). 

** The following list of Jews is supposed to preserve 
the names of the first settlers here of that nation. It 
was found among the MSS. of Mendes Da Costa, and 
marked by him as received from Dr. Chauncey. The 
orthographj' shows it to have been made by some person 
of that persuasion who had attained but a slight know- 
ledge of the English lanj^uage ; and the handwriting is 
certainly of about the middle of the seventeenth century. 
Though the readmission of the Jews was a matter largely 
discussed in the time of the Protector, their return did 
not take place until after the Restoration. In 1663 a 
minister of the Portuguese synagogue is said to have 
searched the registers, and not to have discovered more 
than twelve Jews resident in London. ) ; 

The List of the Jewes : . > 

The widow Fendenadoes with her tow sonnes and tow 

seruants, Leadenhall strett. 
Sinor Antony Desousa, Boshapgat street. 
Sinor M'uell Rodregoes, Chrechurch laine. 
Sinor Samuell Deuega, in Beues marks, great, Jeweller. 
Sinor Antony Rodregus Roble?, Ducks plate. 
Sinor Josep f Deohnezous ) j. . , . 
Sinor Mihell { brothers j ^^^K plate. 

Sinor Duart Henrycus. 

Sinor Perear f ^r*^''^®^^ ^* ^ plumers in Chreechurch. 

Sinor Dauid Gaby, at a Plumers in Chrechurch. 

Three mor Jewes, Merchants, at the sam hous. 

Sin. Deego Rodrego Aries, Fanchurch street. 

Sin. Dormedio and Sin Soioman his sonne^ St. tellens. 

Sin. Soioman Franlkes, Fanchurch stret. 

Sin. Manuel de Costa Berto, Ducks plate. 

Sin. Docter Boyno, Phision to the Jewes, Ducks plate. 

Sin. Steauen Rodregoes, near Algat. 

Sin. Fransco Gomes, St. Mary Acts. 

Sin. Moses Eatees, Chreechurch LainOt a Jewesh Bubay. 

Sin. Benimam Lewme, Chrech Laine, 

Sin. Aron Gabey, Ducks plate. 

Sin. Domingoes Deeerga, Ducks plate. 

Sin. Dauid Mier, Leaden Hall street. 

Sin. Moediga, Clark of the senagoge. 

Most of them haue wifes and seruants. 
Mr. Lysons, in his account of Stepney, mentions 
Emanuel Mendes Da Co^ta, as buried at the old burial 
ground belonging to the Jews in Mile-end Road in 1791, 
and has also given the dates of burial of several other 
branches of bis family. See 'Environs of London,* 
vol. iii. p. 478." 

This extract is from ^The Antiquary's Portfolio/ 
by J. S. Forsyth, 1825, vol. i. p. 191. 

St. Austin's, Warrington, 

Robert Pierpoint, 

" One law for the rich and one law for the 

POOR '' (7^*^ S. ix. 288, 453).— At the last reference 
I wrote, or intended to write, ^^bettermy sort of 
folk" (and not bettering)^ a word which hereabout is 
used in the sense of ^* bettermost/* Bettermy is an 


f fc- 

7'" S. X. July 26, '90.] 



Dcid word, and sounds singularly in the folk-speech. 
[ often hear it, but only among people whose ages 
afe up-side of forty. I only know of one use of 
the word bettering —when a person makes a change 
for the better, and in particular of servants moving 
with the object of " bettering " themselves. 

Thos. Katcliffe. 


/ • 

U M 

f . 



•• Roman Catholic Registers of Births, Mar- 
riages, AND Deaths (7'^ S. ix. 487).— In the 
autumn of 1840 seventy-eight old Catholic mission 
registers were forwarded by the clergy to the autho- 
rities at Somerset House ; but in 1857 it was de- 
cided that no more were to be sent at all, and 
accordingly the Commissioners appointed to in- 
quire into the state, custody, and authenticity of 
registers of births or baptisms, deaths or burials, 
and marriages in England and Wales, other than 
the parochial registers, reported on Dec. 31, 1857, 

that their "application to the Roman Catholics 

has been attended with no good result." In addi- 
tion to those in the Somerset House collection, the 
register of Weston-Underwood, co. Bucks, dating 
from 1702, is found in the presbytery of that place; 
an imperfect register of Cheam, co. Surrey, com- 
mencing in 1755, remains among the archives of 
the Dominican Priory at Haverstock Hill, London; 
while two volumes of the Catholic Mission of St. 
George, Worcester, extending from 1685 to 1837, 
are preserved at Worcester, It is greatly to be re- 
gretted that many other similar and as valuable 
records are still in private hands. The first little 
volume of the Worcester registers may be regarded 
among the earliest, if not actually the earliest, on 
record. Copious extracts from the registers, an 
index of persons, and much valuable information 
npon the subject, will be found in ' Old English 
Catholic Missions,' by John Orlebar Payne, Lond., 


Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 


T ■ ■ r 

" A collection of these from the originals in 
Somerset House was very recently edited by, I 
think, Mr. 0. Payne. It is published in book 
form, but the papers first appeared in Merry 
England. It does not include all the registers, 
many of which have been lost ; others are in pri- 
vate hands or among the archives of the various 
Catholic dioceses. During the time that the penal 
laws were in force Catholics were forced to go 
through the ceremony of marriage and were buried 
according to the rites of the State Church, and 
entries of such marriages and burials will often be 
found in the parish registers. If Lac will say 
what family he is searching for and whereabouts 
the members were born and buried, more definite 
information may be forthcoming, 
"Much material connected with the history of 
Catholic families in the penal times was no doubt 
destroyed for fear of its possession bringing trouble 

on the owners; but I am sure if search were made 
a great deal has yet to come to light. H. A. 

The case of these registers may be seen examined 
in R. Sims's * Manual for the Genealogist, Topo- 
grapher. Antiquary, Legal Professor,' London, 
1856, pp. 381-2. The author states that "it 
would appear that there can be no Catholic re- 
gisters for any part of England, except London, 
from 1698 to 1790." He relies on the Act of 11 

& 12 Will. IIL 

Ed. Marshall. 

George Angus. 

It is just possible that * Records of the English 
Catholics of 1715,' by John Orlebar Payne, pub- 
lished by Messrs. Burns & Gates, may be of some 
use to Lac. 

St. Andrews, N.B. 

Garrulity (7'^ S. ix. 229, 275, 456).— May I 
be allowed to observe that cacoithes scrihendi is in- 
correct and will not scan ] The expression is cer- 
tainly used by Juvenal in the following form, and 
also, to the best of my recollection, in the " Propria 
Quse Maribus*' in the 'Eton Latin Grammar ^ 

Tenet insanabile multos 

Scribendi cacoethes. 

' Sat.,' vii. 51. 

Let me refer your readers to an illustrative paper 
on its meaning in the Spectator^ No. 582, dated 
Aug. 18, 1714, written by Addison, in which it is 
called " the itch of writing." Liddell and Scott's 
* Lexicon' defines ^^ KaKo-qd-q^^ an ill habit, itch 
for doing a thing. Plato, ' Republic,' 401 B, &c." 

John Pickford, M.A. 

Might I humbly Bxxgg^^i pen-yearning ^pen-fever ^ 
and pen-frenzy f 



(7^** S. ix. 405, 517). — There are three or four man- 
traps to be seen in the basement of the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford. They are like enlarged steel 
rat-traps, and constructed to seize the leg about 
half-way between the knee and ankle. Some have 
serrated jaws and the others have spikes, about an 
inch long, set at close intervals along the bows. 
They could not fail to cruelly wound any one who 
might have the misfortune to be caught in them. 

0. S. H. 

I recently passed through Falmouth, and duly 
visited the " Old Curiosity Shop " there. Amongst 
other curios there was exhibited for sale a man- 
trap, which appeared to me to be a gigantic edition 

of an ordinary rat-trap. 


I have seen more than one man-trap. About 
thirty years ago one was kept by a market gardener 
at Conway, who sometimes walked through the 
streets with it on his back, as, I presume, a warn- 
ing to trespassers. Within the last three or four 
years I found one, very rusty, in an outhouse in 
this city. Both those that I have mentioned were 
similar in make to the ordinary "gin," or vermin 



[7^^ S. X. July 26, 'SO. 

trap, but about four feet long, and when in good 
order must have been strong enough to break a 

man's leg. A. R Malden 


I recently saw in the museum at Colchester 
Castle a man-trap like an enlarged rat-gin. 

g. b. longstaff. 

Sir Andrew Hamilton of Redhall and 
THE "Lady Balcleuch " (7"* S. ix. 467).— They 
had long noses for pedigrees in the courts three 
hundred years ago when a juryman was to be 
challenged. They believed that blood was thicker 
than water. Had Sigma remembered the ' Lay of 
the Last Minstrel/ the closing sentences of his two 
paragraphs might not have been penned. The Scotts 
of Branxholm were lairds of Buccleuch — or, as it 
is often spelt, Balcleuch. Instances are many. 
For one in 1543 see Sadler's * State Papers/ ed. 
1809, vol. ii. p. 233. Sometimes the laird's name 
is Latinized Balcluchius, Bacluchius, Bacleuchius. 
See Buchanan's * Historia,' Paton's ed., 1727, index; 
Johnstone's *Historia,' 1656, p. 215. In the Re- 
cords of Parliament, March 15, 1542-3, " Walter 
Scott of Branxhelme Kny^ " in the body of an Act, 
appears as " Lard Bukclew* " on the margin (^ Scots 
Acts,' vol ii. p. 414). As two of Beatoun of Creich's 
daughters appear by Sigma's note to have been very 
much married, and as each of the two is credited as 
once Lady of " Balcleuch," why should not one or 
other be grandmother to Sir Andrew Hamilton ? 
Being no genealogist, I regret my inability to help 
further. Geo. Nbilson. 

King James L (7*^ S. ix. 427).— The visit of 

James L is very likely to be seen in the ' Pro- 
gresses, Processions, and Festivities of King 
James I., his Royal Consort, Family, and Court,' 
by John Nichols, 1827, 4to., 4 vols. ; or in the 
* Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series,' temp. 

part ; just above and below the grip are bold 
annular projections, handsomely carved and gilt ; 
the lance-shaped head is steel, of the usual open 
pattern, and gilt ; the lateral foot-spike and the 
cords and tassels still remain. My lady friends 
tell me that the three flags are fine and curious 
pieces of needlework. 

I also possess a silver medallion, struck to com- 
memorate the raising, on Nov, 4, 1745, of the 
True Blue Infantry Corps of Cork. On this 
medallion these volunteers are represented drawn 
up in review order, and being inspected by an 
officer on horseback, and the colours and the officers 
who bear them are very conspicuous in the centre 

of the front rank. 

C. Debosco. 

James I. 


Volunteer Colours (7*^ S. viii. 427, 477; ix. 
194, 378, 496),— The Irish volunteers of the last 
century certainly carried colours. In my possession 
are^ three flags of Cork volunteers of the 1782 
period ; two are the colours of an infantry corps, 
and the third is the guidon of a cavalry corps. 
AH three bear mottoes and emblematical devices, 
in every instance patriotic and loyal The field of 
one of the infantry flags is (or rather was) red, 
that of the other is white (now very creamy indeed), 
and both are, of course, silk. The guidon is blue 
satin, doubled, gold fringed, and swallow- tailed. 
Volunteer cavalry corps generally carried but one 
flag. The stafi* of the guidon in my possession is 
peculiar, and appears to be a survival or reminis- 
cence of the knightly lance of old. It is blue, 
with portions heavily gilt ; from a little above the 

grip for two feet it is fluted, the runner (which I the order ranking as a Knight of Justice, possibly 
still carries the ring) being attached to the fluted he could tell us something of the present position 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem (7** S. ix. 

468). — In default of better information, I may refer 
your correspondent B. F. S. to * A Sketch of the 
Knights Templars and tbe Knights of John of 
Jerusalem,' by Richard Woof, F.S.A. (London, 
Hardwicke, 192, Piccadilly, 1865). In this little 
work is a list of the "Members of the English 
Langue of the Sovereign and Illustrious Order of 
St. John of Jerusalem,'' giving tbe Duke of Man- 
chester as Grand Prior of England, Count de Salis 
Grand Prior of Ireland, and Lord Leigh Baili£f of 
Aquila, these three being G.O.J. J., or Great 
Grosses. Of the same rank are 15 members, who 
are named, but are classed as '* Bailiffs ad Honores/ 
Then follow 19 Knights Commanders (K. C.J.J. ), 
21 Knights of Justice (K.J.J.), 6 Ladies, 22 
Knights of Grace, 4 Honorary Knights Great 
Cross, 9 Honorary Knights Commanders, 2 Hono- 
rary Knights, 4 Chaplains, 3 Esquires and 1 Donat 
(the jeweller to the order). No mention is made 
of the present headquarters of the order in Eng- 
land, but it is stated that 

^Hhe English Langue has perpetuated the principles of 
the Order by the annual distribution of its reyenue 
amongst the charitable institutions of London, and is 
now engaged in the establishment of an experimental 
foundation in accordance with the never forgotten ob- 
ject of this distinguished fraternity." 

I shall be most happy to lend B. F. S. the 
* Sketch,' if of any service. 

I may mention further that the Order of St. 
John of Jerusalem is a masonic order, which is 
connected with the companion "Order of the 
Temple" (Knights Templar), and known as the 
Knights of Malta. The Prince of Wales is the 
Grand Master of these united orders, the organiza- 
tion being under the direction of governing bodies 
known as the Convent General, which is supreme, 
and the National Great Priory, the latter being a 
national council, quite subservient to the former. 

In 7*^ S. X. 12 your correspondent Mr. Francis 
Robert Davies appends to his name the letters 
K.J.J. , and if these mean that he is a member of 






cf the Order of St, John aod other facts concern- 
iig this nineteenth - century revived institution 
vhich could not fail to be of great interest to your 

2 eaders. 

May I now ask if the Bishop of St. Albans and 
v5ir Eaylton Dixon, whose portraits hang this year 
on the walls of the Eoyal Academy (No. 117 and 
N"o. 1099), are members of this order, as they both 
wear the cross— the bishop hanging from a black 
ribbon around the neck, and Sir Raylton in a 
ilmilar way, but also in a brooch form on the 

breast of his scarlet uniform ? 

Fred. C. Frost. 


EuMA. Tatham (7"* S. X. 8).— Emma Tatham, 
poetess, the only surviving child of George and 
Ann Tatham, was born October 31, 1829, in the 
Boundary House of the Bedford Estate, Theobald's 
Eoad, Gray's Inn, London ; died September 4, 
1855, and was interred in the burial-ground of the 
Independent chapel at Redbourne, co. Herts. Her 
* Dream of Pythagoras and other Poems' — London 
(Bath printed), 1854, 12mo. ; second edition, 1854, 
8vo.; fifth edition, with several additional pieces, 
a portrait, and memoir by the Rev. Benjamin 
Gregory, London (Wesleyan Conference Office), 
1872, 8vo.— will be found in the British Museum 
Library, where is also a copy of a memoir by Mrs. 
^ 0. Westbrook entitled * Etchings and Pearls ; 
or, a Flower for the Grave of Emma Tatham/ second 
edition, enlarged, London, 1857, 8vo. 

Daniel Hipwell. 

» 34, Myddelton Square, ClerkenwelL 

"Psychological P-asDAGOGics" (7*^ S. x. 26). 

— This subject has been much exploited of late 
years, and anyone desirous of studying it has only 
to turn to the pages of Mind (the Quarterly Re- 
view of Psychology and Philosophy) to be put au 
courant of the latest ideas. For special and separate 
treatises on the subject, mention may be made of 
Bain^s * Education as a Science,' Sully's ^Teachers' 
Handbook of Psychology,^ Payne^s 'Lectures on 
the Science and Art of Education,' and last, but 
not least, of Locke's classical work *Some Thoughts 
concerning Education,' of which two excellent 
editions were issued in 1880. 

Spurs (7^^ S. x. 9).— Dr. Nicholson writes 
that he would be glad to hear of a specimen of a 
spur so loosely rowelled as to produce an audible 
jingle. I am sorry that, having very recently made 
away with several specimens of the kind, I cannot 
send him, as well as let him hear of, one. When, 
comparatively early in the present century, I first 
had occasion to wear brass spurs, I can assure Dr. 
Nicholson . that their jingle was the source of 
much pride and pleasure to the wearer. When 
advancing years diminished the intensity of these 
feelings, the jingle remained. If the small plate 
that bore the rowels of the nineteenth century 
produced this effect, it is easy to imagine the 
effect of the large plate of former years. 


Arrow Throwing (7*** S. x. 7). — I was taught 
this art when a boy. As it is not commonly 
practised now, perhaps a description may be of 
interest. A shallow nick is cut round the shaft, 
just below the feather. A string with a knot at 
the end is passed once round this nick over the 
knot ; the other end is held in the hand, the knot 
keeping the string in position. The thrower, 
holding the head of the arrow in his hand, dis- 
charges it at the mark. The unwinding of the 
string causes the arrow to spin round, thus making 

it fly straight. 

E. Leaton-Blenkinsopp. 


A. W. Robertson. 

^ L.N. Fowler, * Formation of Character,' ^Educa- 
tion,' * How to Train a Child/ pamphlets, one penny 
each, the Psychological Press Association pub- 
lishers ; ^ Children's Progressive Lyceum,' same 
publishers, 35.; Mrs. Horace Mann and E. P. Pea- 
body, * Moral Culture of Infancy, with Kinder- 
Guide,' same publishers, 35. ; J. R. 
Buchanan, * Moral Education, its Laws and 
Methods,' same publishers, 65.; E. Colignan, 
'L'Education dans la Famille et par Tlfitat,' same 

Bible Family Records (7^^ S. x. 8). — I should 

hardly think that the printer's practice about 
which Prof. Butler asks can be much older than 
the date he gives of 1816. His second question 
is very easily answered, and I wonder he found it 
needful to put it. People wrote their entries on 
whatever fly-leaves their Bible had, just as they 
do at present, without caring (few care now) 
whether or not "Family Records" or any like 
words were printed or emblazoned at the top. 
Many such entries of two or three centuries old 
have been printed in ^ N. & Q.' I have myself a 
Bible where the oldest entry is dated 1683. 
Having written thus far, it occurs to me that 
possibly it may be necessary in America, though 
it is not in England, for such entries, to be legal 
evidence, to be written on pages specially set 
apart for them. If so, Prof. Butler's question 
is accounted for, and I owe him an apology. But 

is the case so ? 

Longford, Coventry. 

0. F. S. Warren, M.A. 


publishers, Is. 

Ed. Marshall. 

I have in my possession a family Bible with 
blank pages for family records. It is dated 
"London, printed by E. T. for a Societie of 
Stationers, 1655." Wm. N. Eraser. 

Findrack, Aberdeenshire. 

The backs of the title-pages in Genevan Bibles, 
in early black-letter copies of the Authorized V"er- 
sion of the Bible, and fly-leaves in later quarto 
and folio editions of the sacred volume, were con- 



[7tt> S^ X. July 26, '90. 

Btantly used for registering family records.^ I 
think the earliest one I have was written in a 
Genevan Bible "in the Year of our Lord God 

1616." J. Jb'. Mansergh. 


Bibliography (7'^ S. ix. 348, 510).— May I 
draw attention to the fact that the mother of Kathe- 
rine SwintoD, who married Sir Alexander Nisbet, 
was Katherine Hay, daughter of William, Lord Hay 
of Zester ? As regards the marriage of Eleanor, 
daughter of Thomas Wybergh, and widow of Sir 
John Nisbet, to " Swinton of Elbroke [Elbalk is 
the name of the mansion house of Swinton]^ one of 
the Lords of Session,'' the Swinton pedigree con- 
tains no mention of such a connexion. The *^ Lord 
of Session " of that day would appear to be Alex- 
ander Swinton, Lord Mersington, second son of Sir 
Alex. Swinton of Swinton. This judge died in 
1700. But his first wife was a daughter of Sir 
Alex. Dalmahoy of that ilk, and there are indica- 



by his wife (if we credit the second marriage, his 
third), Alison Skene, of the family of Hallyards. 
As Lord Mersington is supposed to be the ancestor 
of the Swintons located south of the Tweed, who 
cannot trace the steps of their descent from the 
original stock, it would be of great interest to 
the representatives of Swintons of Swinton if 
Sigma or any other correspondent could give 
further information. Ai. S. L. 0. S. 

" King of Arms " or " King at Arms " (7^ 

S. vii. 448; viii. 29,112, 235, 251,458,491). 
Notwithstanding the practice of heralds to call 
themselves kings of arms, I have just come across 
a MS. of the time of James L, being " A True 
Description of his Majesty's Courtes of Records 
His Highness' Most Honorable Houshoulde, &c., 
collected in Anno 1613," in which all the herald- 
officers are described as " ofl&cers att armes," viz., 
"Kinges att Arms"; "Segar Garter principal 
kinge att armes, fee 40^' ; Clarenceux kinge att 
armes, 20^ ; Norrey St. George kinge att armes, 
20^; Mr. Oambden kinge atte armes, 20^." This 
appears to be an official list of James I.'s officers 
of all kinds, with their salaries. So, at any rate, 
the terms " officers att armes," " kinge att armes,'' 
are not new, or probably less correct than " of 

queries must entail on the Editor of * N. & Q.,' I 
would express my surprise that a correspondent, 
writing from a locality no more remote nor illite- 
rate than Oxford, should ask if any learned Indian 
correspondent can light on the derivation of a 
name — given by a learned "Indian," now, alas! 
no more, in the * Anglo-Indian Glossary.' But, 
should no copy of Col. Yule's work have reached 
Oxford, that seat of learning may yet boast the 
possession of the ninth edition of the * Encyclo- 
psedia Britannica.' By the latter authority the 
word is derived from Tibetan pulu, by the former 
from BBlilpolo. The difference in the words may 
be fairly attributed to district dialect or the hearer's 
appreciation. It is the name signifying the ball 

with which the game is played. 


but though it was from that quarter that the game 
reached Calcutta, visitors to Kashmir thirty years 
ago, about which time I first heard of it up there, 
and in succeeding years, must have prevailed over 
the more westerly players in giving a name to the 
game, which came to them from Baltl or Chitral or 


It will be seen from one of Col. Yule's quota- 
tions that De Vigne, writing in 1842, recommends 
the game for adoption on the Hippodrome at Bays- 
water. Nearly thirty years passed before it ap- 
peared at any hippodrome in the neighbourhood; 
but when it did appear its popularity increased 
rapidly, within limits due to local differences. The 
Maniptlri conquered countries on his pony — a most 
inexpensive charger, but a most expensive toy. In 
Persia, where the game took its name from the 
stick, chogan^ the pursuit seems to have more 
nearly resembled what it is in England. It was 
called the sport of princes. 

The article " Polo " in the ' Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica ' does not seem to have been written by 
Col. Yule, though he wrote the succeeding article 
on Marco Polo, a name which might set guessers to 
work on another origin for that of the game. 


SwAD (7*^ S. ix. 466). — Swad is the pod of a 
pea, and so, according to Blount, is used for an 
empty-headed, shallow fellow. Halliwell quotes 
Greene's * Perimedes ' and several other instances 
in which it stands for lout and bumpkin. But in 
Suffolk swad means a sword, and it is in this sense 
that soldiers might become swaddles. 

C. A. Ward. 


arms," as we frequently find in the signatures 
to deeds. Of. " Sergeant-at-arms," ** Counsel-at- 
law." J. C. J. 

The Game of Polo (7*^ S. x. 9).— It would 
ill become a dilettante to answer this query, as 
experts in philology are wont to answer, *'See 
somebody's dictionary." It is quite possible for a 

querist to be far away from books of reference, and 
even to have no friend who is near them. Yet, 
in consideration of the trouble that unnecessary toric notice, more than coeval with the Norman 

r J 

New Castle Euin, Bridgend, Glamorgan- 
shire (7*^ S. ix. 488). — There appears to be only 


that situate 

in Emlyn, Cardiganshire, built in the reign of 
Henry VII. On one side of Bridgend stands the 
ruins of Coity Castle, which marks a spot of his- 


7 h S. X. July 26, '90.] 



su' jugation of Glamorgan. On the other side of 
Br dgend stands the ruins of Ogmore Castle. See 
N cholas's 'Annals and Antiquities of the Counties 
and County Families of Wales/ pp. 521-2. 

; ■ ' ; ;. R. COLBECK. 

I; Wansey Street, S.E.' 

JBanian (7'^ S. ix. 443).— This was the name at 
the R.M. Academy, Woolwich, thirty years ago, 
and perhaps now, for a lounging jacket or short 
dressing gown of light blue flannel, issued to the 
cadets as part of their uniform, which could be 
worn in their barraclk-rooms. Other old odd words 
were current there, e. g.j tosher for tumbler, smocJcer, 
&c. ^ H. P. L. 


( I 


I * 



Clayton: Medhop (7*^ S. ix. 448).— Ifc may 
assist Miss Kathleen Ward to know that' Col. 
Kandall Clayton was knighted in Irelandon April 28, 
1622. Sir Randall Clayton was the grandson^ of 

Clayton, of Doneraile, co. Cork, who married 
Eliza, daughter of William Gaiter, of London. 

Miss Medhop appears to have been the daughter 
of Capt. Francis Medhop, one of the officers who 
were adjudicated arrears of pay for services to the 
king before June 5, 1649. This Francis is sup- 
posed to be the grandson of Roger Medhop, of 
Medhop Hall, co. Oxford. {Vide Visitations.) 

-^ t 


./ ^*' Don't" v. "Doesn't" (7*^ S. ix. 305, 457). 
With respect to the form donH, which is used, 
of course, even in polite society, it seems worth 
while to point out that it is short for do noty and 
probably arose in East Anglia, where he do is used 
for he does. Our current speech is of East-Midland 
origin, so that there is nothing extraordinary in 
finding that it has been affected by East- Anglian 
peculiarities. ' Walter W. Skeat. 

Don't for do not is simply an abbreviation for 
does not It is not grammar. If I say I donH 
agree with Mr. Angus, it may be impolite, but it 

Mr. Angus donH agree 

A. H. Christie. 

is grammar 

with me, it is not grammar. 

Writers" of the Life of St. Agnes (7^^ S. ix. 

488).— Is it possible that by "Tower Tanner and 
John Tyrgate '' Gower, Chaucer, and John Lydgate 
are meant ? In the very folio (76) of the Arundel 
MS. 327, to which your correspondent refers, Boke- 
rmm mentions these three poets. The passage 
occurs in the Prologue to the ' Legend of St. 
Agnes,' and is thus quoted by Horstmann : 

And yet I hit (Pallas) preyid wyth vmble reuerence 
That she summe fauour wold sheu to me. 
And she me anewerd in pleyn centence : 
" Thou commyst to late, for gadryd up be 
The most fresh flowrys by personys thre : 
Of wych tweyne ban fynysshyd here fate, 
But the thrydde hath datropus yet in cherte : 
As Gower, Chauncer, and Joon Lycgate." 

. ^ C. 0. B. 

Peter Stutvesant (7^^ S. ix. 269, 374, 455). 

Of this name Sturtevant is probably a variant. 
A gentleman called Sturtevant practised surgery at 
Brigg in the early years of the reign of George III. 
A small handbill issued by him now lies before me. 
I append a transcript. My copy is the only ex- 
ample I ever saw or heard of. It has a certain 
amount of local interest, as being the earliest speci- 
men of printing executed at Brigg that has as yet 
been discovered (see ' N. & Q.,' 4*^ S. x. 66): 

" Sturtevant, Surgeon. ApothecaT^y, and Man-Mid- 
wife, at Brigg, in Lincolnshire, Has just entered upon 
the House, lately in the Occupation of Mr. Atkinson : 
and hopes by a diligent and faithful Discbarge of the 
several Duties of his Profession, to merit the Encourage- 
ment of the Public. N.B. — Drugs sold wholesale and 
retail upon the most reasonable terms. Oct. 25. 1777. 
Brigg, Printed by S. Scott." 

When my father was a little boy — that is at the 
beginning of this century — an old lady lived at 
Brigg, whose name was Sturtevant. She may not 
improbably have been the widow of the person 
who issued the handbill. Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

The last Dutch governor of New Amsterdam 

(New York) succeeded Governor Kieft from July, 

1646, until September, 1664. For references as to 

the loss of his leg, see 'Documentary History of 

New York; by O'Oallahan, vol. iv. pp. 107, 108 ; 

Bancroft's 'History of New York,' vol. i. p. 493 

(note at foot of page) ; Appleton's * Cyclopedia of 

American Biography,' vol. v. p. 735. J. J. L. 
New York, U.S. 

National Flowers (7^^ S. x. 4). — I never 

heard till now that the cornflower was the national 
flower of Prussia. But I believe that the late 
Emperor William I. was very fond of the blue 
cornflower, and that on this account it is now 



fore it was the more surprising to be told the 
other day that the blue cornflower is at present 
the fashionable flower in Paris. Fashion has sel- 
dom any reason to give for her own very super- 
fluous existence ; and it is hard to see why even a 
"masher'' or a petit crevi should place in his 
buttonhole the favourite flower of his victorious 




name of these plants {Centaurm) is derived from 
K€VTai;po9, a centaur ; and fabulous history adds 
that it was so called after Chiron, a centaur, who 
taught mankind the use of plants and medicinal 
herbs." The specific name of the bluebottle corn- 


legend of the 

youth so named, whose chief employment was that 
of making garlands of these flowers, and who at 
last was found dead under a covering of them. 
The name, of course, really refers to the colour, as 

Phillips knew. He 

of its having 

been chosen as the national flower of Prussia, but 



[7tb S. X. JuLT 26, *90. 

of the allied species, Gentaurea moschata (purple 
sweet centaury) he says : 

*' Parkingou thus speaks of it in 1629 : ' as a kinde of 
these corneflowers, I must needs adjoyn another stranger, 
of much beauty, and but lately obtained from Constan- 
tinople, where, because, as it is said, the great Turk, as we 
call him, saw it abroad, liked it, and wore it himself, all 
his vassals have had it in great regard, and it hath been 
obtained from them by some that have sent it into these 


* Flora Historica' (1829), ii. 209. 

0, 0. B, 

I never understood that the cornflower was the 
national flower of Germany, only that it was the 
favourite flower of the late Emperor William, and 
so adopted and worn, as the violet was in France 
by the Bonaparte family and their adherents. 

B. Florence Scarlett. 

The cornflower I take to be the corn bluebottle 
{Gentaurea cyanus)^ which is an alien introduced 
here with seed, but now fully established, I am 
informed by some German friends that it is not 
the national flower of Prussia, but came into pro- 
minence in that country by reason of its being the 
favourite flower of the Emperor William. 

Glenmore, Lisburn, Ireland. 

W. W. Davies. 

[Other replies to the same eflfect are acknowledged.] 

Leprosy in the Middle Ages (7'^ S. ix. 486). 

On the Close Roll for 8 Edw. IV, is a petition 
to the king from his physicians, praying for an 
investigation into the case of Joan Nightingale, of 
Brentwood, Essex, reported by her neighbours to 
be leprous, followed by an order from the king to 
ffemove her to a solitary place if found to be thus 
suffering. The Bishop of Bath and Wells (Robert 
Stillington) then discourses on the various kinds 
of leprosy — " tiria, leonina, and elefancia." Finally, 
the patient is inspected, found healthy, and not 
infected with any species of contagious disease. 


Gin Palaces (7^^ S. ix. 448).— Gin, which the 

Dutch call giniva and the French genievre^ was on 
this side of the Channel first known as Geneva, or 
Geneva print, afterwards contracted into gin. It 
is referred to by the early dramatists. George 

£ 7 — ' r — J 

lished in 1606, wrote : 

Monsieur D'Olive,' pub- 

The weauer Sir much like a virginall iack 
Start nimbly vp ; the culler of his beard 
I gcarse remember, but purblind he was 
With the Oeneva print, and wore one earo 
Shorter than tother for a difference. 

And Massinger, in his tragedy of * The Duke of 
Milan,' first printed in 1623, says : 

Bid him sleep 
'Tia a sign he has ta'en his liquor; and if you meet 
An oflScer preaching of sobriety 
Unless he read it in Oeneva print, 
Lay him by the heels. 

In 1736, the Government directed the justices of 

the peace to inquire into the number of houses 
which sold Geneva. They reported that there were 
in the limits of Westminster, the Tower, and Fins- 
bury divisions, exclusive of London and Southwark, 
7,044 houses and shops where the liquor was 
publicly sold by retail, besides what was sold in 
garrets, cellars, and back rooms. The Gin Act 
was then passed, which imposed a tax of five 
shillings per gallon. This attempt to diminish the 
excessive use of the spirit caused the mob to raise 
the cry of "No gin, no king!" Smollett says, 
"Painted boards were put up, inviting people to 
be drunk for a penny, and dead drunk for two- 
pence." Cellars were provided with straw, into 
which the drunken sots were turned, until they 
had somewhat recovered their senses. Gin was 
publicly sold in the streets without licence or duty, 
and the laws were set at defiance and the Govern- 
ment defrauded (see "Gin" in the * Caricature 


The consump- 

tion of gin having increased, it was considered 
advisable, in March, 1743, to reduce the excessive 
duty, and to repeal the Gin Act. Sir Robert 
Walpole remarked that '* the laws against gin were 
too severe, and there were evils which cannot be 
corrected by laws, and this truth needs greatly to 
be enforced at this time." The results seemingly 
answered these predictions. It was to expose the 
excessive use of this spirit that Hogarth, in 1751, 
engraved his two prints of * Beer Street,' and * Gin 
Lane,' in St. Giles's, for which the Kev. James 
Townley, Master of Merchant Taylors' School, 

wrote : 

Gin ! cursed fiend, with fury fraught, 

Makes human race a prey. 
It enters by a deadly draught. 

And steals our life away ; 
Virtue and truth, driven to despair, 

Its rage compels to fly, 
But cherishes, with hellish care, 

Theft, Murder, Perjury. 

Damn'd cup, that on the vitals preys, 

That liquid fire contains, 
Which madness to the heart conveys, 
And rolls it through the veins. 




as many names as a German princess. Every 
petty chandler's shop will sell you sky blue, and 
every night cellar will furnish you with Holland 
tape, three yards a penny. Bailey, in his * Dic- 
tionary,' 1759, calls Geneva by several names 
tityre, royal poverty, white tape, &c.— and some 
additional names are given in Hone's * Table Book,' 
p. 247. Charles Dickens, in his * Sketches by 
Boz,' first published in 1835, has devoted a chapter 
to gin shops, but in one sentence has described 
them as " gin palaces." This must be an early 
instance of the use of the term, as the Home Office 
issued an order in 1834 in which they are referred 
to as ^*gin shops." The first of the so-called 
nalaces was. I believe, the establishment of Messrs. 

Tu-S. X. JuLi26, '90.] 



]'earon & Son, known as 94, Holborn Hill, nearly 
c pposite St. Andrew's Church, which I remember 
1 8 such sixty years ago. Geneva, gin, &c. , has been 
jilready treated on in *N. & Q.' See 2.^^ S. iii. 
169, 314, 378 ; A'^ S. iii. 195, 322 ; xl 522 ; 6t'» S. 

ix. 160. EvERARD Home Coleman. 

' 71, Brecknock Road. 

■ XT 

An excerpt from * Sunday ia London' (1833) 
may perhaps be of interest to Mr. Boase : 

**In the grey of the Sunday morning, at the Bound of 
the matin bell, the gin temples open wide their portals 
to all comers. Time was when gin was to be found only 
in bye-lanes and blind alleys — in dirty obscure holes, 
y'clep'd dram-shops; but now, thanks to the enlightened 
and paternal government of ' the first Captain of the 
Age 'gin is become a giant demi-god— a mighty spirit, 
dwelling in gaudy gold-beplastered temples." — P. 15. 

To the above is annexed a foot-note : 

"*The expense incurred in the fitting up of gin-shop 
bars in London is almost incredible, every one vying with 
his neighbour in convenient arrangements, general dis- 
play, rich carving, brass work, finely veined mahogany, 

gilding, and ornamental painting Three gin-shops 

have lately been fitted up at an expense, for the bar 

alone, of upwards of 2,0O0Z. each,' — 'Loudon's Encyclo- 
paedia of Cottage, Farm, and Village Architecture. 

The cut opposite p. 25 is labelled " Gin-temple 
turn-out at Church-time." In 1736 the use of 
"geneva" had become so excessive that a Licensing 

9 )) 

Act was passed. J. F. Mansergh. 

'Sketches by Boz/ 'Gin-shops/ there is 
mention of '* gin-palaces" and their ornamental 
appearance. The Quarterly Beview^ Jan., 1830, 
p. 230, mentions *^ gin-shops," and remarks upon 

the increase of ''dram-drinkingr." 


Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 

^ Suicide (7'^ S. ix. 389,489).— This was the sub- 
ject for the '' Members' Prizes (Bachelors)" at Cam- 
bridge in 1852. I do not remember whether the 
successful essays were published. 

P. J. F. Gantillon. 

I M 

9 94 



Records of the Manor, Parish, and Borough of Han 
steady in the County of London, to December 31, 18^9. 
Edited by F. E. Baines, C.B. (Whitaker & Co.) 
Hampstead is the most beautiful of suburbs, and, thanks 
to the hill leading to it and to the public spirit of the 
inhabitants, the place still remains singularly rural. It 
is time that Hampstead should have a history, for Park's 
book, published in 1813, has long been scarce and high 
priced; andthe volume produced by Mr. Biines, although 
said to be mainly intended for local circulation, ought to 
interest every Londoner. Many have contributed to the 
production of this book, and the number of the con- 
tributors shows that the inhabitants of Hampstead take 
an intelligent interest in its history. The book is not 
entirely put together in an orthodox fashion ; but, never- 
theless, it is very charming in its want of system, and 
the recollections of the various writers are of great value. 

It is admirably got up, and the views of places, both as 
they were and as they are, add greatly to the use as well 

as to the beauty of the book. 

It must be remembered that although a suburb now, 
Hampstead was once a village, complete in all such 
necessary appendages as a watch-house, a stocks, and a 
pound. This last, dated 1787, still exists on the eastern 
side of the Spaniard's Road, opposite the Whitestone 
Pond. Amoni: the interesting associations of the place 
the visit of Clarissa Harlowe to the "Upper Flask "^ 
takes high rank, and this heroine seems as real a person 
to us as many of the actual men and women who fre- 
quented the heath. The long room where Evelina 
danced a minuet still remains, while the Pump-Room 
has lately been cleared away. All classes of the com- 
munity have been represented among the residents of 
Hampstead. Sir Harry Vane and the first Earl of Chat- 
ham stand out among the statesmen; the judges are 
represented by Mansfield, Erskine, Wedderburn, Pepper 
Arden, and Tindal; the authors by George Steevens, 
Leigh Hunt, and Keats; painters by Romney, Con- 
stable, and Stanfield; and architects by Sir Gilbert 
Scott and the Cockerells. But it would be impossible to 
enumerate here all the distinguished persons who have 
chosen Hampstead as their residence. We can admire 
their good taste, but we must realize that there were 
dangers in the last century for those who visited this 
then remote village. Claude Duval and Dick Turpin and 
many other less-known highwaymen frequently relieved 
travellers of their cash and other valuables. Amongrstthe 

many interestingplates isone of old Chalk Farm inl730,but 
we do not see that the explanation of this curious name is 
given. There is no sign of chalk in the neighbourhood ; 
but the difficulty is solved when we find on old maps the 
names of two manor houses marked. That of Upper 
Chalcots, by England's Lane, remains unaltered, but 
that of Lower Chalcots has become Chalk Farm. This 
excellent book is completed by the insertion of some 
valuable appendixes, one of these being Prof. Hales's 
paper on * Hampstead in the Tenth Century,' and others 
being devoted to an account of the birds, the butterflies, 
and the moths of the neighbourhood. 

Journal of the Derbyshire Archceological and Natural 
History Society. (Benirose & Sons.) 

The volume for 1890 shows that our Derbyshire friendfi 
have a good store of material to work upon, and know 
how to work it. Mr. T. R. Derry gives some interesting 
notes on local printing and publishing, a matter which 
has aroused considerable discussion in our pages of late> 
The productions of the Belper Press mentioned by Mr. 
Derry do not go back further than 1809, but some of 
them are so rare that the late Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt's 
copy of the * Life of Orlando Equiano' is the only copy 
known to him. The latest date of a Belper issue given 
by Mr. Derry is 1866. The valuable Calendar of Fines 
for the county, by Messrs. Hardy and Page, is continued^ 
1274-1281, A very interesting subject is taken up by 
Mr. George Bailey in his account of Becket's Wellj^ 
Derby; and the editor, we are glad to see, endorses the 
writer's suggestion of carrying out further investigation 
into the holy wells of the county. Dr. Cox himself add-^ 
ing the names of some with which he is acquainted, one 
of them being yet another Becket Well at Linbury. Mr^ 
John Ward, besides his geological paper on contorted 
Yoredale strata near Ashover, contributes a full and 
interesting account of some diggings near Brassing- 
ton, Derbyshire, of considerable value to students of 
prehistoric archaeology. Some of the objects described 
resemble those in the Settle Cave, and others those dis- 
covered by General Pitt-Rivers at Ru^hmore and Cran- 
bourne Chase, Hemington Church, though not tech- 



[7^hS.X.JoLY 26/90. 

nically within tbe Society's field of operations, is a near 
neighbour which deserved notice, and the student of 
charters will be grateful to the lord of the manor and to 
the Rev. Charles Kerry for the transcript of the more 
ancient deeds relating to Hemington. 

The Journal of ihe Proceedings of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries of Ireland. Fifth Series. Vol. I. No. 1. 
(Dublin, Hodges & Figgis.) 
The commencement of this new series of the Proceedings 
of the old Kilkenny Archaeological Society deserves spe- 
cial notice on account of the new name which the Queen 
has granted to this well-deserving Society, which has been 
at work illustrating the history and antiquities and archae- 
ology of Ireland for the last forty years. The first 
quarterly number of the new series contains, besides the 
account of the annual general meeting of January, 1890, 
at which it was resolved to petition Her Majesty for the 
altered form of designation, several papers of a high order 
of merit in diflferent branches of the field covered by the 
Society's labours. Prof. Stokes contributes an interesting 
sketch of the life and work of Dudley Loftus, a most 
versatile and singularly erudite Dublin antiquary of the 
seventeenth century, whose gifts as an Orientalist were 
almost unique in his day. Mr. James Mills describes the 
condition of the tenants and agriculture of the neigh- 
bourhood of Dublin in the fourteenth century, throwing 
valuable light on the condition of the agricultural classes 
of Ireland during the latter part of the Middle Ages, and 
illustrating the gradual rise to freedom of the servile 
class in Ireland as in England. Miss Hickson gives some 
more * Notes on Kerry Topography,' which show the 
survival to the present day of the use of certain balls of 
stone, on cupped pillar-stones, in Kerry churchyards, for 
curative purposes. The stone of Kilmacida is in charge 
of a certain tribe, and the same is the case with stones of 
similar powers in the West Highlands, where we have 
seen, among the older contents of charter chests, bonds 
for the temporary surrender of such a stone to another 
tribe in whose possession it had formerly been. Mr. T. J. 
Westropp's * Notes on the Sheriffs of Clare, 1570-1700,' 
afford much information of use to the genealogist. 

The Gentleman's Magazine Library. — Architectural 
Antiquities. Part I. Edited by George Laurence 
Gomme. (Stock.) 
We congratulate Mr. Gomme on the appearance of 
another volume, the eleventh, of his great series of ex- 
tracts from the Qenileman^s Magazine. It is not easy 
to exaggerate the utility of these books to future in- 
quirers. They do not, it is true, supply tbe place of 
the magazine itself, but for many purposes they are 
even more valuable. 

The present volume appeals to a very wide class of 
readers— to all, in fact, English or foreign, who take an 
intelligent interestinourmediaeval architecture. Itdiffers 
widely in one respect from all the volumes which have 
preceded it. All the articles are by one man, and that a 
person of no ordinary merit — John Carter. He was not 
a scholar, and his ignoi*ance of Latin threw impediments 
in his way; but still he did a work which will make his 
name ever memorable to all those who love the beauty of 
our old minsters and parish churches. The language in 
which Carter expressed himself is at times clumsy, and 
he did not on every occasion use the technical words 
to which we have become accustomed ; but when every 
allowance is made, his architectural notes will always be 
a treasure-house of information as to buildings, some of 
which have perished utterly, and others have undergone 
what may be regarded as a worse fate — suffered from the 
irreverent hands of ignorant restorers. At the end of 
the volume are notes— far too few — telling of the present 
state of some of the fabrics Carter visited. 

We trust that succeeding issues may contain the archi- 
tectural notes of the other correspondents of ''Sylvanus 
Urban." There are many architectural papers, especially 
in the later volumes, which are of great value. 

Newspaper Reporting. By John Pendleton. (Stock.) ^■ 

This volume, by the author of 'A History of Derbyshire/ 
has been added to the "Book-Lover's Library." It con- 
stitutes pleasant reading, and gives some curious infor- 

The second volume of the new edition of Boyne's 
* Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century,' edited by 
G. C. Williamson, will be published by Mr. Elliot Stock 
shortly. This completing volume will contain no fewe^ 
than ten separate indices of counties, places, surnames. 
Christian names, initials, devices and arms, merchant 
marks, shapes, values, and peculiarities. 

The Yorkshire County Mctgazine, an illustrated 
monthly, will shortly be published, to supersede the four 
quarterlies issued under one cover, viz., the Yorkshire 
Notes and Queries^ Genealogist^ Bibliographer^ and Folk- 
lore Journal, These have hal a successful run for six 
years, and more space will be thus acquired for articles 
and illustrations, though the price is to remain as before. 
J. Horsfall Turner, Idel, Bradford, is the editor. ^ • 

« ^ 



fitsiitti to CorrriffpanQfntK. 

We must call special atte^ition to the following notices : 

On all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, witn the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate. 

Jaydee ("Tennyson's ' Defence of Lucknow ' "). 

The banner of England blew 

is correct. In his ' Day Dream ' the Laureate has the 
same use of the word ; — 

The hedge broke in^ the banner blew. / 

A. H. B. (" Nine of Diamonds the Curse of Scot- 
land"). — The various speculations as to the origin of 
this phrase will be found in ' N. & Q/ 1-^ S. i. 61, 90 : 
iii. 22, 253, 423, 483 ; 4ti» S. vi. 194, 289; 5th s. iv. 20, 97, 

C. J. Palmer. 

Betwixt the stirrup and the ground 
Mercy I askt, mercy I found. 

A recollection of St. Augustine's '* Misericordia Domini 
inter pontem et fontem." It appears in Camden's 
* Remaines,' and is said to be by " a good friend." l 

Geo. p. Baker ('• Brome's * Northern Lass ' ").— Your 
MS. is undecipherable. 

C. W. F. ("Emendations to Shakespeare ").— These 
are not likely to win acceptance in this country. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to" The 
Editor of * Notes and Queries'" — Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher " — at the OflSce, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 






• * 



CONTENTS.— N<» 240. 

fOTES :— Lome's 'London/ 81 — Shakspeanana, 82- Allan 
Ramsay-Mustredevilliars, 84-Browning's Birth-Riddle- 
*• Discretion is tbe better part of valour "—Glover s Derby- 
shire'— Lift— Ancient Common Fields, 85— Portraits of 
Lord Jeffrey— Mutiny of the Bounty, 86. 


iUEBIES :— Wife of Col. Montgomery, 86— * Index Librorum 
Prohibitorum ' — Archangel Gabriel — Grammar — Pope — 
Baleigh— French Dictionary of Phrase and Fable— Postscript 
,=Anyma 87— Epitaph— Proverbs of Solomon— Duchess of 
Fife- Watts-Dr. Orkborne— • Song of the Cane — Lanfier 
Family- Bickertori Family — Tennyson's ' Princess '— Mel- 

' bourne House— St. Erifrith, 88— Barrier— Authors Wanted, 


. t 




. f. f h 

REPLIES :— Henry IIL— Henry Flood, 89— Epithet " Bloody 
jf ary "— Naylor's * Reineke Fuchs ' —Fiasco— Luddites, 90— 
Cambridge Societies— Folk-lore— Hair Powder— Macdonald 
—Dropping the Final "g"—'* Riotous poor ''—Voice, 91— 
Index Society— Byron : Missolonghi— Mediaeval Fowl Names 
—Murray of Broughton, 92— Curious Notices— Miles— Super- 
stition in Mansfield— Auctions— Glossary to Dante— John 
Chevalier, 93- Spectacles in Art— Gardens of Alcinous— 
Transmogrify— Wm. Davy— Monte Video, 94— Dr. Scargill 
—Calvinantium— Parallel Anecdotes— C. R. M. Talbot, 95 — 
Dr. Sacheverel— Books Written in Prison— De la Poles— 
Brothers-in-Law of Henry VIII., 96—" Ingratum si dixeris," 
^c— Alpha: J. M.— Spanish Armada— St. Patrick— Kyphi, 
97— Savonarola— French of ••Stratford atte Bowe"— Junius 
— Crumbleholme, 98— Authors Wanted, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS:— Eraser's 'Locke'— Ferguson's 'Cum- 

Notices to Correspondents. 

>. SERIES"). 

Excellent as, in many respects, Mr. Loftie's 
handbook is, it is disfigured with some few blemishes, 
which a little more care, and, may I venture to 
add, a little less rashness might have easily avoided. 
Some of these it may be as well to correct, lest 
they take foot • and the first one is so quaint that 
Mr. Loftie himself cannot fail upon reflection to 
smile. > 

Alluding (p. 34) to the Provost in the Conqueror's 
reign, and to the Portgrave of Henry L, the "Hugh 
Buche " of Stow, he says, may be identified with 



No doubt this is so, and he is identical with the 
Hugh de Bocland, Canon of St. Paul's, temp. 
Henry I., and Chief Justiciary, although Foss ex- 
presses doubt upon this latter point. But when 
Mr. Loftie goes on to add, '*And his Richard de 
Par' with Richard the younger, the chamberlain, 
because *Par' is probably a misreading for * par- 
vus/ contracted," I cry him mercy. Of whatever 
Richard de Par* is a contraction, it certainly could 
never be one for Richard de Parvus, or le Parvus, 
or of anything in the sense of younger. Parvus 
could only relate to the size of the man, not to his 
age. Richard de Parys or Paris at once suggests 

itself, especially as that name occurs about the same 

in no doubt, 

even by Stow, as to the correct name of the Provost 
in question, as the charter of William II. in con- 
firmation of the liberties of the Knighten Guild 
was addressed to Richard de Parre, as Provost. 
Assuming the Norman pronunciation to have been 
the same as the Modern French, Parys apd Pane 
would be identical ; the final e befng generally 
sounded. , , 

With regard to Richard the younger, and 
chamberlain, the St. PauVs documents also inform 
us that he was a Canon of St. Paul's. But I 
much inclined to doubt that this means he was 
Chamberlain of London. He is certainly named 
in one document as chamberlain (simply) ; but as 
the names of the rest of the witnesses are all 
clerical, or at least connected with the Deanery, I 
am inclined to believe he was merelv chamberlain 



word would more properly be rendered chancellor. 



full a list as possible from printed sources ; and, 
with the exception of three short intervals, it is 



list has been in the hands of the editor of the City 
Press since October last. I will not venture to 
predict when it shall see the light; still, as .the 
present century is drawing to its close, I have some 

Agnes, the 

taint hope it may anticipate that event. 

To return to Mr 
sister of Thomas Becket, he says, was married to a 
member of a good old City family, Theobald Agods- 
halfjin Latin _^* Ex parte Dei''), who was baron 

Ireland. I confess I do 
exion between Agodshalf 
at it is immaterial. For 

Hulles. or Helles. in 

statement — the 


the baron of Hulles, in Ireland 
think it must be what Mr. Loftie terms one of his 
"workable hypotheses." There is no reason for 
crossing the Irish Channel to locate either Helles 
or its territorial lords, for they both lie close to our 
hands in the neighbouring county of Kent. Cave- 
Brown informs us (* Lambeth Palace,' p. 9) that 
the manor of Lambeth originally belonged to the 
See of Rochester, and was in 1197 exchanged by 
Gilbert de GlanvUle, then Bishop, with Hubert 
Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury, for the more 
convenient manor of Darente, and the rich grazing 
ground attached to the Chapel of Helles, or Hells. 
Hasted (* Kent,' i. 247) not only confirms this, but 
has much to say concerning this family of Helles. 
About a mile from Darenth, he writes, is the 
hamlet of Helles St. Margaret ; and appears from 
the court-rolls to have been once a parish of itself. 
He continues 

^' This manor came into the possession of a family 
called Hells, who had much land at Dartford, and Ash, 
near Saudwich ; and from them this place acquired the 



[7th S. X. Aua. 2, '90. 

additional name of Hells, or more vulgarly Hilles. One 
of these, Thomas do Helles, had a charter of free warren 
granted to him and his heirs in 17 Ed. L (1289). A 
descendant of him, Richard Hills — for bo the name was 
then spelt— about the beginning of Henry VIIL's reign 
was possessed of this manor.'' 

Mention is made also of Bertram de Helles, who 
was lieutenant of Dover Castle under Reginald de 
Cobham (39 Hen. III.) ; of Henry de Helles, who 
was Knight of the Shire (Kent) in the fourth 
Parliament of Edward III. ; and of Gilbert de 
Helles, son of the above Bertram, of Hells Court in 
Ash, and of St. Margaret Hells in Darentb, who 
was Sheriff of Kent 30 Edward III. No allusion 
is made to Theobald de Helles ; but it is reasonable 
to believe he was a member of the same family. 

To pass on now to Gilbert Becket. In a former 
paper (7^** S. ix. 484), I stated my belief that he 
came of a territorial family. Dean Hook, following 
KobertsoD, has little to say of the family, and 
surmises that either Gilbert Becket or his father 
migrated from Normandy. Westcote (^Devon- 
shire Families'), on the other hand, traces this 
family far back into Saxon times, although the 
first use of the surname Becket occurs only a little 
before 1000, in the person of AUard Becket, whose 
daughter Maud was married to Edgar, son of Owen, 
Lord of Liskeard. Owen was slain by the Danes, 
A.D. 1000, leaving issue William, Lord of Liskeard, 
who for some time withstood the Conqueror, but 
eventually submitted. He had issue Edmund. 

Edmund Becket left issue Gilbert, who married 
Maud, daughter of the Earl of Chyle ; his mother 
^Gilbert's) was of Syria ; he was born in London 
(of him is the Earl of Ormonde and Queen Eliza- 
beth), and had issue, besides other, Thomas Becket^ 
who was by King Henry II. made Archbishop of 
Canterbury and Lord Chancellor 1161. He was 
slain in 1170. Westcote furnishes another pedi- 
gree, commencing in the latter part of the reign of 
Edward III., of the Beckets of Mennywyk. 

The Cornish origin of Thomas Becket receives a 
certain amount of confirmation from the descrip- 
tion of his arms given in Lambeth MS. No. 555, 
quoted by Cave-Browne, and repeated by West- 
cote : Argent, three Cornish choughs proper. Foss 
is somewhat impressed with Becket's own remark 
of his origtn, that his ancestors were '^non omnino 
infimi," as implying they were of no particular 
social standing. Such sentiment must be inter- 
preted in the spirit in which it was given, and the 
pride which apes humility is not of exclusively 
modern growth, I opine. 

One statement of Westcote's deserves special 
attention, because it reaffirms the popular tradition 
of the Syrian maiden, but (observe) transfers its 
subject from the mother of Thomas Becket to his 
grandmother. This tradition has of late been 
generally rejected by historians, solely, as I gather, 
that it has received no recognition from contem- 

sufficiently unscientific to offer some meek protest 
against such ruthless procedure, unless stronger 
negative evidence is produced ; for out of most of 
these traditional incidents some particle of fact can 
be generally sifted. If I seek the original pro- 
nunication of a word, I prefer to pursue it among 
the peasantry than among peers and schoolmen, 
and am prepared to bear patiently the cost of such 

That Thomas Becket was highly venerated by 
the citizens of London — and to a degree that no 
Norman would have attained — is, I think, signi- 
ficantly emphasized by the seal of the barons of 
London. Upon its obverse side is displayed « 
walled city, with St. Paul, a sword in his right 
hand, and in his left a banner ; three leopards 
about the seal, and inscribed, " Sigillum Baronium 
Londonarium." Upon the reverse side, the like 
figure of a city, with a bishop sitting on an arch, and 
this legend, '* Me : que : te : peperi : Ne : Cesses : 
Thoma: tueri" ("Cease not, Thomas, to watch 
over me who gave thee birth "). The obverse of this 
seal forms the central medallion to the chimney- 
piece of the Guildhall Library ; it would be a pity 
if the touching memorial of its reverse were allowed 
to slip away into obscurity. 

John J. Stocken. 

8, Weltje Road, Ravenscourt Park, W. 


^Pericles,' 1611, 4to. — A copy of this edition 
has recently come into my possession. The Cam- 
bridge editors of Shakespeare, in referring to this 
quarto, style it a unique edition, the only copy 
extant being in the British Museum, attached to 

which is a MS. note by Halliwell-Phillipps to the 
following effect : 

"Although the present volume wants two leaves in 
sheet D (unless, indeed, the omission is to be ascribed to 
the printer, the catchwords being right), it is of great 
literary curiosity and importance, being not only a 
unique, but unused by and unknown to all the editors of 
Shakespeare. Mr. Collier is the only one who even 
names it— at first with doubt as to its existence, after* 
wards only on my information. The present is no doubt J| 
Edward's copy, which sold in 1804 for what was in those 
days the large price of 14/., since which time it seems to 
have disappeared until privately purchased by me." 



is in much better condition than that in the 



them identical, even to the formation of a letter. 

Morris Jonas. 

* All 's Well that Ends Well/ L i. 69. 
Besides giving his own transposition of the speeches 
of the Countess and Lafeu, Mr. Watkiss Lloyd 
would make a greater transference of Lafeu's *'How 
understand we that ? " than would Theobald. But 
the supposed necessity for any transposition of 
these latter words is simply due to not considering 

porary writers. I am not ashamed to confess I am I that action and gesture^ as well as emotional and 

rth s. X. Aug. 2, '90. ] 




01 her pauses, are represented on the stage as they 
would occur in nature, and sometimes more than 
in ordinary natures. Lafeu, accustomed to in- 
t jrpfet the dark speeches of the Court, here muses 
ever the Countess's most enigmatical speech— one 
wliolly enigmatical to an outsider— and after a 
puzzled pause breaks out with this semi-soliloquy, 
not noticing to the full Bertram's kneeling before 
his mother and his filial desires, " Madam, I de- 
sire your holy wishes " — words and acts to which 
his good taste, if not his good nature, would make 
him appear inattentive. He has also time to do 
this, since the widowed Countess, now for the first 
time parting from her only child, is so overpowered 
by her emotions that she cannot at once find words 
wherewith to express herself, but bends over him, 
perhaps weeps, and certainly embraces him. We 
find a somewhat similar instance in * 2 Henry IV.,' 
II. iv. 137-40 : 

Bard, Pray thee go down, good Ancient. 
FaL Hark thee hither, Mistress Doll. 
Fist, Not I : I tell thee what, Corporal Bardolph, I 
could tear her ; I '11 be revenged of her. 

Here the last words show that Pistol was so taken 
up with Doll — her pleasing looks and her unpleasant 
words — that he was meditating, or more than 
meditating, some drunken violence, and this show 
of attempting violence gave time as well as reason 
^for Falstaff s interpolated words. 

Nor do I see the slightest reason for inter- 
changing the speeches of the Countess and of 
Lafeu, but great reason for the former saying 
what she did, and yet so effectually veiling her 
meaning. She enigmatically speaks of that love 
of which, as she afterwards tells her steward, 
"many likelihoods informed me before," and 
which, without appearing to notice, she would 
forward. More plainly set forth, her words would 
tell Isabella, ^^If the living Bertram be enemy to 
this love-grief of thine, the excess of that love-grief 
will soon make it mortal." 

As to the change advocated in IV. iii. 287, 1 am 
so amazed at the want of necessity for it and at 
the want of greater beauty evolved that I can say 
nothing but that it may be classed with Pistol 
being "a tame cheetah," and with the dog of some 
one else's Hamlet being "a good hissing carrion." 
The other changes will be adopted by that future 
editor who will advertise — 

"The double authorship plays of W. Shakespeare and 
W. Watkiss Lloyd, now for the first time set forth in 
their full completeness and correctness." 


Br. Nicholson. 

* TiMON,' V. iii. 3, 4, and V. iv. 70-73.— Are 
tiot the lines (V. iii. 3, 4), 

Timon is dead, who hath outstretch'd his span : 
Some beast read this ! there does not live a man, 

the epitaph on the tomb? 

"[-Reads]," and that the completer of the play, 
thinking, for the reason which I shall give, that 
the epitaph had not yet been given, inserted 
hastily the two given in North, which are incon- 
sistent with each other. 

Perhaps V. iii. stood in Shakspere's MS. some- 
what thus : 

Scene III, 

Woods, Timonh Cave, and a rude 
Tomb seen. 

Timon is dead, who hath outstretch'd his span : 
A beast read this 1 There does not live a man. 

Soldier. By all description thia should be the place. 
Who 's here ? Speak, ho ! No answer] What is this? 
Dead, sure, and this his grave. What 's on this tomb ? 
I cannot read. 

The rest of the scene being either by Shakspere or 

by the completer. 


and never returning to the passage, did not finish 
the stage direction, which should have run thus : 

Scene IIL 

The Woods. Timon's Cave, a 
Tomb seen with this Inscription : 


Timon is dead, who hath outstretch'd his span: 
A beast read this ! there does not live a man ! 

The' completer of the play, thinking these two 
lines a part of the soldier's speech, placed them 
after '*What is this?" where they would make 
some sort of sense." Then, as I said above, he filled 
in the space at V. iv. 70 with the two epitaphs 

from North. 

I suggest, then, that in V. iii. these two lines 
should be considered as an epitaph sculptured on 
the tomb, and that in V. iv. they should be substi- 
tuted for the lines 70-73. Perhaps some gentle- 
men whose judgments in such matters cry in the 
top of mine will do me the honour of supporting 
or condemning this explanation. C. S. 


^ King Lear,' V. iii. — Can any of your readers 
explain the meaning of and reference contained in 
the speech of Kent 

If fortune brag of two she loved and hated. 
One of them we behold ? 


'2 King Henry IV.,' IV. i. 94. 

Archbishop. My brother general, the commonwealth 
To brother born an household cruelty, 
I make my quarrel in particular, 

Westmoreland. There is no need of any such redress ; 
Or if there were, it not belongs to you. 

This speech of the Archbishop as it stands is 
justly obelized by the Globe editors as convicted 
nonsense. The above is the text of the Quarto. The 
First Folio omits the second line, but in doing so 
brings us no nearer to consistent sense. The 
Quarto text is also manifestly mutilated, as the 
speech must have contained the specific claim for 
redress which Westmoreland repudiates the need 
of. We ask in vain, "Any such redress as what?" 
None has been formulated. To remedy this is 

I fancy that in the MS. as left by Shakspere past all hope, unless a more perfect quarto should 
there stood at V. iv. 70 merely the stage direction be discovered. But at least this double proof of 



[7"" S. X. Auo. 2, '90. 

the maltreatment of the speech would authorize us Allan Kamsay. — In his * Eighteenth Century 
in restoring meaning to what remains by more un- 1 Literature ' Mr. Gosse closes the chapter on Pope 
ceremonious treatment than will be found neces- | with a scanty paragraph devoted to Allan Bam- 
Some consultation of recognized authorities 



The recurrence of the word " brother " in the on the subject would have enabled Mr. Gosse to 

next line immediately below its appearance, where make the little that he does say somewhat more 

it is unintelligible, suggests at once that we are in to the purpose than he has succeeded in doing, 

presence of one of the frequent corruptions due to This sentence, for example, must amuse Scottish 

type-setters' confusion of similar adjacent words, readers, while it may have the effect of com- 

We may read with confidence : 

With other general to the commonwealth. 
To brother born an household cruelty 
I make my quarrel in particular. 

That is 

pletely misleading others : 

" Most of Ramsay's original songs were poor, but he 
preserved the habit of writing in the Doric dialect, and 
as an editor and collector of national poetry he did tho- 
roughly efficient and valuable work." 

"In addition to causes of complaint having general Now one genuine song might immortalize its 

relation to the commonwealth, I make the cruelty exer- 
cised towards my own brother a ground of quarrel par- 
ticular to myself ." 

He refers to " his brother's death at Bristol, the 
Lord Scroop^' (' 1 Henry IV.,' I. iii. 271). 

W. Watkiss Lloyd. 

author, and Eamsay wrote several that are to 
this day placed among lyrics of exceptional 
quality by the Scottish people who sing them. 
Surely it is a recognized canon of criticism to 
credit a man with the excellence that is his due, 
and not to give him summary dismissal for his 

'Romeo AND Juliet,' IV. iii. (7*»^S.ix. 264).— comparative failures. Even, however, if it be 

Surely K. P. D. E. must have fallen a victim to 
"elegant extracts" in some shape or other. He 

allowed that depreciation is relevant when 
approval was possible, and that Mr. Gosse's 

could not otherwise have any doubt as to Ob way's readers are safer with a knowledge of Ramsay's 

use of the above play in his * History and Fall of weakness than of his strength, there still remains 

Caius Marius.' Otway undisguisedly appropriated to be explained the remarkable commendation of 

Shakespeare's scenes for the loves of the younger the " editor and collector of national poetry." It 


and made this adequate 

acknowledgment in his prologue : 

Our Shakespear wrote too in an Age as blest. 
The happiest Poet of his Time^ and best; 
A gracious Prince's favour chear'd his Muse, 
A constant favour he ne'er fear'd to lose. 
Therefore he wrote with Fancy unconfin'd. 
And Thoughts that were immortal as his Mind. 
And from the crop of his luxuriant pen, 
E'er since succeeding Poets humbly glean. 
Though much the most unworthy of the throng, 
Our this Day's Poet fears he 's done him Wrong 
Like greedy Beggars that steal Sheaves away. 
You 'II find h' has rifled him of half a Play. 
Amidst his baser Dross you '11 see it shine 

is plain that Mr. Gosse is not familiar with the 
little volume of * Ancient Scottish Poems ' edited 
by Lord Hailes, not to mention other authorita- 
tive works. Ramsay freely tinkered the Banna- 
tyne MS., which he professed to reproduce. 

Most beautiful^ amazing and Divine. 

H. 0. 

* Love's Labour's Lost/ IIL i. : Remunera- 
tion AND Guerdon (T*** S. ix. 502). — My mazed 
memory was in some degree right, I find, for my 
friend Mr. P. A. Daniel has pointed oat to me that 
my supposed contribution to the history of this 



' 1821, vol. iv. pp. 333, 334. I can only say 
that the quotation had entirely slipped my memory 
when I thought that I had come across it for the 
first time when reading ^ A Health to the Gentle- 
manly Profession of Serving-men.' I think, how- 
ever, that my view as to the story being then 
current in society is preferable to Steevens's sup- 
position that Shakespeare was indebted for it to 


the story. 



" He has [says Lord Hailes] omitted some stanzas and 
added others; has modernized the versification, and 
varied the ancient manner of spelling. Hence, they who 
look in the * Evergreen ' for the state of language and 
poetry among us during the sixteenth century will be 
misled or disappointed." 

Then Ramsay's glossary is absurd. 

*^ It frequently explains common English words ; it 
mistakes the sense of many common Scottish words ; and 
it generally omits or misinterprets whatever is uncouth 
or difficult." ' ^ 

This is a very different verdict from the "tho- 
roughly efficient and valuable work^' which Mr. 
Gosse recommends to his readers, who may be 
asked further to compare his estimate with that 
of Irving, in his * History of Scotish Poetry/ 

p. 416. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

Thomas Batne. 

MusTREDEviLLiARs. — This is givcu by Halliwell 
as the name of a kind of mixed grey woollen cloth, 
which continued in use up to Elizabeth's reign ; 
also spelt mustard-willars. In the 'Eecords of 
Nottingham/ iii. 296, is mention of " ij. yardes 
and halfe a quarter mosterdevyllrSy*[ under the 
date May 17, 1496. At p. 495 of the same the 
editor explains that it was made at the town of 
Montivilliers (Monster Villers in Froissart, ix. 

7th s. X. Aug. 2, "90.] 



l'J4) on the L^zarde (Seine Inf^rieure). See Ker- 
V ;'n de Lettenhove's edition of Froissart, vol. xxv., 
* fable Analytique des Noms Geographiques/ It 
saema that, by a silly popular etymology and by 
the shameless guesswork for which English editors so remarkable^ it has been often said that the 
cloth was of a mustard colour ! But it was grey. 
Master^ monster^ mustre^ &c., are the Old French 
spellings of Lat. monasierium ; see " Moustier " in 
Godefroy. Hence the etymology is from moster de 
Villarsy " monastery of Villiers, or Villars." 

Walter W. Skeat. 
KoBERT Browning's Birth and Baptism, 

The register of the Lock's Fields (now York Street) 
Independent Chapel, Walworth, co. Surrey, pre- 
served at Somerset House, contains this entry: 

■ A.D. 1812. 
Robert, Son of Robert Browning and Sarah Anna his 
Wife, was born May 7th, 1812, in the Parish of St. 
Giles's, Camberwell, and was baptized June 14, 1812, by 

Me. ^ George Clayton. 

The name of Sarah Anna Weidemann, of Peck- 
ham, the poet's mother, is foand in the first list 


■1 « 


Daniel Hip well. 



34, Mjddeltoa Square, Clerkenwell. 



Kiddle.^ — Some years ago, I believe, the follow - 
ig riddle appeared in the pages of ' N. & Q 

As black as ink, and is not ink, 
• As white as milk, and is not milk. 
And hops about like a filly-foal., 

Answer : — A magpie. 

I find a rhyming version of the above in Erlach's 
* Volkslieder der Deutschen,' vol. i. p. 127, which 
may be translated : 


' What is greener than clover 1 

What is whiter than snow ? 
What is blacker than coal 1 
And trips about more thanja foal 1 

The answer is a magpie, which is both black and 
■white, has grass-green eyes, and a hopping gait. 



" Discretion is the better part of valour.*' 
This proverbial expression is not given in Ray's 
collection of proverbs. It is inserted in the second 
edition of Hazlitt's 'English Proverbs and Pro- 
verbial Phrases,' though it does not appear in the 
first edition. Hazlitt for the use of the expression 
refers to " Manuche's * Just General,' 1652, dedic." 
Are Beaumont and Fletcher the originators of the 
proverb ? In ' A King and No King,' licensed in 
1611, this passage occurs :— " 1st Sword Man. 
It showed discretion, the best part of valour " 
(Act IV. sc, iii.). F. 0. Birkbeck Terry. 

Glover's ' Derbyshire.'— The following letter 
is of some interest to collectors of county histories, 





in the copy of the first part of Glover's * History 
and Gazetteer of the County of Derby ' (1831), 
which stands in the Beading Boom : 

Derby, March 30, 1835. 
Sir, — At the request of Mr. Glover we send Part i. 
vol. L, Part i. vol. ii., * History of Derbyshire,* 4to., 
which, are all which are published, the work has been 
at a stand some time, owing to the author being in diffi- 
culties — he having been proceeded against by the En- 
gravers, and has in fact, been in prison — The Volumes 
do not contain all the plates they ought to do, — but they 
contain all we have, and all the Subscribers are able to 

We are your faithful servants, 

Henry Mozlkv & Sons. 
We have printed the work for the author, we have 
nothing to do with the sale of them. 

G. F. R. B. 

An Early Mention of a Lift. — Whilst read- 
ing a manuscript journal of travels I have come 
upon an account of a lift under date of Thursday, 
Oct. 30, 1777. After describing the Empress 
Queen Maria Theresa's house at Laxembourg, near 
Vienna, the writer says : 

*^ Here is a curious machine of Count Thun's invention 
by which the Empress, who is too unwieldy to go up 
and down stairs, is convey'd thro' a well from one story 
to another to the top of her house. There are three 
strings which, when pulled by the Empress, serve as 
signals to go up, to go down, and to stop." 

W. 0. L. Floyd. 
Ancient Common Fields. — Mr. Elton, Q.O., 



this head. I may give a few specific cases to 
which my own attention has been drawn. My 
friend the Rev. A. Delafosse, of Oriel College, 
Oxford, tells me that South Fields, Wandsworth 
(of which parish his father, the Rev. D. C. Dela- 
fosse, was the vicar from 1837 to 1844), and also 
Fordington Field, near Dorchester, Dorset, are, or 
probably were till enclosed, common lands. A 
further instance is supplied by Port Meadow, on 
the Thames just above Oxford, where the towns- 
men (not the university) have rights, which they 
exercise every year (in July and August, I think), 
of sending their cattle to graze. It is the towns- 
men's meadow. Potty of course, here means porto, 
the Low Latin both for a town (as in Port Meadow) 
and for a gate (as in Psalm ix., Confitebor tibi, 
verse 14, "That I may show all thy praises within 
the ports of the daughter of Sion : I will rejoice in 
thy salvation"). So also in the name of the church 
of St. Mary-le-Port in Bristol, and in that of the 
ward of Portsoken in the City of London. 

Another instance of joint public rights in a 
meadow could formerly be found on the banks of 




of Bitton, in the County of Gloucester. By the 

H. T. Ellacombe. M 

F.S.A., of Oriel 

College, Oxford, Rector of Clyst St. George, 


Exeter: Pri- 



[T^i^S.X. Aug. 2/90. 

vately printed by William Pollard, North Street. 
1881/' The frontispiece of vol. i., I may incident- 
ally mention, is the north-east view of Bitton 
Church, 1843, drawn and engraved by William 
Willis. The Common Meadows at Bitton were 
enclosed (cf. ^ Hist, of Bitton,' part i. pp. 124, &c.) 
by virtue of a private Act of Parliament of the 
year 69 Geo. III., just about the time when the 
foundation stone of the church of the Holy Trinity 
at Kingswood was laid. Till then Kingswood 
(notable for the primitive manners of the people) 
was in the ecclesiastical parish of St. Mary, Bitton, 
and is still, civilly, in Bitton. The Kev. John 
Wesley's name is justly much honoured in Kings- 
wood ; but much, and indeed, I think, greater, 
honour is due to the late Kev. H. T. EUicombe 
(the name is now generally written EUacombe) for 
his great services in church extension and church 
work in the wide and straggling parish of Bitton. 
Kingswood parish church of the Holy Trinity (con- 
secrated by the late Right Rev. and Hon. Henry 
Ryder, then Bishop of Gloucester, on Sept. 11, 
1821, the first stone having been laid on June 9, 
1819) was partly subsidized out of the " Million 
Fund," to the extent of 2,142^.; but the Building 
Commission of a voluntary London Church Build- 
ing Society gave 700Z., and the site was also given. 

Another common field was called Avon's Town, 
and was at Clifton, near Bristol. Cf. the ' Bristol 
Guide,' by Joseph Mathews, Bristol, 29, Bath 
Street, 1825, p. 12 : 

*' But this hill of Clifton was not Bpacioua enough to 
contain the whole Roman army, who were encamped 
around, on Durdham Down, about Westbury, Kinga- 
weaton, and Henbury. All these settlements hereabout 
had one name, Abone, from the river. It is further 
remarkable that under Kingsweston hill, near to the 
river, was a common field called Avon's Town, as men- 
tioned in the rental of Sir Ralph Sadlier, dated 36 
Henry VIII. : — * One acre in Campo Abone town.' Here 
have been found coins of Nero, Vespasian, Constantine, 

H. DE B. H. 

Engraved Portraits of Francis, Lord Jef- 
frey. — la vol. ii., third edition, of 'Peter's Letters 
to his Kinsfolk,^ published in 1819,are two small vig- 
nette portraits engraved on wood of thiseminentcritic 
and celebrated member of the Scottish bar, pur- 
porting to be from sketches by P. M., the author. 
These are the initials of the pseudonym Peter 
Maurice, M.D., of Jesus College, Oxford, which 
was assumed by the author, John Gibson Lock- 
hart, and he is by some supposed to have had as 
his coadjutor in the work Prof. Wilson (Christopher 
North). The book gives a very interesting de- 
scription of Edinburgh society of that time, the 
second decade of the present century, when. "there 
were giants in the earth,^' and Edinburgh was 
styled the "Modern Athens." In Chambers's 
* Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen,' 
vol, v., is a portrait on steel, half-length in profile, 

of Francis Jeffrey when a Lord of the Court of 
Session, engraved by G. Stoddart, from the pic- 
ture by Sir George Hayter. No doubt there are 
paintings in oil of him in the Parliament House in 
Edinburgh or in the Scottish National Gallery 
which have been engraved in large size. 

About the year 1791 Jeffrey was for a short 
time at Queen's College, Oxford, as at that period 
it was occasionally the custom to complete an edu- 
cation at a Scottish university by matriculating at 
an English university. He left, however, without 
graduating. A friend of mine is engaged in mak- 
ing a collection of engraved portraits of eminent 
members of Queen's College, and is adding to the 
library a collection of their works as " Auctores 


John Pickford, M.A, 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Mutiny op the Bounty. — The following note 
may be worthy of preservation in * N. & Q.* It 
appeared in the United Service Gazette of June 18, 
1870, and is given in a foot-note in Lady Belcher's 
^Mutineers of the Bounty': 

" There died recently in Edinburgh, at a very ad- 
vanced age, Mrs. Barry, widow of the late Rev. J. Barry, 
formerly minister of Shapinshay, Orkney. This vener- 
able lady was the sister of Midshipman Stewart, of the 
Bounty, who perished eighty years ago in the Pandora, 
when she was wrecked off the north-east coast of New 
Holland, on her way to England. To those who have 
read 'The Island' of Lord Byron, the character of the 
bold and daring young Arcadian (Midshipman Stewart) 
will be familiar." 

She died May 20, aged nin 

E. I 

Hornsea Vicarage, East Yorks. 

H. Tew. M 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 

answers may be addressed to them direct. 

The 'Wife of Hon. Col. James Mont- 
gomery, OP OoiLSFiELD. — In some copies of 
Nisbet's ' Heraldry ' six pages are inserted at 
p. 20 of the Appendix, vol. ii., and on p. 4 of this 
insertion it is said that John Chalmers^ of Gad- 
girth, married Margaret, eldest daughter to Col. 
James Montgomery, of Coilsfield, who ^^ married 
Margaret, daughter to Alexander McDonald of 
Isla/^ It is probable that this insertion was printed 
about 1815 or 1816, when the second edition of 
Nisbet's 'Heraldry' was published. In Wood's 
* Douglas's Peerage,' vol. i. p. 588, we find that the 
said Col. James "married the only child of -^neas, 
Lord Macdonnel and Aros "; and at vol. ii. p. 166, 
that -^neas, Lord Macdonnel and Aros, "had an only 
daughter, married to the Hon. James Montgomery, 
of Coylsfield/' This is followed in Burke's * Peer- 
age,' 1837, p» 344, and in all subsequent editions 


. i 


Jth a X. Aug. 2, '90.] 





of that work (that I have seen) up to 1876. la 
the ' Peerage ' for 1883 (p. 465) it is said that 
Ool. James ^^ married, June, 1669, Margaret, 
daughter of John Macdonald in Kintyre by Eliza- 
beth his wife, daughter of Sir William Stewart." 
I would ask (1) the authority for the statement 
last mentioned ; (2) Who was ^' John Macdonald 
in Kintyre " ? (3) Who was Sir William Stewart ? 
It is probable that my queries are fully answered 
in Sir William' Fraser's 'Memorials of the Earls of 
Eglinton ' (1851), to which work I have not access. 

; - Sigma. 

^ Index Librorum Prohibitorum.' — In the 
second edition, just issued, of Mr. Macray^s de- 
lightful 'Annals of the Bodleian,' a story is told 
illustrative of the rarity of the edition of the 'Index 
Librorum Prohibitorum,' printed at Madrid in 
1612-14, and numbered in the Bodleian Catalogue 
4° U. 46 Th. A Roman Catholic priest visiting the 
library in the period of Barlow^s headship, 1652- 
1660, denied that such a book had been printed, 
and on being shown the volume wished to purchase 
it at any price, with the supposed intention of 
destroying it (see 'Annals of the Bodleian,' pp. 127, 
128). I have sought vainly for a mention of this 
' Index ' in the works of reference I possess. As I 
have before me a copy, picked up by chance some 
twenty or thirty years ago, I am naturally anxious 
to learn the cause and, if I may use the word, ex- 
tent of the rarity. My copy is perfect, but is not 
what would be called a collector's specimen. 


The Titles of the Archangel Gabriel and 
St. Joseph. — In a little work by Robert, Cardinal 
Bellarmin, "De Ascensione Mentis in Deum, 
Dvaci, apud Bait. Bellerum, anno 1627," Gradus 
Nonus, p. 235, you find : — 

" Et in Ecclesia Catholica vniversa, duo sunt Pontifices 
maximi, sub Chrieto Domino constituti ; unus visibilis, 
homo; et unus invisibilis, Angelas, quera Michaelem 
Archangelum esse credimus. Bum enim vt olim Syna- 
goga ludaeorum, ita nunc Patronum veneratur Ecclesia 

One knows that at present in the Church of 
Rome the familiar title of St. Joseph, the husband 
of Our Lady, is that which the late Pope Pius IX. 
conferred upon him officially, namely, *^ Patronus 
Universalis Ecclesise." Would it, therefore, now 
be irregular or heretical to apply to the " Princeps 
gloriosissimus Michael Archangelus" the title 
* Patronus Ecclesiae," under which it would seem 
that he was venerated in the seventeenth century ? 



Grammar. — Can any of the linguistic readers of 
*N. & Q.' inform me whether any language, living 
or dead, besides the English, ever forms, or ever 
formed, tenses by means of the auxiliary verb to 
he in conjunction with the present participle, as, 

for example, "I am reading," ^^Shewas dreaming," 
"We have been working," &c. ? And further, is 
any language in the world besides the English able 
to boast of having and constantly employing 
eighteen tenses, or forms of expressing time 
reckoning the conditional form as a tense and not 
as a mood ? Some modern languages are obliged 
to be satisfied with eight, or at most ten. 


Pope : Martinus Scriblerus. — The last sen- 
tence in chap. vii. of the * Memoirs of Martinus 
Scriblerus ' is : 

"He also used to wonder that there was not a reward 
for such as could find out a fo^crth figure in logic, as well 
as for those who should discover the longitude.'^ 

What is intended here by " fourth figure '' ? 
Aldrich defines, ^^ Figura, sive legitima dispositio 
medii cum partibus quaestionis," and gives the 
well-known lines for the moods and figures : 


Barbara, Celarent Darii Fer'iaque, Prions^ 

Quarta insuper addit 

Bramantip, Camenes, Dimaris, Fesapa, Freaison. 

But from Crambe's * Theory of Syllogisms' it is 
made out that 

'< universal propositions, being persons of quality, are of 
the first figure ; singular propositions, being private 
persons, are placed in the third or last figure or rank." 

Particular propositions, I presume, were to be in 
the second figure. Did he mean, therefore, a 
fourth sort of proposition, or term, or anything? 
In such writings as these ^ Memoirs ' it is hard to 
know what is banter and what is not. 

W. E. Buckley. 

Raleigh Family. — Philip Raleigh (grandson of 
Sir Walter) married Frances Grenville, of Foscot, 
Bucks, in 1668, and had issue four sons, Walter, 
Brudenell, Grenville, and Carew. Brudenel and 
Carew died unmarried. Can any one give me the 
names and baptisms of any children of Walter and 
Grenville Raleigh circa 1690-1720 ? 

John Raleigh, buried 1808 at Kensington, aged 
seventy-one, born 1737, was probably a grandson 
of either Walter or Grenville. Any information 
as to his father will be thankfully received. 


French Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 

Would some reader of * N. & Q.' kindly men- 
tion the best French dictionaries of phrase and 
fable, explaining literary allusions, &c.? Also, is 
there any work in French corresponding to 
Chambers's * Book of Days ' ? 



Postscript = Anyma. — In the first letter of 

Columbus to the Spanish sovereigns on his dis- 
covery there was another written afterward— a 
postscript — called anyma. 

This word I do not 

find in my Spanish dictionary, or not explained. 
Is it anima = BO\il; or what is its etymology? 
Did the Spaniards find the postscript so often 



[7th s. X. Aug. 2, '90. 

not merely in the letters of ladies — the main body 
of epistle?, like the latter end of the kangaroo, 
that they called it the epistolary soul, with as good 
reason as Shakespeare calls brevity the soul of 


James D. Butler. 

Madison, Wis, 

Epitaph on Capt. Tettersell, — Passing 

through the old churchyard at Brighton a few 

weeks since, I stopped to look once more at 

Capt. TetterselFs epitaph, which is doubtless well 

known to your readers. It struck me that the 

Which Glorious Act of His for Church And State 
Eight Princes in One Day Did Gratulate, 
Professing All to Him in Debt To Bee, 
As All the World Are To His Memory — 

might be worthy of a query. Is this circumstance 
attested by history ; and, if so, who were the eight 

princes ? 

E. L. H. Tew, M.A. 

Hornsea Vicarage, East Yorks. 

Proverbs of Solomon. — Can any one inform 
me where I can refer to Eobanus Hessus's metrical 
version of the Book of Proverbs, '* Proverbia Salo- 
mon's Elegiaco Carmine, per Hel. Eobanum Hes- 
sum, Basil, 1538, 8vo/' (G. J. Schwindel, *Biblio- 
theca Exegetico-Biblica,' Francof., 1734, p. 278). 
I am obliged by information from the British 
Museum and the Bodleian that it is not in either 
of these libraries. I wish to ascertain whether the 
lines "Fortior est qui se,*' &c., which have been 
given as from Ovid, or Baptista Mantuanus^ or as 
from an anonymous poet, are there as the version 

of Proverbs xvi. 32. 

Ed. Marshall. 

Duchess of Fife. — Is it a fact that the Duchess 
of Fife, at her husband^s request, gave up her status 
as a member of the royal family, and with it all 
eventual claims of herself and descendants to the 
succession? And can such a renunciation take 
place without the consent of the Queen and the 
cognizance of Parliament ? 

Dorothea M. Haage. 

Watts. — Many years ago I met with a printed 
pedigree of the family of Watts of the Cold Har- 
bour, Uley, Gloucestershire, who were resident 
there in the early part of the present century. I 
am now unable to find it in Burke's * Commoners/ 
to which my recollection drew me, nor can I find 
any mention of this family in Dr. Marshall's 
' Genealogist's Guide/ If any reader can help me 
to trace this pedigree I shall feel obliged. 

W. P. W. Phillimore. 

124, Chancery Lane. 


Dr. Orkborne.— In Scott's * Antiquary' the 
author introduces the reader into Oldbuck's 
sanctum at the moment when that fastidious 
gentleman finds his "women kind," to his great 
displeasure, dusting and arranging his curiosities. 

The author adds: "^'Mr. Oldbuck hated putting to 

rights as much as Dr. Orkborne or any other pro- 
fessed student." Who was Dr. Orkborne? See 
' The Antiquary/ chap. iii. p. 29, Cent. Ed. 


* Song of the Cane.' — Can any of your corre- 
spondents furnish me with the * Song of the Cane,' 
and the name of the writer ? One verse runs thus: 

With frown so gloomy aud grim. 

And words that hope destroy, 
A man stood there in unmanly rago 

Cruelly thrashing a boy. 

Whack! whack! whack! 

is the burden, instead of 

Stitch ! stitch ! stitch ! 

G. Scott. 

Hamilton's extensive collec- 

Whitchurch, Hants. 

[We fail to find it in Mr. 
tion of parodiesj 

Lanfier Family. — Will any kind correspondent 
inform me (1) the meaning of the family name 
Lanphier, Lanphere, Lanfear, Lanfier, &c. ? (2) 
The country or place of origin ? (3) Where they; 
are mostly to be found now ? 

K, L. Shaw. 

Btckerton Family. — Will any one give me 
information about the family of Bickerton, of Che- 
shire and Shropshire ? M. 0. Owen. 

Tennyson's * Princess/ iil, l. 244. 

Those monstrous males that carve the living hound. 

And cram him with the fragments of the grave, 

Or in the dark dissolving human heart. 

And holy secrets of this microcosm, 

Dabbling a shameless hand with shameful jest, 

Encarnalize their Spirits. 

What is the meaning of the last five lines ? 

Ibid, v., 1. 370: 

And of those 

Mothers — that, all prophetic pity, fling 

Their pretty maids in the running flood, and swoops 

The vulture, beak and talon, at the heart, See. 

To what country and what custom is allusion here 


J. A. J. 

[Does not the first passage refer to vivisection and 
post mortem analysis ?] 

Melbourne House, Whitehall. — Cunning- 
ham, in his * Handbook of London' (1850), says 
that Lord Melbourne sold this house in 1789 to 
the Duke of York, when it received the name of 
York House, and that " it is now pretty generally 
known as Dover House." Lady Caroline Lamb 
died at Melbourne House, Whitehall, on Jan. 26, 
1828. Were there, then, two houses of this name 

in Whitehall ? 

G. F. R. B. 

St. Erifrith or Herefrith. — Is anything 
known of this saint ? He is not mentioned by 
Butler, Baring-Gould, or Mrs. Jameson. The 
nearest approach to the name that I can find is St. 
-^Ifric or Helfric. John Thompson. 

The Grove, Pocklington. 


^ "W 

7'" S. X; Aua. 2, '90.] 



* ^ 

Barrier.— Has it ever been remarked that Pope 
makes of harrier a dissyllable? 

' ' 'Twixt that, and reason, what a nice barrier, 
For ever separate, yet for ever near ! 

. , , ' Essay on Man,' 1. 222. 

In Middle English the word 
the final e sounded ? He: 



* 1 J 


Quotations Wanted, 

, A sufficient man with a sufficient stick. 

• > Carlyle, Where? 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

What, do the lords look lowering on the people 1 
Tell, then, these lordlings there was once a time 
When the humblest Englishman was as a God 
Compared to other men. John Taylor. 

Words may be as angels, 
, Winged with love and light, 
Bearing God's evangels 

To the realms of might. Harry Hems. 



(7'^ S. ix. 488.) 


crowned twice as coadjutor king. His seal repre- 
sents him in royal robes, with his crown. In his 
right hand he holds a globe with a cross on the 
top thereof, and in his left a scepjtre, " by which I 
observe," says Sandford, "that although King 
Henry his father admitted him partner with him 
in his crown, kingdom, and sceptre, yet he kept 
the sword in his own hand to defend him from the 
ambitious encroachments of this royal rival." 
His second coronation took place at Winchester 
August 27, 1172, on which occasion his wife, the 
Princess Margaret of France, took part in the 
ceremony. Florence of Worcester says that the 
crown was placed on her head by the Archbishop 



had refused to share in the first coronation of her 
husband, as the ceremony was not performed by 
Becket, to whom she was much attached. He had 
obtained his martyr's crown before the second cere- 
mony took place. Florence of Worcester and 
Matthew of Westminster speak of this Henry as 
"Henry the younger" and "King Henry the son." 
I have never seen him called Henry IIL, which 
he would have been had he outlived his father and 
succeeded him in the regular course. He died of 
fever at the Castle of Martel, in France, June 11, 
1182, and was buried in the church of St. Julian 
at Mans, near his grandfather Geoffrey, Count of 
Anjou. His remains were afterwards removed to 
the Cathedral Church of Eouen, and placed on 
the right side of the high altar there. Thus, says 
Sandford, "as he had been twice crowned, so was 
he twice buried." 

H. Murray Lane. Chester Herald. 

According to my notes, Henry, second son of 
Henry II., was born on February 28, 1154 ; bap- 
tized at the priory church of Holy Trinity, Aldgate, 
in 1155 (* Liber Trinitatis ') ; and died s.p. on 
June 11, 1182. Unfortunately I cannot give my 
authority for this last statement. He married 
(1 betrothed) Margaret (or Alice, according to 
Stow), daughter of the King of France, she being 
about three years old and he seven years old. Sho 
was afterwards, in 1183, married to Bela, King of 

In 1170 Henry, by his father's order, was 
crowned king, and being crowned without his 
princess caused war with France. This may ac- 
count for the double coronation. J. J. S. 

There is an exact statement of the time of the 
death of King Henry III., the first of that title : 

** Rex juvenis undique copiosum congregavit exercitum, 
et dum congredi cum fratre sue decrevisset, praecisa est, 
veluti a texente, vita ejus, qui spem multorum deficiens, 
praecidit. Siquidem in flore juventutis suse, cum annum 
aetatis vigesimum octavum complevisset, intra Gas- 
conium, in illo tractu terras quae Torroinna dicitur, 
apud Castellum Martel, in festo Sancti Barnabae apostoli, 
Rex junior e medio est subtractus. Corpus autem in 
lineis vestibus, quas habuit in consecratione sacro chria- 
mate delibutas, regaliter involutum, apud Rothomagum 
delatum est; et in ecclesia cathedrali, prope majus 
altare, cum honore tanto principi congruo, tumulatur. 
— M. Par., ' Hist. Maj.,' ad an. 1183, p. 141, Lond., 1640. 

Ed. Marshall. 

The earlier Henry IIL, also known in his life- 
time as " King Henry the son," died at Martel 
Castle on June 11, 1182. Is not Richard, Earl of 
Cornwall, the first instance of a prince who received 


an English peerage? 


Henry Flood (7*^ S. ix. 446). — With reference 

to the cutting from Blackwood to which your 
correspondent draws attention, it maybe remarked 
that Henry Flood — according to Mr. Lecky, " be- 
yond all comparison the greatest orator and con- 
summate master of parliamentary tactics" of his 
time — shortly after the accession of Lord Harcourt 
to the Lord Lieutenancy of Ireland, in November, 
1772, undoubtedly, whatever may have been the 
inspiring motive, solicited an appointment from 
his political opponents. In connexion with the 
application Lord Harcourt wrote in June, 1774 : 
" Among the many embarrassments of my situa- 
tion I have found none more difficult than to make 
a proper provision for Mr. Flood." And as his 
lordship was subsequently of the opinion that " it 
may be better to secure Mr. Flood at any expense," 
the great orator was appointed to a post, hitherto 
reserved for Englishmen, worth 3,500l per annum. 
The result of his acceptance of office, as a matter 
of course, cost Flood the loss of the confidence o* 
the Irish people, and he consequently remained 
silent during the seven years of his official life. 
At last, finding his position as a minister intoler* 



[7tb S. X. Aug. '2, '90. 

able, he threw up his 3,500Z. a year and returned 
to his friends ; but he never regained the old place 
in the aflfections of his country. About 1784 Flood 
decided upon leaving Ireland and entering the 
British Parliament. Although the Duke of 
Chandos offered him a seat, he preferred his in- 
dependence, and purchased one for 4,000Z. 

Gratton's surmise proved correct : *' He was an 
oak of the forest, too great and too old to be trans- 
planted at fifty." Flood made little impression in 
the English House of Commons, and there is some- 
thing pathetic in his speech on his ^' Reform Bill^ 
1790, for the election of an additional 100 mem- 
bers by household suffrage," before he retired, a 
soured and disappointed man, from public life. 

"I appeal to you," he said, *' whether my conduct has 
been that of an advocate or agitator; whether I have 
often trespassed upon your attention ; whether ever, ex- 
cept on a question of importance; and whether I then 
wearied you with ostentation or prolixity. I have no 
fear but of that of doing wrong.' 

Henry Flood died at Farmley, near Kilkenny, 
of pleurisy, on December 2, 1791, aged fifty-nine. 
Vide Lecky^s * Leaders of Public Opinion in Ire- 
land,' London, 1861-71 ; Flood's * Life and Corre- 
spondence,' 1838, Dublin; Froude's * English in 
Ireland,' London, 1872-4. 


6, Freegrove Road, N. 

Henry Gerald Hope. 

The Epithet " Bloody Mary " (7^^ S, ix. 469). 

Is not the popular opinion, as expressed in old 
histories, sufficient to account for the epithet 
** Bloody Mary" being applied to Mary I.? John 
Speed, in his * Historie of Great Britaine,' ed. 1623, 
says : 

" Of all since the Conquest her Raigne was the shortest, 
onely excepting that of Richard the Tyrant, but much 
more bloudy than was his, and more bloud spilt in that 
short time of her Raigne, then had been shed for case of 
Christianity in any Kings time since Lucius the first 
establisher of the Gospell in this Realme." — P. 1151. 

In Kennett's ^Hist. of England,' ed. 1719, we 
are told that 

"her Religion prompted her to the EflFusion of so 

much Innocent Blood, 'twas just that the Sentence of 
the Prophet shou'd be fulfili'd on her: The Blood- 
thirsty shall not finish half their Days."— Vol. ii. p. 358. 

Strype adds in a foot-note : 

**In short, the Queen died with little Lamentation, 
condemned almost of all for her Severity and Shedding 
80 much innocent Blood."— P. 359. 

Rapin judges that Mary had 

"a temper cruel and vindictive She was inclined to 

Cruelty, as well by Nature as Zeal" (ed. 1732, vol. ii, 
p. 49) ; 

and a foot-note speaks of "hellish and bloody 
doings " (p. 48). Not to multiply examples, I lastly 
quote from the curious ' Chronicle of the Kings of 
England' (1741), by Nathan Ben Saddi (^. 6., 
Robert Dodsley), in which it is recorded that 
"her Reign stinketh of Blood unto this Day" 

(p. 53). See also Heylyn's ^ Cosmographie,' 1657, 
p. 320. 

J. F. Mansergh. 


The epithet ** Bloody Mary " cannot, I think, 
have been given to Mary I. because certain 
women were most unhappily put to death foi 
heresy in her reign, for the putting to death of 
women for things relating to religion was not in 
any way a distinguishing feature of the days when 
she ruled. W. S. L. S. cannot have forgotten the 
deaths of Cardinal Pole's mother and Anne Askew 
during the reign of Henry VIII., nor of Margaret 
Clithero in 1586 and Margaret Ward in 1588. 

Edward Peacock. 
Naylor's Translation OF *Reineke Fuchs' 

(7'^ S. ix. 489).— S. Naylor's translation of Goethe's 

version of this work was, according to the Catalogue 

of the London Library, p. 894, issued in 1845. I 

read it many years ago, and, unless my memory 

plays me false, it is not in hexameters. 

Edward Peacock. 

"'Reynard the Fox,' a renowned apologue of the 
Middle Ages, reproduced in English Rhyme. Embel- 
lished throughout with scroll capitals in colours from 
wood-blocfes after designs of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. By Samuel Naylor, late of Queen^s Coll., 
Oxford, with an Introduction. London, Longmans^ 
1844."— Lowndes. 

Ed. Marshall, 
Fiasco (7*^ S. ix. 480).— See ' N. & Q.,' 6^^ S, 

viii. 17. 

R. H. Busk. 

Thb Luddites (7**^ S. ix. 485; x. 16).— A very 
interesting account of the Luddite rioters, and of 

Horsfall, who was 


shot by them April 28, 1812, on the Huddersfield 
road, may be found in 'Old Stories Retold,' by 


It records a black 

and gloomy page in the history of England. The 
object of the Luddites was to destroy the new 
frames and machinery introduced for the purpose 
of finishing woollen materials, and thereby doing 
away with much manual labour. By an Act of 
Parliament which was passed in 1812, and which 
continued in force until 1814, frame-breaking was 
made a capital oflFence. Amongst the most active 
magistrates who took a leading part in suppressing 


W. H 

Vicar of Rochdale and also of Ackworth, near 
Pontefract, and Mr. Joseph Radcliffe, (formerly 
Pickford), of Milnes Bridge House. The last- 
named gentleman was created a baronet by Lord 
Sidmouth in 1813, with the singular honour of a 
gratuitous patent, in testimony of his courageous 
services in those turbulent times. There is a fine 

portrait of him 


Huddersfield, which has been well en- 
graved by Heath, having his favourite dog lying 
at his feet. Sir Joseph died in 1819. He had - 
assumed the name and arms of Radclifi^e in com- 

7th s. X. Aua 2, '90.] 



)liance with the will of his maternal uncle, Wil- 

iam Kadcliffe. 

John Pickford, M,A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 


Cambridge Societies (7'^ S. ix. 68).— Mr. 
Hughes's query has revived old recollections. 
There was a short-lived incorporated Society of 
United Johnian Beersoakers. I was well acquainted 
with several members, prominent among whom 
were S. J. W. (ob. 1855), I. I. T., and H. M., the 
last-named being Viceroy of Upware, K. R. F., of 
Jesus College, being king. . 

P. J. F. Gantillon. 

Folk-lore (7'^ S. ix. 486).— As you say, some 
of the superstitions are very widely spread. No. 9, 
however, in Asia Minor only holds good if you 
put on your clothes wrong by accident. Doing it 

and trying to force luck, will not 

Hyde Clarke. 

on purpose, 

Hair Powder (7'^ S. ix. 508),— On Feb. 23, 
1795, Mr. Pitt proposed a tax on persons wearing 
hair powder, which he estimated would bring to 
the revenue 210,000Z. annually, but was the death- 
blow to the custom, for its use was immediately 
discontinued. Those persons who continued to 
wear it were termed guinea pigs, because one 
guinea was the amount per head of the tax. 

Everard Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

' Macdonald (7*^ S. ix. 287, 518).— Miss Mac- 
donald became the wife of the late Sir Rowland 
Errington, and died, leaving two daughters, mar- 
ried respectively to Sir Evelyn Baring and Lord 
Pollington. Probably the portrait by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence inquired for is in the possession of one 

of these ladies. 

G. P. 

Dropping the final "g" of the Present 
Participle (7*^ S. ix. 286, 375, 472, 496).— Papal 
utterances cannot be too carefully worded, especially 
when addressed to persons who are likely to imagine 
that a gr is really dropped in pronunciation when 
ing (as written) is pronounced as -in. The ex- 
pression at the head of this article is a loose and 
convenient way of implying that the pronunciation 
in question is properly represented by a simple -n 
instead of the digraph -ng^ and those who understand 
the expression in any other sense must be so ex- 
tremely ignorant that, in view of the vast delays in 
the publication of the * New English Dictionary/ 
it is surprising that Dr. Murray should spend 
time upon such very elementary instruction. Per- 
sons^ who require it certainly ought to be told that 
-ng is not always a digraph, and that the long- of 
longer is not generally pronounced by educated 
Englishmen like the long- of longing^ and also that 
length, strength are better not pronounced lenth^ 
strenth. When Dr. Murray informs them that the 
verbal noun in -ing is " mistakenly spelt -tngr," he is 

likely to bewilder even phoneticians. By the way, 
according to Johnson, the ugly word " mistakenly" 
is an instance of the substitution of -en for -ing. 
Let us hope that Dr. Murray's dicta will not 
tend to the nasal heard at the end of king^ longy 
being altered in unaccented syllables and before 
dentals in cases where it is etymologically defensible. 

Augustus 0. Samson. 

Peile's Farm, Sioux City, Iowa, U.S. 

It sometimes happens that subjects foreign to 
the heading are treated. We have an instance at 
the last reference. If Archdeacon Paley called 
pudding pudden, it was undoubtedly a provin- 
cialism ; but he was remarkable for many of them. 
Dr. Parr is said to have observed to a lady who 
imitated Paley in this pronunciation, ''Call it 
pudding, madam, and I will with pleasure help 
you.'' The elision of g seems to be common in 
America, if we may judge from the writings of 
Sam Slick, where it is of frequent occurrence. 

John Pickford, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Are not these droppings, or what you choose to 
call them, mere freaks of fashion, copied from 
certain leaders of it, and generally very short 
lived ? An aunt of mine did not say Lunnon, 
as three or four countess friends of hers did, lest 
we should call it affectation ; but one of my most 
intimate friends would not have said Harriet, but 
always Hahyet, till Hahyet itself went out, and she 
lived to call it Harriet, like the rest of us ; but 
I think she said laffin, or goin, or shootin, or 
walkin all her life. 1 could recall many of these 
absurdities about the end of George IIL's time; but 

they are not worth it. 

"Riotous poor" 
meant for righteous ? 


An Old Lady. 

S. ix. 429).— Is this 
W. E. Buckley. 

Voice (7*^ S. ix. 309 ; x. 10).— I notice that 
this term occurs in " A Short Introduction of 
Grammar, generally to be used : compiled and set 
forth for the bringing up of all those, that intend 
to attain to the knowledge of the Latin Tongue. 
London : Printed by S. Buckley and T. Longman^ 
Printers to the King's Most Excellent Majesty in 
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, mdcclxv. : cum 
privilegio." The preface (signed lohn Ward) 
embraces a useful conspectus of '^ the origin of our 
common grammar," with brief notices of the 
labours of more or less distinguished grammarians, 
from Lily to Dr. Willymot. I do not suppose that 
the book is at all rare, or in any way remarkable, 
save, perhaps, for its wretched woodcuts and Its 
villainously smudgy letterpress. I give the title in 
full simply because I have found that the ample and 
exact references to which one is accustomed in 
' N. & Q.' are often valuable for their own sake, 
and are commonly suggestive of interesting side 
issues. My present point is that in this grammar 



[7^^ S. X. Au«. 2, '90, 

the word voice is not used in the tables of verbs, the 
passives being classed as "verbs in or" At p. 68, 
however, there are two allusions to "verbs imper- 
sonal of the passive ^wc6." Here the term seems 
to be used quite as a matter of course, so that it 
was no doubt familiar in 1765. Now for a side 
issue. Under this heading, but hardly in connexion 
with this discussion, may I draw attention to a 
present-day use of the word voice as a verb. In a 
weekly paper published in London, but devoted to 
the affairs of Canada, I have frequently seen in 
the editorial notes such phrases as "No doubt 
the Toronto Globe voices [or voiced^ or has voiced], 
the public sentiment," &c. ; ** We believe we shall 
voice public opinion when we say," &c. Is there 
the slightest authority for this use or abuse ? 
Will any one venture to defend it as necessary or 
expedient ? For my part, I cannot trust myself to 
characterize such a corruption. In exercising so 
much self-restraint I am pretty much in the 
position of the historical **boss blasphemer," who, 
at a crisis when he was expected to transcend him- 
self (" to come out perticklerly strong,'^ as the story 
runs), lamely confessed that his ordinarily exu- 
berant current of invective was quite dammed up. 
Like him, *'I don^t feel ekal to the occasion. 
Perhaps some other gen'leman will oblige." 

J. F. McRae. 

Index Society (V^^ S. x. 28).— The second 
part (Gi to Mi) of the 'Index to the Obituary and 
Biographical Notices in the Gentleman^s Magazine^ 
1731-1780,' was issued by the Index Society at 
the end of last year. The completion of the index 
will be printed by the British Record Society, 
with which the Index Society is now incorporated, 
and to which the stock of the publications of the 
latter society has been transferred. The hoo. 

secretary of the British Record 
W. P. W. Phillimore. 124. Chfln 



Late Director of the Index Society. 

Information respecting any of the publications 
of the Index Society can be obtained at the office 
of the Record Society, 4, Lincoln's Inn Fields, 

W. 0. 0. J. 0. 

[Many correppondents write that Messrs. Jarvis & 
Son. of King William Street, are agents for the sale of 
these publications. Those publishers inform us, how- 
ever, that their connexion with the Index Society is at 
an end,] 


source. The details as 


* Byron's 

May 6, 


minute and clear as to facts (I remember the place 
forty years ago) that I read the narrative not only 
with interest, but with full belief that it was 
genuine. The boatman's name was given as 
Chazes, he was eighty-seven years old, he was a 

ferryman from Missolonghi to Klisova, and " was 
for months in Byron's service.*' Seven years ago 
he took "Mr. Vikelas, the well-known Greek 
author," across the lagoon, and told him what he 
remembered of Byron, but did not "reveal any- 
thing of importance." If Mr. Bikelus (or Vikelas?) 
would confirm this story, or any Greek reader of 
these lines would say whether *^the king ordered 
a noble funeral at the public expense, and placed 
emblems of mourning on the public buildings at 
the capital," the story would be an interesting 

last link with Byron's life. 


I have seen recently in at least two English 
papers (one, if I remember rightly, the Daily 
Telegraph) notices of the death of Byron's boat- 


J. OuTHBERT Welch, F.C.S. 
Medieval Fowl Names (7'*^ S. ix. 268, 492). 

For spervarius see * Newminster Cartulary,' 
p. 273; * Glossary to Boldon Buke'; Ducange, s.v, 
'* Sparvarius." It is a very common word. 

Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham. 

J. T. F. 

Murray of Broughton (7^** S. ix. 609). 

Permit me to say, in reply to Sigma, that Brough- 
ton (Peeblesshire) was the estate of Sir John 
Murray, secretary to the Young Pretender, and 
hence the designation of Sir John, ^^ Murray of 
Broughton.'' In Sinclair's 'Statistical Account of 
Scotland ' we find the following, under "Broughton, 

" The estate of Broughtoa has been for a number of 
years in the possession of the Murrays of Stenhope, who 
resided in the parish, and was sold by the late Sir John 
Murray, commonly called 'Secretary Murray' (having 
acted in that capacity to the Pretender) to James Dick- 
son of Edrum, M.P. for the district of Burrows, in the 
year 1762." 

I may add that there is nothing now remaining 
of the house in which "Secretary Murray " lived 
at Broughton ; but a number of the trees that 
formed the avenue which led to the house are 

still standing. 

A. Frood. 

The baronets of Stanhope owned an estate in 
Peeblesshire, described in 1654 as ^' the lands and 
barony of Brochtoune within the parochin of 
Brochtoune" (Retours, Peebles, No. 135). The 
mansion, there called Broughton Place, was the 
home of John Murray, of '45 renown, the baronet 
of Stanhope's son {' New Statistical Account/ 

Peebles, p. 85). 

Geo. Neilson. 

I cannot say how John Murray obtained the 
designation " of Broughton''; but being somewhat 
interested in the history of the family, the follow- 
ing account was sent me, some years ago^ from a 
very old lady who knew all the details most tho- 
roughly : 

*' John Murray of Broughton, taken prisoner at Cullo- 
den, saved his life by turning informer. His son, James 

: »* S. X. Aug. 2, '90.] 




M irray of Broughton, married Lady Catherine, daughter 
of John, seventh Earl of Galloway. By her he had no 
ch.ldren. He had, however, four illegitimate children, 
to one of whom, Alexander, Broughton was bequeathed. 
H3 died s p. 1845, and his widow, Lady Anne Bingham, 
in 1850. The property seems to have reverted to an in- 
direct, but legitimate^ heir." 

F. N. R. 


In the ^Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland/ vol. i., 
sxih "Broughton/' is the following: 

'* At Broughton House dwelt the * Apostate ' Murray, 

secretary to Prince Charles Edward during the '45, The 

house was burned down about 1775, and shortly after- 
wards the estate was purchased by Robt. Macqueen — 
Lord Braxfield." 




Curious Notices (7^** S. x. 4).— At Scalby, 

near Scarborough, there is a notice which reads, 
** Stick no Bills. One pound reward if found out." 
The question arises, Who can claim the reward ? 
Can it be claimed (1) by a person who sticks bills ; 
(2) by a person who sticks no bills ; (3) or by 
the person who finds another person out in the 
act of not sticking bills ? I am inclined to favour 
the last solution, but I own that it admits of 
argument. Isaac Taylor. 

^ At Ballydown, in County Down, might be seen 
some time ago the notice, "Any one trespassing on 
these grounds, without permission^ will be pro- 
secuted." The two words which I have italicized 
are excellent. I have seen another notice on a 
tramway in the adjoining county of Armagh in 
which punctuation is treated with scant courtesy. 
It reads, " It is dangerous to walk on the line by 
order of the directors." W. W. Davies. 

Glenmore. Lisburn, Ireland. 


On the book-ledges of a suburban parish church 
was displayed, a short time since, neatly printed, 
the following notice: "All kneelers should be 
hung up at the end of the service." 

Hbnrt Attwell. 


Miles (7^*^ S. ix. 508).— The suffix miles signifies 
in heraldry not merely a person entitled to bear 

kniffht. A 

baronet is designated miles baronettus. 

Herbert Maxwell 

Unless there is something in the context to 
indicate that the word is employed in an unusual 
manner, miles in the English Latin of former days 
always signifies knight. 


■- * m 

^ ■ - n 

years I have come across the same belief in the 

Midland Counties and in the West 





This superstition is not confined to , 

in fact, I think it is very general throughout the 
English counties; As a boy I was acquainted 


is generally, however, considered desirable that the 
first person entering the house in the New Year 
should not reside in it, and preference is given to a 
person with dark hair. Some people believe that a 
man with light hair, if allowed "to let the New Year 

in," brings bad luck. 

S. Illingworth Butler, 

Auctions and Auction Kooms (7^^ S. viii. 
384, 477).— In reference to Mr. R. N. James and 
my notes at the above references, the following 
extract from Pepys's • Diary' should, I think, 
now that it is found, be made a note of : 

" Sep' 3'** 1662. After dinner, we met and sold the Wey- 
mouth Successe and Fellowship hulkes, where pleasant to 
see how backward men are at first to bid ; and yet, when 
the candle is going out, how they bawl, and dispute after- 
wards who bid the most first. And here I observed one 
man cunninger than the rest, that was sure to bid the 
last man, and to carry it; and inquiring the reason, he 
told me that just as the flame goes out, the smoke de- 
scends, which IS a thing I never observed before, and by 
that he do know the instant when to bid last/' 

From it we get a very clear idea as to how an 
auction in 1662 was carried on. The auctioneer 
must have had an exciting time of it after the 
candle had gone out. F. B. Lewis. 


Glossary to Dante (7*^ S. ix. 449).— I beg 

to recommend Egente the following, which, how- 
ever^ is not in Italian and English^ as he requests^ 
but in Italian only (with Latin derivations): 

** Vocabolario Dantesco, o Dizionario Critico e 
Ragionato della Divina Commedia di Dante Alighieri, 
di L. G. Blanc, ora per la prima volta recato in Italiano 
da G. Carbone. Volume IJnico. Firenze : G. Barbara, 
Editore. 1877. 4 lire " (35. 4rf.)- 

Meadows's ^ Italian-English Dictionary ' is useful 
in reading the old Italian poets, as he gives fre- 
quent references to them : and may I recommend 
Egente Mr. J. A. Symonds's ^Introduction to the 
Study of Dante,' in case he does not know it? 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

John Chevalier (7^ S. ix. 488).— See Prof. 
J. E. B. Mayor's ^ Baker's History of St. John's/ 
vol. ii. pp. 1079-1082. P. J. F, Gantillon, 

The admission register of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, contains this entry : 

*' Joannes Chevalier, RutlandiensiB, filiua Nathanielis 
C, clericiy natus apud Gastraton, Uteris institutua apud 
Stamford inagroLincolniensi sub MroReedjadmisaussub- 
sizator pro W^o Robinson, Junii 10. 1747, annos natus 17 
et quod excurrit; tutore eius et fideiussore M^o Powell." 

He was born Aug. 3, 1730 ; graduated B.A. 
1750/1, as third Junior Optime ; proceeded M. A. 
1754; B.D. 1762; D.D. by mandate, 1777; 
admitted a Fellow of his college April 2, 1754; 
Senior Fellow June 5, 1770 ; and Master Feb. 1, 
1775. He served the office of Vice-Ohancellor in 



[7t»' S. X. Aug. 2, '90. 

1776. Dr. Chevalier, who married, on March 5, 
1778, Mrs. Bowyer, of Willoughby, co. Lincoln 
(Gent Mag.y 1778, vol. xlviii. p. 141), died 
March 14, 1789, and was buried in the college 
chapel, where, on a flag-stone, is an inscription to 
his memory, with these arms : A chevron sable 
between three escallops gules. In the college books 
the name is generally written with one Z, but in 
the Graduati it has two. Gunning, in his ^ Re- 
miniscences,' i. pp. 184-6, describing Dr. Chevalier's 
funeral, mentions that he was blind. An autograph 
letter from him to the Rev. Dr. Thomas Birch, 
dated 1754, will be found in Add. MS. 4302, fo. 

V * 

149 (Brit. Mus.). 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Spectacles in Art (7*** S. ix. 368, 470; y. 38). 

May I add to the early examples which have 
been previously quoted *The Man with Spectacles,' 
by Quentin Matsys, who died in 1530 ? This pic- 
ture is in the Staedel Institute, Frankfort-on-the- 
Maine. It is reproduced in the Classical Picture 
Gallery, No. 51 (May, 1890). The man is holding 
in his left hand, which rests upon an open book, a 
pince-nez, or pair of goggles, or, according to Mr. 
Dixon, "nose-nippers." J. F. Mansergh. 


In the church of Ogni Santi, in this town, is a 
fresco of Domenico Ghirlandajo representing St. 
Jerome, and dated 1480. The saint, apparently 
in the agonies of composing a sermon, is seated at 
a table on which is a wooden desk. An ink-horn, 
a pair of scissors, and b» pince-nez are hanging from 
tacks or pegs nailed into the side of the desk. The 
pince-nez is small and handleless ; the glasses are 
round, and framed in dark bone; in the bridge, 

also of bone, is a hinge. 

4, Via Micheli, Florence. 

Ross O'Connell, 

The proposal to use " nose-nippers " for pince- 
nez is not satisfactory. Nipper means cutting, as 
in toilet nail-nippers, &c. Pincers (grippers or 
holders) would be nearer pince or pinchers, but 
certainly not nippers. 

A short time ago I offended a young lady rather 
deeply by talking about her " pinch-nose." But I 
am not deterred from offering it as yet more literal, 
and yet plainer English, than " nose-nippers." 



Warren, M 

I am not sure we at all want a word for the 
French pince-nez; but should it be decided that we 
do, would not nip-nose be preferable to nose- 
nippers? One reverts to sugar-nippers involun- 
tarily, and one shrinks from the association of that 

implement with the nose. 


C. A. Ward 


from the Fresco by Ghirlandaio' (1451 to 1495). 

The Florentine artist here shows an officiating 
priest wearing a small and beautifully propor- 
tioned pince-neZf in no way detracting from the 
dignity of the face, and quite modern as regards 
width of rims and size of glasses. The glasses are 
circular, with black rims, and apparently kept in 
position midway by a spring, as there are no side 


Waltham Abbey. 

Fred. A. Renshawe. 

The Gardens of Alcinous (7*^ S. x. 8).— It 

seems to me that there is no valid reason for sup- 
posing the garden of Alcinous to have been more 
extensive than the space which translators and 
lexicographers have assigned to it. Theyvrjs may 
have been a trifle larger than our acre, as is the 
case with the Scotch and the Irish acre ; and the 
orchard is represented of almost magical fertility, 
producing fruit summer and winter. Four acres 
of such land would produce as many pears, apples, 
pomegranates, figs, olives, and grapes as even a 
luxurious and hospitable prince would require. 

J. Oarrick Moore., 

Bitaub^, in his French translation of the * Odys- 
sey' (1785), gives "quatre arpents" for rerpayvos. 
M. Emile Pessonneaux, in his quite recent trans- 
lation, gives exactly the same measure. One arpent 
is one and a quarter English acre. M. C. Alex- 
andre, in his classical Greek-French dictionary, has 
the following: "Tcrpayvos, 09, ov, Po6t.,dequatre 
arpents. To rerpdyvovj mesure de quatre arpents 
qu'un homme lahoure en imjourj^ The italics are 

not mine. 


Transmogrify (7*^ S. x. 24).— In 1830 the Rev. 
Rowland Hill wrote : " How disgusting to see a 
man in the garb of a minister transmogrified at 
least half way towards a monkey" (^Life,' by 
Sidney, 1834, p. 351). W. 0. B. 

Wm. Davy (7^^ S. ix. 508).— A full account of 

this laborious man of letters and of his home-made 
^ System of Divinity ' is given in the Annual 
Register for 1826, p. 258. 


Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 

Monte Video (7^^ S. vii. 7, 293, 333, 477).— I 
have delayed more than a year in subscribing what 
information I could provide about this word, in 
order to satisfy myself upon the evolution of the 
present spelling out of the original Portuguese 
exclamation ; for " Mount I see," whether Maca- 
ronic or not, is unquestionably the derivation of 
the name. In current Platense literature the word 
is generally written Montevideo. The accent 
was originally upon the second 6, but it is now 
placed upon the vid^ the terminating eo having 
almost become a diphthong. To connect the word 
in any way with the S. vid (der. Lat. vitis) is mon- 
strous. Leaving aside the question of the indige- 

7«> S. X. Aua. 2, '90.] 



Eous flora of the Kiver Plate countries, and treating 
1 16 word simply upon its grammatical construction, 
tde adjectival formation from vid would be vidoso, 
fnd not video. No such adjective exists; and, 
indeed, did it, it would even so be misapplied; 
for the collective noun vina would be used rather 
than the individual noun vid, and the adj. der. 
would be vinoso. Neither is this adjective to be 
found in the Spanish tongue. Fortunately, there 
is no necessity to trace the derivation of a place- 
:aame through such a labyrinth of spurious coin- 
age?. . " 

The following is a brief historical account of the 
origin of the word Montevideo. Hernando de 
Magallanes visited the Kiver Plate in the year 
1520 in search of a passage to India, and his look- 
out espied the small hill near the present capital 
of the Uruguayan Republic. Upon descending to 
deck he described the land he had seen in the 

Puritan interloper had cut down the trees on his 
glebe and turned them into money, and vented his 
indignation in the groan that *'not even the bit of 
woodland had escaped the hands of the Calvinists." 

E. Venables. 

The term probably means the Calvinists, one of 
whom came into the living of East Hatley on the 
sequestration of Thomas Goode, a most worthless 
occupant if all that Walker says of him is true 
(^ Sufferings of the Clergy,' part ii. p. 249, London, 





^ --? — 

Lch means literally, "A 

mount -I-saw-there." The curt phrase was thought 

enough to denominate the place on the chart. 

But the territory became a Spanish and not a 

Portuguese colony. The clumsy vi-eii offended 

the Spanish ear, and video was substituted. Nor 

did this err far from the original meaning ; for, if 

^may be allowed to judge from analogy, the Lat. 

The meaning of this word, from the date, ap- 
pears to me evident. The parson of East Hatley 
being plundered by the Puritans, called " Triers " 
(t. e., of the clergy), under Oromweirs rule, says, 
" Neither did the grove [or, as we should call it, 
shrubbery] escape the hands of these Calvinists." 
To conceal his meaning he coins a Latin word, and 
for better disguise writes it without a capital 0. 
Perhaps if Mr. Stevens consulted Walker's ^Suf- 
ferings of the Clergy ' he might ascertain whether 

cuted list. 


E. A. D. 

[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

.EL Anecdotes : Garrxck and 

(7'** S. ix. 465). — An old man with a telescope in 
Leicester Square used to set it up on clear nights 

upon the first possession of the River Plate colonies P,^^^*^°S,^^ ^^^ moon, or would direct it to any 

by the Spaniards, and the pres. ind. of the verb 
ver, to see, was still video. Even to-day the un- 
cultured gaucho does not say vi (I saw) ; he says 
vidi. Similarly he has not yet changed the old and 
melodious ansina (thus) for the modem a$i. Thus 
we have the original monUvi-eu changed into 
Monte-video, and the elision of the id in modern 
Spanish still further perplexes the place-name 

All this information I could have supplied at 
once. What I have desired to ascertain was — (1) 
When Mont'Vi-eu became Montevideo ; and (2) 
when the pres. ind. video became veo. As yet I 
have been unsuccessful. In this last diflBculty 

star or planet required, charging a penny a peep. 
Sir Humphry Davy, passing on one of these 
occasions, took a look through it. When he handed 
the fee to the man he, bowing, refused it, and 
said, "I never charge a brother philosopher," Davy 
used to tell the story with great gusto. 


0. A. Ward 


M. Talbot. M 





447). — I have the following notes on the name of 
Ivory, which may be of service to Y. S. M. : 

(1) Sir John Ivory married Anne Talbot in 1683. 

(2) Mr. Ivorv married Martha, eldest daughter 


Los Yngleseg, Ajo, 

H. Gibson*. 

Dr. Scaegill (7'»» S. ix. 407; x. 55).— Mr 






On referring again ^°j\ Huntingfield. 

April 29, 1878, Hon. Gerard Vanneck, fifth son of 


Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth. 


It is « ye 

Calvinantium (V"- S. ix. 509).— Calvinantium 
evidently signifies " the adherents of Calvin, " i. e., 
the Puritans. During the Great Eebellion of the 
seventeenth century the rightful incumbent of 

East Hatley 

doubt ejected, and when 

he was restored to his place he found that the 

(4). . _ 

mentioned above, married as second wife of Henry 
Davenport (born 1677, died 1731). She died 1748. 

(5) Mary, daughter of William Ivory, of New 
Eoss, Wexford, married (license dated March 11, 
1686) Caesar Colclough, of Eosegarland, M.P. for 
Taghmon in 1719. 

(6) John Ivery (?) of Colhay, Somerset, married, 
circ. 1660-70, Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Thomas 
Trenchard, of Wolverton, near Weymouth, 

(7) James Ivory, son of Thomas Ivory of Dun- 



[7th S. X. Auq. 2, *90. 

dee, by 

Hackney, born 1792, married 1817, 

daughter of Alexander Lawrie of Edinburgh, ap 
pointed a Lord of Session in 1840 under the title 
of Lord Ivory, and died before 1869. 

It occurs to me as probable that the published 
account of the Ivory family to which Mr. Talbot 
referred was Anderson's * History of the House of 
Ivery, or Yvery,' 2 vols., 1742. That, however, is 
properly an account of the family of Percival. 


In the OflSce for Eegistering Deeds, Dublin, 
there is a deed between Joseph Fowke and Ivory 
(129, 209, 86795) which may interest Y. S. M. 
Should he refer to this document, which I have 
been unable to do, and will favour me with any 
information which it may contain concerning 
Joseph Fowke, he will do me a kindness. 

Frank Rede Fowke. 

24, Victoria Grove, Chelsea, S.W. 

Dr. Sacheverel (7*^ S. ix. 466). — Your cor- 
respondent at the above reference should have 
given his authority for the statement that three 
men, with the sexton and gravedigger of St. An- 
drew's, Holborn, were committed to prison Sept. 26, 
1747, for stealing 150 leaden coffins from the vault 
of St. Andrew^s Church, Holborn. Ifc seems most 
unlikely that so large a number could have been 
stolen. Amongst them are said to have been the 
coffins of Dr. Sacheverel and Sally Salisbury. 



* Keliquise Hearnianse,' vol. iL p. 192), and Dr. 
Sacheverel, who was rector of the parish, died 
very soon afterwards, on June 5, 1724. They 
were both buried in the vault of St. Andrew's, 
Holborn, it is said side by side, giving rise to the 
following epigram : 

Lo ! to one grave consigned, of rival fame, 
A reverend doctor and a wanton dame ; 
Well for the world they did to rest retire, 
For each when living set the world on fire. 

John Pickford, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Books written in Prison (7^^ S, i^- 147, 256, 
412). — 1. A letter received from an artist friend 
at Jerusalem since my last note went to press 
reminds me of yet another instance. After 
mentioning a variety of excursions to spots con- 
secrated by historic or traditionary memories, it says, 
"Something of fresh interest turns up every day; 
yesterday we visited the cave where Jeremias wrote 
the Lamentations." This was not strictly speaking 
a prison, but all Jerusalem was captive at the 
time, and Jeremias wrote here of himself and her, 
"The Lord hath delivered me into their hands 
from whom I am not able to rise up." 

2. Having occasion to refer to Boethius (7'^ S. 
ix. 410) recalls yet another instance. For it was on 
occasion of his being taken from the height of 

political popularity and literary success and thrown 
into durance on a false accusation by the sectarian 
spite of an Arian emperor's myrmidons that he 
wrote his * Consolatione Philosophise' to pass away 
his prison days. It has been objected by some that 
because this work contains no mention of Christ, 
" his Christianity did not influence his pagan 
spirit"; while, on the other hand, he is reckoned 
a" Confessor '' by Catholic writers, and some calen- 
dars enter him a saint and martyr. The objection is 
obviously quite superficial. Boethius, a Catholic, 
being in prison under sentence of death of an 
Arian Government, did not elect to write a book 
on ' The Consolation of Religion.' He must, then, 
have either written in a tone contrary to his own 
opinions, or else have aggravated his position by 
asserting them. As an active student he had to 
write something to occupy his mind, and under 
the circumstances he chose to write about philo- 
sophy and to leave alone the " burning question '^ 
of religion. 

It is true " his caution was vain," and after his 
father-in-law Symmachus and two other consuls 
had been beheaded on their return from the bootless 
mission to Constantinople, and Pope John I. starved 
to death, the deferred death-sentence was carried 
out, apparently with great barbarity, on Boethius 

To his first wife Elpis is ascribed the hymn in 
the Breviary for SS. Peter and Paul's day. 


R. H. Busk. 

De la Poles (7*^ S. ix. 407, 491 ; x. 49).— I 

bow to the corrections of your correspondents, who 
are better informed on this subject than myself. 
I did not, however, suppose that the Earl of Sufi'olk 
measured his own cloths ; but— misled, perhaps, by 
the general contempt for trade shown in the Middle 
Ages — I was not aware of the superiority of the j 
citizens of London, at least to the extent indicated. 
But I am always glad to learn and grateful to my 


" The house of Michael de la Polo, attainted, in 
Lumbardstrete," was granted, Feb. 8, 1390, for 
life, to Elizabeth, Countess of Huntingdon, the 
second daughter of John of Gaunt. (Patent Roll 

13 Ric. IL, part ii.) 


Brothers-ik-Law of Henry VIII. (7*** S. x. 

22). — May I suggest a small correction and addition 
to Mr. Murray Lane's interesting list ? Philip 
of Flanders was not King of Spain, but for a few 
months only King Regent of Castile, as consort of 
Juana laLoca, Queen of Castile, sister of Katharine 
of Aragon. Ferdinand the Catholic also left a 
natural son by the Viscountess de Eboli, called Don 
Alonso de Aragon, Archbishop of Zaragoza, whom 
his father recognized and appointed Regent of 
Aragon. Ferdinand also had a natural daughter, 
named Juana, who was married to Velasco, Grand 
Constable of Castile, first Duke of Frias. Should 

7th s. X. Aua. 2, '90, J 




lot the archbishop and the grand constable be 

Mr. Md 

» '< . Martin A. Sharp Hume, Major. 

'^Ingratum si dixeris, omnia dixti^' (7'^ S. 
ix. 449, 514). — I have met with the same senti- 
ment, but differently, and thus expressed : 


Ingratum qui dixerit, omnia dixit. 

I cannot say whether the latter version is that of 
any classical author. If we are to take "Ingoldsby '' 
au sirieux, his wording of the sentiment is an 
excerpt from an ancient "bard." But, query, is 


Fredk. Rule. 

Alpha: J. M. {7^^ S. ix. 329, 438).- Your 
correspondent asks who wrote under the initials 
J. M. or who adopted the pseudonym of Alpha 
in *N. & Q.' in the year 1860. I can give no 
information about Alpha, but there is no doubt 
that the papers which were signed J. M. in 1860 
were written by the late Mr. James Maidment, of 
Edinburgh, whose works on ballad literature and 
Scottish antiquities are well known to all persons 
interested in those branches of study. About the 
same time there were three contributors who signed 
with the "initials J. M., of whom one was Mr. 
Maidment; another, who dated from Oxford, was 
probably the Rev. John Macray ; and the third, 
who hailed from Hammersmith, I am unable to 
identify." In 1860, however, only Mr. Maidment 
wrote over " J. M." Mr. James Henry Markland 
was also a frequent contributor to * N. & Q,' some 
thirty years ago, as Mr. FitzPatrick points out, 
but he usually signed his full name, and rarely his 

initials" J, H. M." 

W. F, Prideaux. 

The Spanish Armada (7^^ S. x. 26).— On the 

reverse of a medal struck for Queen Elizabeth after 
the defeat of the Armada were the words, " Afflavit 
Deus et dissipantur." This is referred to as follows 
in the Spectator for Tuesday, Feb. 5, 1711/12, the 
text of the paper being " The prudent still have 
fortune on their side ^^: 

''I am very well pleased with a medal wliich was 
struck by Queen Elizibetb, a little after the defeat of 
the invincible armada, to perpetuate the memory of that 
extraordinary event. It is well known how the King of 
Spaio, and others who were the enemies of that great 
princess, to derogate from her glory, ascribed the ruin 
of their fleet rather to the violence of storms and tem- 
pests, than to the bravery of the English. Queen Eliza- 
beth, instead of looking upon this as a diminution of her 
honour, valued herself upon such a signal favour of 
Providence, and accordingly, in the reverse of the medal 
above mentioned, has represented a fleet beaten by a 
tempest, and falling foul upon one another, with that 
religious inscription, Afflavit Deus, et dissipantur^ * He 
blew with his wind, and they were scattered.' " 

The same idea gives the key-note to the best 
contemporary poem on the subject, * The Triumph 
of the Lord after the Manner of Men,' by the 
Rev. Alexander Hume, minister of Logie, near 
Stirling, Indeed, this hymn, ringing as from the 

enraptured inspiration of a Hebrew bard, is con- 
spicuous among the very few poems suggested by 
the great national crisis which the defeat of the 
Armada emphatically marks. These are the open- 
ing lines : 

Triumphand Lord of armies and of hostes, 
Thou has subdu'd the universall coastes ; 
From south to north, from east till Occident 
Thou shawes thy selfe great God armipotent. 
O Captaines, Kinges, and Ciiristian men of weir. 
Gar herraulds haist in coats of armor cleir 
For to proclame with trumpet and with shout, 
A great triumph the univers throughout ; 
For certainlie the Lord he will be knawin, 
And have that praise quhilk justlie is his awiu. 

The great prototype of such hymns of victory is 
the song that was sung by Moses and the Children 
of Israel when the Lord triumphed gloriously 
over the horse and his rider in the Red Sea. 
"Thou didst blow with thy wind,'' it runs in 
Exod. XV. 10, " the sea covered them : they sank 

Thomas Bayne. 

as lead in the mighty waters." 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

^ The special thanksgiving mentioned by Nemo 
will be found in ^ Liturgies and Occasional Forms 
of Prayer set forth in the Reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth,' edited for the Parker Society by the Rev. 
W. K. Clay, 1847, p. 619. It was used on 
Nov. 29, 1588. The words of the special Psalm 
are, " The Lord scattered them with His winds." 
The phrase which is in Nemo's mind is probably 
the motto on the Dutch medal in commemoration, 
" Flavit [the Divine Name in Hebrew] et dissipati 
sunt." There is no one text in the Bible of which 
either of these sentences is a verbatim quotation. 
The nearest is Exod. xv. 10 (the Song of Moses), 
" Thou didst blow with thy wind, the sea covered 


Longford, Coventry. 

C. F. S. Warren, M.A. 

- ' - 

St. Patrick (7^^ S. x. 9).— As regards St. 
Patrick being the patron saint of the deaf and 
dumb, I think Anon, will find some reference in 
Southey's * Commonplace Book ' concerning St. 
Patrick's horn, which had some power of curing 
these afflictions. I have not got the book at hand, 
or would give the exact reference. G. S. B. 

Kyphi (7^*^ S. ix. 370). 

*'Tbey worshipped Ra at sunrise with resin, at mid- 
day with myrrh, and at sunset with an elaborate con- 
fection called kuphi, compounded of no fewer than 
sixteen ingredients, among which were honey, raisins, 
resin, myrrh, and sweet calamus."—' Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica,' s.v. '' Incense." 

Reference is made also to Parthey's edition of 
Plutarch's ' De Iside et Osiride,' where receipts for 
kuphi are given from Galen, Dioscorides, and "the 
editor's own experiments." 

H. Marshall, M 




[7^b S, X. Aug. 2, '90. 

Savonarola (7'^ S. ix. 388). — There is a work 

of fiction in which a marvellous story is told of the 
so-called burning of Savonarola. I distinctly re- 
member as a child the harrowing effect when it 
was read aloud to me as history ; but now that I 
know it is fiction I should like to read it again as 
a fine piece of word-painting. I had a strong im- 
pression it was said to be by Dumas (the elder, of 
course), but I have looked through the most likely 
volumes of his in vain. I inquired for it (under 
the heading * Was any one ever burnt alive V) 7'^ 
S. iii. 208, without effect, but the present inquiry 
affords an opportunity for another effort. 

R, H. Busk. 

I am not aware whether there is any standard 
novel beside * Romola ' in which Savonarola ap- 
pears, but he is a prominent figure in ' The Home 
of Frisole,' by Mrs. Ady (Miss Cartwright), pub- 
lished by F. Shaw & Co., 48, Paternoster Row. A 
sketch of the life and times of Savonarola is ap- 

pended to the book. 

A. W. 

The German poet Nicolas Niemlsch de Sthre- 
lenau, known as Lenau (1802-1850), wrote in 1837 
an epic poem entitled * Savonarole,' in which he 
illustrates the motto " Thought is the saint, the 




There is a short poem about Savonarola in a 
volume ' Ezekiel, and other Poems,' by B. M. 

A. B. 

Savonarola figures in Mrs. Harriet Beecher 
Stowe'a * Agnes of Sorrento,' the novel ending 
with his death. That work was first published in 


Magazine^ and completed in May^ 
1862. It is curious that ^ Romola,* also first pub- 
lished in the same magazine, followed it after an 
interval of one month only, beginning in July, 

The ground being thus prepared, of course a 
work soon appeared upon the subject in Germany, 
which I am happy to recommend. The title is 
* Beitrage zur Geschichte der franzosischen Sprache 
in England/ von D. Behrens, Heilbronn, 1886. 

The subject will be dealt with in the Second 
Series (The Foreign Element) of my ' Principles of 
English Etymology,' which will be ready, I hope, 
before Christmas. The chapters relating to Anglo- 
French are already printed off. I trust the con- 
clusions therein contained will prove to be more 
valuable than some of the random statements on 

this subject that are but too common. 

Walter W, Skeat. 

Junius (7^^ S. ix. 447, 514).— Sir Alexander 
Cockburn*s articles on the authorship of Junius 
were never completed (see the life in the * Dic- 
tionary of National Biography '). Is it too late to 
suggest that, if the MS. is in a sufl&ciently ad- 
vanced state, the executors would confer a great 
benefit on students of literature by depositing it 

in one of our great libraries ? 0. E. D, 


Hermentrude objects to adjectives being used 
as substantives. *' Quis custodiet custodes V She 
herself uses the adjective English as a substantive. 
Will she pardon me if I take the liberty of asking 
what English means 1 It may mean the English 
people, the English language, the English army, 
the English possessions, or English hats. It is too 
late to object to adjectives being usedsubstantivally. 
We have greens for dinner ; blacks are worn by ladies, 
they come down the chimney, and inhabit the 
Dark Continent. We have whites in our eyes, in 
our eggs, and in our West Indian colonies. We 
ride browns, bays, greys, and blacks in Rotten 






ix. 305, 414, 497 ; x. 57).— In reply to the ques 

tion at the last reference, as to who has dealt with 

" Anglo-French,'^ I am proud to think that I was 

the very first to attack this most important and 

unaccountably neglected subject ; and I hope it 

may stand hereafter in the record of my few good 

I began the study in the only possible way, viz., 
by making collections of words with references. 
* A Rough List of English Words found in Anglo- 
French,' &c., compiled by me, was printed for the 
Philological Society in 1882. (A second 'List' 

the "swift 

The very name of the horse, equuSj means 

is the 


and the dog, caniSj 

" prolific " one. Even Shakespeare speaks of the 
vasty deep, and Dryden tells us that none but the 
brave deserve the /air. ^ 

If the use of adjectives as substantives is to be 
tabooed as "American," the vocabularies of all 
languages will be reduced to microscopic dimen- 



appeared in 1889.) Then came 



with Anglo-French Vowel Sounds,' giving the 


Modern E. words, bv B. M 

The ' Encyclopaedic Dictionary ' (Cassell & Co.) 
defines editorial as a substantive, thus: "An 
article in a newspaper ivritten by the editor," &c. 
The article referred to was an " editorial " note, a 
matter of literary intelligence. A. H. 

Crumbleholme (7^^ S. ix. 428).— Probably this 
is a variant of the surname Cromleholme, some- 
times contracted or corrupted into Orumlum, and 


is, I 

imagine, of north-country origm 

Dialect Society in 1884. 

Cromleholme, M.A., of Queen's College, Oxford, 
who died in 1810, was for many years rector of 
Sherington, Bucks. Dr. Samuel Cromleholme was 
high master of St. PauFs School, London, from 

^ * S. X. AUG. 2, '90. ] 



16 ')7 to 1672, and under him the great Duke of 


jo^ consists. 

two stanzas of which the poe 

Jonathan Bouohiek. 


iricholas Nickleby' we read of the theatrical 

m mager Mr. Vincent Crummies. 

' John Piceford, 

ITewbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The name of John Crumblehome appeared in 

the Liverpool * Directory ' for 1887. 

J. F. Mansergh. 


In the fifteenth century a branch of the Oromble- 
holme or Crumbleholme family was settled near 
Bibchester, in Lancashire. In 1467 Elias de 
Crombleholme was a chantry priest there, and in 
1526 Robert Orombilholme was " parson of the 
parish." A short account of this family is given in 
my * History of Goosnargh,' pp. 176-179. In 1715 

■p;«liQr,1 ni»nmVilflVinlmA was vioar of St. Michael's- 

None without hope e'er loved the brightest fair, &c. 

The couplet quoted is from an epigram by Lord George 
Lyttelton, author of ' Dialogues of the Dead,' and also of 
various poems, of which, says Dr. Johnson, "there is 
nothing to be despised, and little to be admired." B. 
1709, d. 1773. Fredk. Rule. 

[Many replies to some of the above queries are acknow- 

9 «# 




I have been un- 

able to find out the name of the Father Richard 



are still descendants of the Crombleholmes of Goos- 
nargh living in the north of England. 

It would be interesting to know if the Lanca- 

stock, or vice mrsd. 

The Heights, Rochdale. 




Quotations Wanted 

A contented mind is a continual feast. 


*' A quiet heart is a continual feast." This is the ver- 
Bion of Proverbs xv. 15 in Coverdale and the Bishops' 
Bible. It is nearer than any of the sentiments quoted. 
The exact words, **A contented mind is a continual 
feast," occur in Hazlitt's * English Proverbs/ 1882, p. 7; 
Bohn's * Proverbs/ 1855, p. 283, without other reference. 

Ed. Marshall. 


The lines on St. Luke, with the substitution of utilis 
for nobilis in the third and fourth lines, are ascribed by 
Popbam, in ' Selecta Poemata Anglorum/ to Mead. Can 
any one further state a better authority for, or the 
actual Eource of, the ascription to Meadi 

Ed. Marshall, 

What Cato did and Addison approved 
Cannot be wrong. 

An attempted justification of suicide found in the 
bureau of Eustace Budgell after he had drowned himself 
in the Thames, A similar apology is put bj the dra- 
matist into the mouth of Antony, who cites Cleopatra 
and Eros as instructors and guides before he slays him- 
self (' Ant. and Cleop.,* IV. ix.). \Vm. Underbill. 

. (7th s. X, 49.) 

** Life al the greatest is but a froward child, that 
must be humoured and coaxed a little till it falls asleep, 
and then all the care is over." — ^ Good-Natured Man,' 
I. i. It will be seen that the quotation was not quite 
correctly given in the inquiry, Charles Wylie. 

A dream within a dream. 

See a little Shelley-like poem by Edgar Allan Poe so 
entitled. In addition to the title, the words occur at 


Philosophical Classics for English Readers, — Loclce, By 

Alexander Campbell Eraser. (Blackwood & Sons.) 
The gloomy view of things which some of our friends 
are disposed to take is surely in a measure disproved by 
the success of a series like the ** Philosophical Classics 
for English Readers." The pessimists who hold that we 
are all of us given up to the newspapers and novel reading 
have some truth on their side ; but there is a select body 
who still care for thought and the literature in which it 
is embodied. Locke's influence has been, whether for 
good or evil, a factor in English life which has modified 
the opinions of thousands who have never read a line of 
his writings. To know about Locke from contemporary 
sources is no uncommon accomplishment; but we fear 
that there are but few who have read his works them- 
selves. This is a melancholy fact, for which little ex- 
cuse can be found, for his style is fluent and there is not 
much in any of his works that is above the comprehen- 
sion of any educated man or woman who will give to them 
a fair amount of attention. Their real difficulty consists 
not in their language, but in their relation to the politics 
and religio-philosophic speculation of the time. There 
are not many of us who can throw ourselves back two 
hundred years and look upon life and thought as our 
forefathers did when Charles II. and William of Orange 
ruled over us. Popular writers, who copv one another 
with a slavish inaccuracy which would be very amusing 
were it not so harmful, have told us over and over again 
that Locke was the first person who advocated religious 
toleration. This is untrue. There had been many 
writers, English and foreign, Protestant and Catholic, 
who before his days had argued in favour of a limited 
toleration, and this was all Locke ever claimed. Accord- 
ing to his scheme not only were Atheists to be excluded 
from the advantages of freedom, but Catholics also, on 
the ground, as Mr. Fraser tells us, that "he saw in the 
position of the Eoman Church at that time a political 
force which, on grounds of public policy, it was necessary 
to restrain as dangerous to the newly reconstituted 
state." We do not in the least believe that Locke would 
have persecuted any one for mere opinion, but he had 
not advanced far enough to see that a man may be a 
good citizen and still hold opinions which we feel would 

lead us on the highway towards anarchy if we ourselves 
entertained them. Locke's writings had a great effect on 
the mind of his contemporaries, and their influence wa» 
not spent until near the end of the eighteenth century. 
It is impossible for us, in our very limited space, to give, 
even in a skeleton fashion, an outline of Locke's opinions. 
Mr. Eraser's book of nearly three hundred pages has in 
a great measure done so, but not so fully as we could 
wish. If, however, a student masters Mr. Eraser's 
volume, and also the treatise published in 1880 by Prof. 
Fowler, he will know as much as is to be known of 
Locke and his philosophy without reading his works 
It has been said that the great defect in the writings 



[7^ S. X. Aua. 2, '90. 

of the gcLoolmen as a body, and of Albertus Magnus in 
particular, is tliat they were absolutely ignorant of the 
physical laws which govern the universe. There is much 
truth in this, though it is often put forward with comic 
exaggeration. A similar remark may be made regarding 
Locke and the philosophy which long bore his name. 
His great defect was his ignorance of history, and the 
distortion that his mind had received by living in the 
corrupting atmosphere of politics during the years in 
which things were being prepared for the revolution of 
1688. His friendship with Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl 
of Shaftesbury, did not corrupt a character which seems 
to have been remarkably elevated and pure in moral con- 
duct; but no one can read what he has left us without 
feeling that he received much harm as a thinker thereby. 

Mr. Fraaer's pages are remarkably free from pre- 
judice. There is none of that excessive laudation to 
which we have been sometimes condemned to listen — a 
style of writing almost as unpleasant as the pious bio- 
graphies of obscure wortliies which used in the last cen- 
tury to be considered edifying reading for the common 
people. On many points — some of them of vast import 
— Mr. Fraeer is in the opposite camp to Locke, and he 
sees more clearly than most men that the exigencies of 
the time tended to narrow the action of one of the most 
acute intellects which England has produced. Locke 
suffered from another defect, for which he was in no 
degree responsible. In his days there was not in English 
any clear and exact philosophical vocabulary. Each man 
who had occasion to write on matters of the higher 
thought had to make for himself a kind of philosophical 
dictionary of bis own. The Renaissance, even more than 
the Reformation, had destroyed the authority of the old 
scholastics. In Catholic countries as well as Protestant 
their huge folios remained unopened, dust-laden on the 
shelves; and the modern thinkers were the most ad- 
mired who avoided a terminology which had become 
obsolete. We see the effect of this not in Locke only, but 
in Berkeley, Spinosa, the Cambridge Latitudinarians, 
and, indeed, in nearly all men of that time who wrote 
on philosophical subjects. It can never be too strongly 
enforced that things, not words, are the subject of all 
philosophical speculation, and that to disturb a nomen- 
clature that is understood is a baneful practice. 

We trust that Mr, Eraser's volume will have many 
readers. If another edition is called for, an index would 
be a great improvement. The list of Locke's works 
given in the appendix will be of use to all future 


Popular County Histories. — Cumherland. By Richard 

S. Ferguson. (Stock.) 
CcjdBEELAND is an interesting ehireboth to the geologist 
%ind the antiquary. It is true that its natural features 
are not, on the whole, of so commanding a character as 
those of some parts of Scotland, but to the student of 
the earth's crust they are perhaps more interesting, as 
giving in a small compass so much of the history of the 
ancient state of our earth. Its human history may be 
compared with its geological character. No race which 
has ever settled in England has failed to leave its trace 
here. The flint men and the men of bronze, each of the 
families of Celtae, the Roman, the Angle, the Saxon, the 
Dane, the Norman, and later still the Fleming, have all 
been settlers here, and the blood of all of them, except, 
perchance, the first, is blended in the veins of the Cum- 
brian peasant of to-day. 

Mr. Ferguson has devoted much time and space to 
what may not unfitly be called the race elements of his 
subject. We do not say this by way of censure. In fact, 
there is not a word of what he has told us that could 
well be spared. 

The best part of the volume is unquestionably the 
portion devoted to the Roman occupation. When we 
consider how scanty are our materials and yet how very 
much has become certainly known as to this dark period 
through the good use that Mr. Ferguson and his pre- 
deceesors have made of the itineraries and ingcriptions, 
it makes us hopeful that future labourers and the chance 
discovery of inscriptions may yet give us far more know- 
ledge than we at present possess. ' 

Of the time between the withdrawal of the Roman 
legions and the Norman conquest he has little to tell; 
but the chapters relating to the forest and the great 
baronies are of peculiar interest. The wider our know- 
ledge becomes the greater seems to have been the wis- 
dom of our Norman kings— esj)ecially of the great bastard 
duke — and their ecclesiastical ministers, or lieutenants, 
as we would rather call them. Politicians of all parties 
and all lands have long agreed that, as the world is now, 
a great ecclesiastical minister for secular affairs is im- 
possible; but in the days when Norman and Saxon were * 
blending a powerful priest was the only man who could 
reconcile contending claims without being subject to the 
overwhelming temptation of endeavouring to found a 
family. The extreme wisdom of the Conqueror or his 
advisers of granting the leaders of the incoming race 
estates far apart can never be euflSciently commended. 
We cannot follow Mr. Ferguson in his travels down the 
stream of time. We must remark, however, that, unlike 
many books of the same kind, the latter chapters seem 
to have had as much care bestowed upon them as 
those relating to early times. There is a good list of 
Cumbrian books and an excellent index. 

It is proposed to publish by subscription in a limited 
edition * The Ancient Churchwardens' Accounts of North 
Elmham, 1539 to 1677,' transcribed by the Rev. Augustus 
George Lagrge, M.A., Vicar, Applications can be made to 

Mr. Agas H, Goose, Rampant Horee Street, Norwich. * 

Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 

fiatitti ta CatvtsiparHitnti. 

We must call special attention to the following notices: 

On all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such addrees as he wishes to 

to head the second communication 

J. Beet Collins ("Better fifty years of Europe than 
a cycle of Cathay "). — The line is, of course, by the 
Laureate, and the idea conveyed is, we suppose, that a 
short experience of civilization is better than a long ex- 
perience of barbarism. 

S. Illingworth Butler (" They that wash on Mon 
day").— Seel»^S. ii. 615. 

Corrigendum.— Vol. ix. p. 536, col. 2, Index, for 

'' King, C. S.," read Ring, Sir C. S., Bart. 



Editorial Communications should be addressed to" The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" — Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "—at tlie Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Cliancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception, ~ 







4 4 

CONTENTS.— N<> 241. 

VOTES -—Sir John Hawkwood, 101—* Dictionary of National 
BioerapbT * 102- Pedigree of Griffith ap Llewellyn, 103- 
Organ Bibliography, 104-Academy— American Historical 
Societies— Seventeenth and MDcteenth Century Dates, 105 
—To bedaie- Curiosities of Derivation— A Late Marriage— 
Switchba^ k Baiiway-Btrd-lore— Tippets — Folklore— War 

In Eeypt an<l Eclipses, 106. • ^ ,^ ^ 

QITERIES —Mrs Masters— Seidlitz Powders— J. Van Lennep 
—•The Ma^or of Wigan'- Stone Bridges— * Critica Nova- 
zealandica Futura'- Works on Music— Lane, 107— *The 
Gieville Memoirs —The Gospel Hours of the Day— * The 
Last Slave Ship'— Colonna Gallery— My tens— Mr. Hughes- 
Poem Wanted- Butler— *A Woman's Question ' — Sym- 
bolism, 108 — Somersetshire Societies — Brith — The Poet 

Bautra- Authors Wanted, 109. x ,-^ , ,a« 

REPLIES: — Wordsworth's 'Ode on Immortality/ 109 — 
Quaker Marriage Lower W in chendon— Scottish University 
Seals— Belgian Stove, 110— *' Pro 011a"— Penny Family— 
TranslaTions of Quintus SmyrtSBUS, 111— Pliny— Bates— 
Sterridge— V. Mo»'ti harington's shakspeare Quartos, 112 
—Mayor— Day's Work of Land, 113— Archaeology— Sign of 
Death— Ccmmisfariat, 114 Hungary Water-Forest Gate, 
115— Shape (if ihe Farth- Vincent's 'Public Education'— 
Jerry-buUder— Beeston Castle— Barwell and Warren Hast- 
ings-Silver Box Girl. 116 — Chaworth — Labour-in-Vain 
Court— Geo Bickes— Grays 'Elegy '—Macaulay's Style- 
Dukedom of Clarence— Church of Scotland— Early Age of 
Matriculation, 117—* England's Parnassus'— Study of Dante 
— Walpoie and Burleigh— Marco Sadeler- Goldsmith— Great 
Ormes Head— Church of Santa Maria -Spurs, 118. 

NOTES On BOOKS:- Thompsons * Adse Murimuth Con- 
tinuatio Chronicarum'— Pearson's * Banbury Chap-Books.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 

» » 

I : J 




A large number of lineal descendants of the 
famous soldier of fortune John Hawkwood are to 
be found in the ranks of the English peerage at the 

present time. 
(1) From tl 

daughter by 

Coggeshall, of Codham, co. Essex ; (2) through the 
marriage of Ooggeshall's daughter, Blanch, with 
John Doreward, son of John Doreward, Speaker 
of the Commons in 1399; (3) through the marriage 
of Doreward's granddaughter, Elizabeth Doreward, 
with Thomas Fotheringaye ; (4) through the mar- 
riage of Fotheringaye's daughter, Margaret, with 
Nicholas Beaupr6, of Beaupr^ Hall, co. Norfolk ; 
and (5) through the marriage of Beaupr^'s grand- 
daughter, Dorothy Beaupr6, with Sir Kobert Bell, 
Speaker of the Commons in 1675, descend: 

1. The Earl of Buckinghamshire, through the 
marriage of Dorothy, the second daughter of Sir 
Robert and Lady Dorothy Bell, with Sir Henry 
Hobart, the male lineal ancestor of the Earls of 


2. The Earl of Sandwich, through the marriage 
of Henrietta,' daughter of the second Earl of Buck- 
inghamshire, with her first husband, the first Earl 
of Belmore, and the marriage of their daughter, 
Louisa, with the sixth Earl of Sandwich. 

3. The Marquis of Lothian, through the marriage 



4. Lord Clinton, through the marriage of Eliza- 
beth Georgiana, daughter of the sixth Marquis of 
Lothian, with the nineteenth Lord Clinton. 

5. The Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, through the 
marriage of Sophia, daughter of the second Earl of 




of Sarah Albinia Louisa, daughter of the fourth 



7. The Earl of Egmont, through the marriage of 
Frances, the third daughter of Sir Robert and 
Lady Dorothy Bell, with Sir Anthony Dering, and 
the marriage of their great-great-granddaughter, 
Catherine Dering, with Sir John Perceval, Bart., 
the father of the first Earl of Egmont. 

8. The Earl of Mount Cashell, through the mar- 
riage of Helena, daughter of the first Earl of Eg- 
mont, with the first Earl of Moira, and the marriage 
of their daughter, Helena, with the first Earl of 



Lord Brabourne, through the marriage 
Mary Dering, great-granddaughter of Sir Anthony 
Dering, before named, with Sir Thomas Knatch- 
bull, Bart,, lineal male ancestor of Lord Brabourne. 

10. Earl Sondes, through the marriage of Eleanor, 
sister of Lord Brabourne, with the fourth Earl 

11. The Countess of Oourtown, daughter of the 
fourth Earl Sondes. 

12. Lord de Ramsey, through the marriage of 
Mary Julia, daughter of the fourth Earl Sondes, 
with the first Lord de Ramsey. 

13. The Earl of Winchilsea, through the mar- 
riage of Frances, daughter of Sir Edmund Bell 
and granddaughter of Sir Robert and Lady Dorothy 
Bell, with Sir Heneage Finch, lineal male ancestor 
of the Earls of Winchilsea. 

14. The Duke of Rutland, through the marriage 
of Charlotte, daughter of the second Earl of Not- 
tingham, grandson of Sir Heneage and Lady Frances 
Finch, with the sixth Duke of Somerset, and the 
marriage of their daughter, Frances, with the father 
of the fourth Duke of Rutland. 

15. Lord Forester, through the marriage of 
Katherine, daughter of the first Duke of Rutland, 
with the first Lord Forester. 

16. Lady Colville of Culross, through the mar- 
riage of her mother, Elizabeth Katherine, daughter 
of the first Lord Forester, with the second Lord 

17- The Earl of Londesborough, through the 
marriage of Cecil, daughter of the first Lord 

Forester, with the first Earl of Londesborough. 

18. The Countess of Bradford, sister of the first 
Countess of Londesborough. 

19. The Marquis of Bristol, through the mar- 





Pake of Kutland, with the second Marquis of 

Bristol. . 

20. The Countess of Clancarty, sister of the third 

Marquis of Bristol. 

21. The Earl of Aylesford, from Heneage, first 

Earl of Aylesford, grandson of Sir Heneage Finch, 
and younger brother of the second Earl of Notting- 

22. Tlie Earl of Dartmouth, through the mar- 
riage of Anne, daughter of the first Earl of Ayles- 
ford, with the first Earl of Dartmouth. 

23. Lord Sherborne, through the marriage of 
Mary, daughter of the second Lord Stawell, and 
great-granddaughter of the first Earl of Dartmouth, 
with the second Lord Sherborne. 

24. The Earl of Feversham, through the mar- 
riage of Charlotte, daughter of the second Earl of 
Dartmouth, with the first Earl of Feversham. 

26. The Earl of Eldon, through the marriage of 
Louisa, daughter of the first Earl of Feversham, 
with the second Earl of Eldon. 

26. The Earl of Ducie, through the marriage of 
Elizabeth, daughter of the third Earl of Dartmouth, 
with the second Earl of Ducie. 

27. Lord Bagot, through the marriage of Louisa, 
daughter of the third Earl of Dartmouth, with the 
second Lord Bagot. John H. Josseltn. 


Pryme's 'Autob.,' 383. Hammond's Sixteenth 
Elegy is addressed to him. 

Pp. 122-3, Ralegh. Pp. 204-5, Raleigh. 

Pp. 124-5. Sir Rd. Grenville seized some goods 
belonging to the Earl of Suffolk in Holland 
('Literse Cromwellii,' 1676, pp. 212-13). 

P. 132 a. There are some lines on the death of 
Capt. Tho. Grenville in Shenstone's fourteenth 

P. 142 a. Orembery, in Yorkshire. Some mis- 

P. 212 a. Add 'Register of Walter de Gray,* 
Surt. Soc, vol. Ivi. 

P. 233 a. John Griffith d. 1700. See Nelson's 

* Bull,' 1714, p. 263. 

P. 255 a. Ewood Hall, Brecknockshire. This 
is in the parish of Halifax, Yorkshire. Grimshaw's 

* Life ' was also written by J. Newton, 1799, rep. 
1864 ; and by William Myles, 1806, 1813. His 
only pamphlet, * On the Miracles,' was reprinted 
in the Wesl. Mag., 1819, p. 115. Three of his 
letters to Whitefield in the Leeds Mercury, Sep- 
tember 22, 1888. See also 'Life of the Countess 
of Huntingdon'; Southey's 'Wesley,' chap, xxvi.; 

* Memoir of H. More,' iii. 48, 79 ; Benson's 

* Fletcher,' 37 1 ; Sidney's ' Walker,' 249 ; * Life of 
T. Adam '; ' Life of Venn,' 1834, pref. ; Tyerman's 
'Oxford Methodists'; Denny Urlin's 'Life 


P. 255 b, L 6. For " Spencer " read Spence. 

P. 270 b. Gronow's duels. See Pryme's 'Autob.,' 



(See 6th s. xi. 105. 443; xii. 321; 7«h S. i. 25, 82, 342, 1 P. 280 b. See Junius's criticism of Mansfield's 
376; ii. 102,324,355; iii. 101, 382; iv. 123, 325, 422 ; charge in the Grosvenor case (Letter xlL, No- 
V. 3, 43, 130, 362, 463. 606 ; vii. 22, 122, 202, 402 ; viii. vember 14, 1770). 
123,382; ix. 182, 402.) 

Vol. xxni. 

p. 17 a. For " Bishops wearmouth" read Bishop- 

P. 22 b. For " Stonehewer " read Stonhewer. 

P. 27 a, 1. 2 from foot. For "simlar" read 

P. 37. J. P. Greaves. See Morell, ^ Hist. Mod. 
Phil./ 1846, ii. 285-7; 'New Theosophic Revela- 
tions,' from his MS. Journal, port, 8vo., 1847; 
* Triune Life, Divine and Human,* 1880. 

P. 38. John Greaves. John Ray calls him 
'^ that learned and curious observer of all natural 
and artificial rarities" (* Three Discourses,' 1713, 
p. 84). 

P. 39 b. Wheelock. Query Whelock ? 

P. 46 a. Bishop Green ordained Thomas Scott, 
J. Newton, and William Knight. 

P. 84 a. Komensky. Why not Comenius ? 

P. 107 b. For "Stoke-Severn" read Severn 


P. 112 a. For "Cosen" read Cosin. 

P. 113 b. For "Transactions'* read Puhlica' 

P. 117 a. George Grenville and Junius. See 

P. 296. H. Grove. See his poem prefixed to 
1. Watts's * Horse Lyricse'; Doddridge's * Gardiner,' 
1778, p. 92. 

P. 296 a, Hull Bishop's; p. 342 a, Bishop's 

P. 298 b. Bishop Grove. See Patrick's 'Autob.,' 

Pp. 330-1. Oldham ridicules the " hideous 
jargon" with which "Mad Guillim" fills "his 
barbarous volume" ('Satire touching Nobility'). 
See Scott's ' Rob Roy,' chap. x. 

P. 337 a. Trindon. Query Trimdon ? For 
" at the North Bailey " read in. 

P. 347. Bishop Gunning's patronage of a learned 
Dissenter, see Nelson's *Bull,' 1714, p. 168; 
' Life of Bishop Stillingfleet,' 25. 

P. 349 b. For " Fontenelles' " read Fontenelle^i. 

P. 354 a. An extract from and commendation 
of Gurnall's book at the beginning of Baxter^s* 
'Reformed Pastor.' 

P. 356 a. There is an edition of Edmund Gur-> 
nay's ' Corpus Christi,' 12mo., London, forL Boler*' 
at the Marigold in PauFs Churchyard, 1630. 
Dedicated to the very worshipfull Richard Stubbe, 
esquire, who had been his godfather. Gurnay alsoi 



7 "• S. X. AuQ. 9, '90.] 



CO nmends his book to Richard Stubbe's two 
daighters, viz., "my cousen Yeluerton and the 
lacy Strange"; also ' "^ 

" t> Mr. Robert Rudde of St, Florence in Southwales, 
an 1 Mr. Henry Godly of Onehouse in SuflFolke, my very 
gO')d and learned Tutors, and to my singular friend Mr. 
Doctor Porter of Cambridge, and to my Chrifltian friends 
th<3 parishioners of Edgfield," 

Pp. 360-1. Hudson Gurney. See Pryme's 




Pp. 388-9. H. Guy. See 'Topog. and Geneal./ 
iii 380 ; Gent Mag., 1770, p. 415. 

P. 413 a. "Bishop Ryder's" is not a place, but 
a church in memory of Bishop Ryder at Birming- 

P. 415 b. For "Stamford" read Stanford. 

P. 420 a. Praise of Bishop Hacket for his care 
of Lichfield Cathedral in the dedication of Degge's 
* Parson's Counsellor/ 1681. 

P. 421. Hacket, fanatic. See Hammond, 
^ Directory and Liturgy,' 1646, pp. 45, 72. 

P. 439 b. Scorton is not near Scarborough. 

W. C. B. 

P. 27 a, 1. 10. For "Captandi" read Cogitandi. 
P. 43 b, 1. 38. After " Briggestoke " add now 


P. 133 a. 1. 43. After 

from his wif 

P. 157 b, 1. 8. For "elected" read appointed 

)f Audley 


Wick " read Brooke. 

P. 255 b, 1. 17 from bottom. For "Coldwell" 
read Caldwell. 


PRINCE OF WALES, 1039 TO 1063. 

(See 7'** S. ix. 368 ; x. 32.) 

Roderic the Great, King of Wales 843 to 877, 
married Angharad, daughter of Meuric, and on his 
death the kingdom was divided amongst his three 
sons, from all of whom Griffith ap Llewellyn was 

Anaraud, the eldest, succeeded to North Wales, 
and died 915, leaving two sons, Idwal-Voel and 
Elis, but Howel-Dha, their cousin, assumed the 
regency of the state, and on the death of Idwal in 
948 was elected king. 

Elis was killed in 940, leaving a son, Cynan. 

Cynan left a daughter Trawst, who married 

Sitsylht was one of the eight tributary kings 
who did homage to Edgar of England in 973, and 
rowed his barge down the river Dee to Chester (see 
Roger of Wendover, Florence of Worcester, Mat- 
thew of Westminster). He died at the close of the 
century, leaving a son Llewellyn, the father of 

Cadeth, the second son of Roderic the Great, 
succeeded as King of South Wales, and almost 
immediately dispossessed r his younger brother 
Mervyn of Powys Land, the third division of Wales, 
and reigned in his stead. His country was ravaged 
by the Danes in 913, and he died in that year^ 
leaving a son Howel-Dha, mentioned above. 

Howel-Dha (Howell the Good) was thus king of 
two-thirds of the Principality, in 915 regent of the 
remaining third, and in 948 king of all Wales. In 
921 he suffered defeat by Edward the Elder, and 
in 927 by Athelstan (Hoveden, Malmesbury, and 


P. 268 a, h 9 from bottom. For "1628" read Florence). In 916 his queen' was captured at 

P. 268 b, J. 11 from bottom. Omit '^near.'* 

the storming of Brecknock by Ethelfreda, Lady of 
Mercia and daughter of Alfred the Great (Henry 

P. 330 a, 1. 32,sqg. There is something wrong ^f Huntingdon and Florence). He died 948, 

here, but it is hard to say what was meant. 

J. S. 

P. 393. Guyon's biographer is particularly un- 
fortunate in his spelling of foreign names. One 
could easily forgive such small slips as, e. g. , " honved '^ 
for honvidy "Kaplona" toiKapolna; but it would 
require the talent of guessing and patience of a 
ChampoUion to decipher, e. gr., ^* Sukoro,'' which is 
evidently meant for Pdkozd, the only clue to this 
name being the date of the defeat of the Ban of 
Croatia. Further, " Schewechat " should be 
Schivechat, and "Dembrinski" is the misspelt 
name of the well-known Polish General Dembinshi. 
Mrs. Guyon's maiden name is also wrongly given ; 
it should be SpUnyi, and not "Spleny." Judging 
by the list of authorities appended to the article 
the writer has not consulted a single book on the 
history of the War of Independence in Hungary in 
1848-9, though several of them have appeared in 


L, L. K. 

leaving a son, Owain. 

Mervyn, the youngest of Rodericks sons, received 
Powys Land (Mid Wales); he lived some years 
after his expulsion by Cadeth, dying about the 
beginning of the tenth century, and left a son, 

Llewellyn appears to have regained some part at 
least of his father's kingdom from Howel-Dha, as 
he is mentioned by Roger of Wendover and Mat- 
thew of Westminster as aiding Edmund Ironsides 
in a war with Cumbria in 946, and described as 
King of Demetria (the south coast of Wales). He 
left an only daughter, Angharad. 

Angharad married Owain ap Howel, mentioned 
above, and thus united the houses of Cadeth and 
Mervyn, sons of Roderic. 

Owain ap Howel and Angharad left two sons, 
Meredith and Enion. Owain died in 987. 

Meredith had previously, in 985, conquered 
North Wales and Anglesey, and on the death of 



[T*** S. X. Aug. 9, '90. 

his father became King Paramount of all Wales. 
He was possibly one of the five kings who fell at 
the battle of Penhoe, won by the Danes in 1000. 
Meredith left an only daughter, Aogharad. 

Angharad, daughter of Meredith, married Lle- 
wellyn ap Sitsylht (whose pedigree I have given 
above)^ and united the three branches of the 
family of Roderic the Great. 

Llewellyn ap Sitsylht thus became King Para- 
mount of Wales from about 1015 to 1023, and his 
reign was peaceful, but he was slain in the latter 
year by lago ap Idwal. After his death Angharad 
married Consyn, one of her nobles. Llewellyn and 
Angharad left one son^ Griffith, the subject of this 

Griffith ap Llewellyn killed Tago ap Idwal, King 
of North Wales, in 1038, and Griffith ap Tudor, 
King of South Wales (grandson of Eoion ap Owain), 
in 1055, gradually extending his power over the 
whole Principality. In 1055 he ravaged Hereford, 
slew Leofgar the bishop, and helped to reinstate 
his father-in-law, the banished Earl Algar of 
Mercia. He, however, retreated before Earl Harold 
in 1061, was deposed 1063, and murdered by his 
own people August 5, 1064. Harold placed his 
half-brothers Ebiwallon and Bleddyn, the sons of 
his mother's marriage with Consyn, on his throne. 
Griffith married Edgitha, sister of Edwin and Mor- 
car and granddaughter of Leofric, Earl of Mercia, 
and Godiva, of Coventry renown, and left issue. 
After his death Edgitha married his conqueror 
Harold, and thus in 1066 was for a few months 
Queen of England. 

*'Ipse (Harold II.) Edgivam sororem Edwini et 
Morcari uxorem habebat, qu8e prius Gritfridi for- 
tissimi Regis Guallorum conjunx fuerat ^^ (see 
Orderic 492d and William of Jumi^ges). 




{Continued from 7^^ S. ix. 504.) 

Saalscbiitz. Geschicbte der IVIasik b^i den Hebraern. 
Nebst Anhang iiber die hebr. Orgeln. Berlin, 1829. 8vo. 

Samber (M. J. B.}. Maunductio ad Orgaaum. Salz- 
burg. 1704. 8vo. 

Samber (M. J. B ). Continuatio ad Maunductionem 
orgaicam. Salzburg, 1707. Svo. 

Sammluno: einiger Nacbrichten von beriihmten Orgel- 
werken in Deutscbland. Breelau, 1757 Svo. 

Sattler (H ) Die Orgel nach den Grundsatzen der 
neuesten Orfc/elbaukunst. Laiigensalzi. 1863. 8vo, 

Scheibe (J. G. P.). Zeichnurg und Beschreibung der 
Orgelpedal Hiifsklaviatur. Gorlitz, 1846. 8vo. 

Scheibler (H.). Der physikalische und musikalische 
Tonmesser. Kssen, 1834. 8vo. 

Scheibler (H.). Anieitung die Orgel vermittelst der 
Stosse u. dea Metronoms koiukt gleichschwebend zu 
stimmen. Crefuld, 1834. 8^0. 

Scheibler (H.). Mitteilungen iiber das Weaentliche 
des (bei Badeker in Essen erschienenen) mueikalidchen 
u, physikalischen Tonmessers. Crefeld, 18^6. Svo. 

Scheibler (H.). Ueber mathematische Stimmung. 

Temperaturen und Orgelstimmung nach Vibrationa- 
DiflF' renzen den Stoaaen. Crefeld, 1^36. Svo. 

Scheibler (H.). An K^aay on the Theory and Practice 
of Tuning in general. London, n.d. 12mo. 

Schemit-Mar6chal (H.). Die Altare und die grosse 
Orgel in der Stifta und Pfarrkirohe zu St. teodegar in 
Luzern und ihre Renovition. 1862. 

ScLemit-Marechal (H.). Notice aur le ejrand Orgue 
de la Ci^thedra!e de Veraailles, reconstruit par Cavaille- 
Coll. Versailles, 1864. >svo. 

Schlick (A). Spiegel der Orgelmacher u. Organisten. 
Mt-ntz, 1512. Small 4to. -, 

Schlick (A.), Spiegel 'ler Orgelmacher u. Organisten. 
Berlin [187U]. Svo. — A reprint of the original work, 

Schlimbach (G. C. P.). Ueber die Struktur, Erhal- 
tung, Stimmung, Priifung, &c., der Orgel. Leipzig, 1843. 
Svo. - 

Schmahl (H.). Die Orgel der Hauntkirche zu Altona 
u. ihre Renovation in den Jahren 1866 u. 1867. Ham* 

burg, 1868. 8vo. 

Schmahl (H.). Die Orgel in der Kirche zu Wands- 
beck. Hamburg, 1869. Svo. 

Schrhahl (H.). Nachrichten iiber die Entatehung, 
VergrofZerung und Renovirung der Ort^el der St. Catha^ 
rinenkirche in Hamburg. Hamburg, 1869. . Svo. 

Schmahl (H.). Die Orgel in derKirchho^sKapetfe der 
St. Jacobikirche zu Hamburg, Hnmburg, 1869. Svo. 

Schmahl (H.). Der Umbau, die Renovation u, Ver- 
groazerung der Orgel in der Kirche zu Billwarder an 
der Bille im Jahre 1870. durch den Ogelbauer Ch, H. 
WoU'steller aus Hamburg. Hamburg, ISTO. Svo. ' 

Schmahl (H.). Die Anbahnung u. Auafuhrung des 
Orgelbaues in der St. Johannia (norder) Kirche za Al- 
tona. Hamburg, 1873, Svo. . . 

Schmahl (H.). Der Umbau und Neubau der Orgel in 
der Qhriat und Garnisonakirche zu Rendsburg. Ham- 
burg, 1879. Svo. * • : - 

Schmahl (H,). Die von den Orgelbauern Marcuaen u. 
Sohn in Apenrade neu erbaute Orgel in der Kirche za 
Alt-Rahlstadt. Hamburg, 1880, Svo, ^ ' : 

Schmahl (H.). Die von Ch. H. Wolfateller neu auf- 
gebaute Orgel in der St. Thomas Kirche zu Hamburg. 
Hamburg, 1885. Svo, • 

Schmahl (H.). Die pneumatische Kaatenlade mit 
Rohren-pneumatik ganzlich ohne Peberdruck, fUr Or- 


Prolusio T. De Organia. Pro 


geln. Hamburg, 1887. 
Schmerbauch (G. H.). 

luaio II. De Organia hydraulicia. 

Schtnidt und Hartmann. Zeitung fiir Orgel, Clavier 
und Fliigelbau. Weimar, 1847. 4to. 

Schmitt (G. M.). Organiete practicien, contenant de 

Thiatoire de Porgue, aa deacription et la maniere de la 
toucher. Paris, 1855. Svo. 

Schneider (W.). Lehrbuch daa Orgelwerk nach alien 
aeinen Teilen Kennen. M^raeburg, 1823. Svo. ^ 

Schneider (W.). Auafiihrliche Beschreibung der 
groaaen Dom-Orgel zu Merseburg. Halle, 1829. Svo. 

Schneider (W.\ Die Org Iregiater, ihre Entatehung, 
Name, Ban, Benandlung, Beuntzung und Miachung. 
Leipzig, 1835. Svo. 

Schott (G.). Mechanica Hydraulico-pneumatica ad 
eminentias, Prancofurteus, 1657. 4to, 

Schubert (P. L.). Die Orgel, ihr Ban, ihre Oeachichte 
und Bohandlung. 2te Auf. Leipzig, 1874. Svo. 

Schubiger (P, Anselm). Muaikalische Spicilegien liber 
das Liturgiache Drama, Orgelbau, und Org hpiel, das 
Auaaerliturgische Lied und die Inatrumentalmusik dea 
MitteUltera. Berlin, 1876. Svo. 

Schutze (P. W.). Htndbuch zu der praktischen 
Orgelachule. 7te Auf. Leipzig, 1884. 12mo. ' . t--^ 

Schyven & Cie, (P.). ^Notice aur le nouveau Syateme 

d'orgues a dedoublemeut ou a jeux tranaformatifs in- 



7tb s. X. Aug. 9, '90.] 



J h -H 

^ente par MM. P. Schyven & Cie. Bruxelles, 1881 

c vo. 

Seidel (J. J.). Die Orgel urid ihr Bau. Breslau, 18.44. 

:>V0. ' - < f 

Seidel (J. J.). Het orgel en deszelfs zamenstel, vert. 

loor S. Meijer. Groningen, 1845. 8^0. 

Seiilel (J. J.). The organ and its construction. Trans- 
lated from the German. London, 1852. 8vo. 

Shepherdson (W.). A descripiive account of the 
great organ built by Herr Schuize for the pariah church, 
Doncaster. Sheffi-Id, 1862. ^vo. 

Shepherdaon (\Y' ). The organ, hmts on its construc- 
tion, purchase, an(i preservation. London, 1873. 12mo. 

"'" /o i..r-.:_ji jjjjj historiaches Lebensbild 


Silbermann (Gottfried). 

von L. Moser. L«ngenaHtza, 1857. 

Serge (G. A.). Zuverlassi^^e Anweissung, Klaviere und 
Orgeln gt^horig zu temperiereu und zu stimmen, &c. 

Leipzig, 1758. 4to. 

Sorge (G.^ A.). Bei der Einweihung d. durch den 
Kunsterfahrenen Orgelb>iuraei8ter Herrn H. Heiden- 
reich zu Gerolsgriin ruhmlichst erbauten neuen Orgel- 

werke. Hof, 1771. 4to. 

Sorge (G. A.). Der in den Rechen- und Messkunst 
wohl erfahrene Orgelbaumeister, &c. Lobenstein, 1773. 
4to. > 

Spark (Dr.). Choirs and organs, their proper positions 
in churches. 1852. , , 

Sponael (J.). Orgel historic. Niirnberg, 1771. 8vo. 

Stainer (J.). The Organ. London, 1877. 4to. 

Stehlin (S.). Anleitung zur Behandlung und Beur- 
teilung einer Orgel. Wien, 1861. 8vo. 

Stein (A.). Praktischer Ratkjeber zur griindlichen 
Anweisun^ Kkviere, Orcein, und Fortepiano selbst rein 
fttimmen zu lernen. Leipzig, 1830. 8vo. 

Stohrins de Organis. Leipzig 1693. 

Sutton (F. H.). Church organs, their position and 
construction. Third eaition. London, 1883. 4to. 

Switzer (Stephen). An introduction to a general 
system of hydrostaticks and hydraulicks. 2 vols. London, 
1729. ' 4to. — Vol. ii. pp. 348-51 contains description, 
with plates, of a pair of organs found by means of water. 

Sydney. The grand organ for the Town Hall of 
Sydney, New South Wal^^s. — De-'criptive circular issued 
by the builders, Messrs. W. Hill & Son, London. 

Sydney. A musical ^iant for Australia.— PaZi Mall 
Oazeite, June 8, 1889, description of the grand organ in 
the Sydney Town Hall. 

* * # 

24, Brook Street, W. 

Carl A. Thimm^ F.K.G.S. 

(To he continued,) 

Academy. — Nares remarks on this word that 

anciently it was accented on the first syllable ; 

and he gives as folio n's t^o quotations to establish 
the point: 

Being one of note before he was a man. 
Is still remembered in that Acaiemy. 

Beaumont and Fletcher, * Gust, of Country,' II. i. 

The fiend has much to do that keeps a school, 

Or is the father of a family ; 

Or governs but a country Academy. 

Ben Jonson, 'Sad Shepherd,' III. i. 

He then says that Johnson speaks of this old 
Bccentaation, which he quotes * Love's Labour's 
Lost' (I. i.) to prove, although, says Nares, edi- 
tions now have academe. What are we to under- 
stand from all this? The lines he cites himself, 

which I have given above, lie under precisely the 

same necessity of being read as oxytone. It makes 
a much better Eotjlish word, to my thinking, as 
academe than as academy. It would also conform 
to the Greek accent and true pronunciation 

'AKa877/x€ta. 0. A. Ward. 


American Historical Societies. — An Ameri- 
can correspondent has kindly sent to me a list of 
the historical societies of the United States and 
Canada. If you give it a place in 'N. & Q.' it 
may be of service to your readers : 

Maine Historical Society, Portland, Maine. 
' NeW Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, N.H. 

Rhode Iplaitd Historic! Society, Providence, R.I. 

New York Historical Society, 2nd Astor llch Street, 
^Jew York. 

Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, Conn. 

New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, 19, 
West 44 h Street, New York. 

Long Island Historical Society, Brooklyn, New York, 

Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. 

Aiuerican Aiitiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 

Vermont Historical Society, Montpellier, Vt, 

New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, N.J. 

Pennsylvania Historical Society, 1300, Locust Street, 


Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, Md. 

Iowa Historical Society, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Wisconsin Historical Society, Madison, Wis. 

Smithsonian Institution, Wanhington, D.C. 

Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minn. 
Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Va. 
Georgia Historical Society, S ivannah, Ga. 
South Carolina Historical Society, Charleston, S.C. 
New Brunswick Historical Society, St. John, N.B. 
Worcester Society of Antiquity, Box 732, Worcester 


Delaware Historical Society, Wilmington, Del. 

Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas, 

Southern Historical Society, Richmond, Va. 

Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort, Ky. 

Chicago Historical Society Ghicngo. 

BuflFalo Historical Society, Buffalo, N.Y. 

Pilgrim Society. Plymouth, Ma-^s. 

Canada Literary and Historical Society, Quebec. 

La Society Hi^torique de Montreal, Jacques Cartier, 
Ecole Nt>rmale, Rue Sberbrooke, Montreal, Canada. 

Prince Edward Island Historical Society, Charlotte- 
town, P E.I. 

Michigan State Historical Society, Lansing, Michigan, 

Nebraska State Historical Society, Lincoln, Nebraska, 

Manitoba Historical and Scientific Society, Box 1266, 
Winnipeg. Canada. 

New Haven Colony Historical Society, New Haven, 

Seventeenth and Nineteenth Century 

Dates. — During a recent inquiry I lighted upon a 
curious discovery, which may be as interesting and 
novel to others as it was to myself. This is that 
these two centuries exactly correspond as to day 
and date, so that knowing the day of the week of 
any date of this century, one can at once fix the 
day of the corresponding date of the seventeenth 
century. Thus, July 14, 1890, being a Monday, 

it will be found that July 14, 1690, was also a 




[7tb S. X. Aug. 9, '90. 

which the weekday of one is known. It is need- 
less to dwell upon the convenience and usefulness 
of this happy coincidence. 


Monday ; and so with any other two dates of the old popular rhymes, which, outside of Cham- 


To Sedate.— Dr. John Owen, the Noncon- 
formist divine, uses the expression "to sedate 
these contests/' in the sense of to allay or to bring 
to an end. . This is not a verb that has won the 
favour of modern authors, but it is probable enough 
that it had currency when Owen used it. The 
phrase quoted occurs in the preface to vol. viii. 
(p. 48) of the ^ Works/ as published by JohnRtone 
and Hunter. It would be interesting to find a 
similar usage in another seventeenth-century writer. 

Thomas Bayne. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

Curiosities of Derivation. — Some years since 
a writer of eminence expressed in ^N. & Q.' his 
intention of making a collection of the most re- 
markable curiosities of derivation which came in 
his way. Here is one which may perhaps obtain 
a place. Cobbett says, " At a village (certainly 
named by some author [sic]) called Inkpen" 
C Rural Rides,' 1853, p. 36). Ed. Marshall. 

A LATE Marriage.— The following letter from 
the Times of December 29, 1887, seems worthy of 
preservation in *N. & Q.' It is headed ^* A Fact 
for the late Sir George Cornewall Lewis": 

Sir, — In the registers of this church (St, Alphege, 
Greenwich) I have found the following entry : •* Mar- 
riages.— Nov. 18, 1685. — John Cowper of this pariah, 
alsman in Queen Elizabeth's College, aged 108 years, and 
Margarett Thomas, of Charlton, in Kent, aged 80 years, 
by licence of ye Lord Bishop of Rochester, and leave of 
ye governours of ye Draipers' Company." 

Yours faithfully, 

Brooke Lambert, Vicar. 
December 26. 


Switchback Railway. — According to a book- 
seller's catalogue there is a large folding plate in 
Lord Baltimore's ^ Gaudia Poetica ' (Augustse, 
1770) representing ** flying mountains," i. e.^ a 

switchback railway, in St. Petersburg. 

L. L. K. 

Bird-lore : the Robin and Wren. 


author of ^ Mary Anerley ' has the following. 
Lieutenant Oarraway, Customs officer, speaks in 
regard to Robin Lyth, free-trader, *^ ' Aha, my 
Robin, fine Robin as you are, I shall catch you 
piping with your Jenny Wren to-night ! ' The 
lieutenant shared the popular ignorance of simplest 
natural history." It is certainly singular that the 
wren should be regarded as the mate of the robin, 
but Mr. Blackmore's remark can be corroborated 
in a popular impression in Fifeshife. I have little 
doubt this is derived to a considerable extent from 

bers's collection, have been quoted to me in evi- 
dence of the notion. How the misconception arose 
perhaps one instructed in bird-lore could fally ex- 
plain. I should think it due to a bit of poetic 
licence rather than an error on the part of the 


W. B. 

Tippets. — There has been much difference of 
opinion as to what this vestment, allowed by the 
canon to non-graduates, is like. Clearly, I think 
it is not " the scarf," as stated by the late lamented 
Mr. G. French. In the church of Draycott, in the 
Moors, in Staffordshire, is an effigy in stone of a 
rector, 1512, habited in surplice, tippet, and stole. 
A drawing of this would surely settle this ques- 
tion. Will any Staffordshire reader help me by 
visiting this church and making me a rough sketch? 

K. H. Smith. 


Folk-lore: Butterfly Prognostication. 

" A white butterfly settles on the wild parsley growing 
near : it is the first I have seen this year, so I shall eat 
white bread till spring comes round again, which does 
not seem to be such an advantage as in olden days. Of 
course everybody knows that a brown butterfly means 
brown bread.** 

I noted this in an article entitled *A Day Off' at 
p. Ixv in the ^' Nursing Supplement " of the Hos- 
pitaL I crave pardon for not knowing the date of 
the issue. I can only say that I was reading the 
number as a new one on July 11, when I was 
pleasantly interrupted and forgot to make a memo- 

randum of the date. 

St. Swithin. 

War in Egypt and Eclipses of the Moon. 

In an article published in the United Service 
Magazine for June last on the battle of Waterloo 
and Wellington's arrangements before it, Col. 
Maurice incidentally remarks that Lord Wolseley's 
plans for night marches in the Nile campaign were 
twice upset by the occurrence of eclipses of the 
moon. It happens, however, that only one eclipse 
of the moon occurred during that campaign, which 
was on Oct. 4, 1884, the middle of which took 
place in Egypt about midnight. In case it should 
be thought that reference is also intended to the 
Arabi campaign in Lower Egypt in 1882, which 
practically terminated with the battle of Tel-el- 
Kebir in September, it may be mentioned that 
no eclipse of the moon occurred during the whole 
of that year. Both in 1882 and 1884 the Astro- 
nomer Eoyal had furnished, at the request of 
the War Office (as we learn from the July 
number of the Observatory), lists of the times of 
rising and setting of the moon in Egypt ; and in 
1884 information was appended with regard to 
the eclipse in October, particulars of which were, 
as usual, also given in the Nautical Almanac for 
that year ; the only change necessary in adapting 
the Greenwich times to Egypt being the addi- 


7<»> S. X. AuQ. 9, '90. ] 



tion of the number" representing the longitude of 

he place. 

OoL Maurice's expression *^ twice" 

W. T. Lynn. 

must be pure inadvertence. 


«, t 



. We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Mrs. Masters, the Poetess. — Boawell writes, 
towards the end of the 'Life of Johnson' (vol. iv. 
p. 246, edited by Birkbeck Hill): 

"She [Mrs. Gardiner] told me, she had been introduced 
to [Dr. Johnson] by Mrs. Masters, the poetess, whose 
volumes he revised, and, it is said, illuminated here and 
there with a ray of his own genius." 

There is no work by Mary Masters in the Bodleian 
Library. A few weeks ago I bought her ' Poems 
on Several Occasions/ in one volume, 1733. The 
date renders it in the highest degree unlikely that 
this work can have been revised by Johnson; and 
the friend whose services are acknowledged in the 
preface is probably T. Scott, who contributes some 
poems, prmted at the end of the volume. 
Mary Masters publish other volumes of verse; or 
^.was Boswell mistaken in supposing that her pro- 
auctions were revised by Johnson ? 0. E. D. 



* Seidlitz Powders. — When were these powders 
which, apparently, are called after Seidlitz, in 
Bohemia, where there are saline mineral works 
first used in England? They certainly were not 
very common in country places before the middle 
of this century, although they may long before 
-have been known in the larger towns. I find in 
1825 an advertisement of the Cheltenham Seidlitz 
Powders, prepared only by Alder & Co., chemists 
to the Duke of Gloucester, 120, High Street, 



George 0. Boase. 

36, James Street, Buckingham Gate, S.W. 

[Seidlitz gives its name to a German noble family, 
members of which have resided in England.] 

J. Van Lennep. — Can any of your readers tell 
us the titles of the English versions of the novels 
of J. Van Lennep, the Dutch novelist ? We only 
know of two—" Rose of Dekama. Translated by 
Francis Woodley. Library of Foreign Romance. 
1847;^ " The Adopted Son. Translated by E. W. 
Hoskin. New York, 1847." N. M. and A. 

•> . 

'The Mayor of Wig an. 


The Mayor of Wigan, a tale. To which is added The 
Invasion, a Fable. By Hillary Butler, Esq. London : 
printed for Messrs. Owen, Temple Bar; Wilcox, in the 
Strand ; Davis, in Piccadilly ; and John Child, at the 
Lamb in Paternoster Row. 1760. 8vo. 40 pp. 

I have long been looking for the above book, the 
J title of which is transcribed from Col. Fish wick's 

Lancashire library. He there refers to a copy to 
be found in the British Museum Library; but upon 
inquiry I find there is no copy in the Museum, nor 
ever has been. In the Monthly Review for the 
year 1760 the book is thus briefly described: " A 
dirty story, poorly told.'' Can any reader give me 
any information about the work, which must be 
very scarce ? 


H. T. F. 

The Stone Bridges in St. Martin's in the 
Fields and in Paddington. — Where were these 
bridges ? The one is mentioned in the first volume 
of the ' Middlesex County Records/ p. 235 : 

« Dec. 30, Elizabeth 39. True Bill that on the said 
day in Paddington, co. Midd., on a certain bridge called 
Stonebridge, John Moore and Francis Palmer, both of 
London, Yeomen, assaulted John Apshawe, and robbed 
him of eight shillings/' 

The stone bridge in the parish of St. Martin's in 
the Fields is mentioned at p. 242 in similar terms; 
but on this occasion the thief got off with a horse, 
several head of game, 800 eggs, and a black 
woollen cloak. In both cases these highway 
robbers were sentenced to be hung. 

E. Walford, M.A» 

7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

^ Critica Novazealandica Futura/ — Can any 
of your correspondents give me information con- 
cerning the author, or authors, of a pamphlet I 
have in my possession ? The title-page runs as 

Critica Novazealandica Fcitura. | A | Notable and 
Eight Marvellous edition | of the | Melodrame | of 
Old Mother Hubbord, | Forseen in the Vista of Futurity 

by the | Telescopic Art of that most erudite doctor | 

AlfraganusTrismegistus. | To be published in the country 

of New Zealand | a.I). 3211, | And now prae-brought- 

forth for the edification | of the | English Reader. | The 

British Anteprint | Cambridge | W. P. Grant | And 

Chapman and Hall, Strand, London. | mdcccxxxvii. | 
82 pages. 

Alex. H. Turnbull. 

Works on Music. — Will some one kindly 
inform me who wrote 'Musical Recollections of 
the Last Half-Century/ 2 vols., Tinsley, 1872 ; 
also supply any information as to La Borde's ' Essai 
sur la Musique/ 4 vols., 1780, Paris, published 

anonymously ? 

W. H. 


Lane. — Sir Robert Lane, a Northamptonshire 
landowner, was concerned in raising local levies of 
troops for defence of the border in 1750. This 
would be within Shakspere's ken as an element of 
discord, and so serve to emphasize his remarks in 
sonnet No. 107: 

Peace proclaims olives of endless age, 

supposed to refer to the accession of King James L, 
in 1603, as removing a constant source of war. I 
assume that Sir Robert Lane is the same magnate 
who maintained a company of actors for a few years 



[7th s. X. Aua. 9, '90. 

about 1580, but canDOt trace his seat, residence, or 
family connexions. 

A. Hall. 

13, Paternoster Row, E.G. 

' The Grevillb Memoirs/ — In which edition 

of the first series were the suppressions first made? 
Oan any reader point out, by reference to the first 
edition, what these suppressions were 1 

Gr. F. R, B. 

I y 

The Hours of the Day in the Gospels. 

There is a difference of opinion as to the way in 
which the hours of the day are counted in the Gospel 
of St. John. Alford and others suppose that the 
Evangelist counts twelve hours in the day, accord* 
ing to the Jewish method in use at the time, 
which is found in the other Gospels. Bishop 
Westcoto and others Btippose that he used the 
modern method of counting twelve hours to noon, 
and then twelve more to midnight ; and in sup- 
port of this view the stories of the martyrdom of 
Polycarp and Pionius are quoted as showing that 
this method of counting the liours was in use in 
Asia Minor, where John is supposed to have 
written the Gospel. The inference drawn from 
these two stories is open to question. In the case 
of Pionius it is argued that *'the tenth hour'^ can 
hardly have been 4 p.m., because martyrdoms 
usually took place in the forenoon. Can any 
reader of 'N. & Q/ recall any evidence as to 
(1) the method of counting the hours in Asia 
Minor ; (2) the hours at which martyrs were 
publicly executed ? J. A. 0. 

*The Last Slave Ship.' — Can any of your 

readers inform me when the last capture of a slave 
ship engaged in the Transatlantic slave trade took 
place? There is an article in a recent Scribner 
called * The Last Slave Ship,' which describes the 
successful landing of a cargo of negroes in Cuba in 
1859. Now I am sure that several captures took 
place subsequently to that date, and that the 
trade was not extinct for some years afterwards. 



CoLONNA Gallery, Rome. — Where could I see 

a catalogue or description of the pictures belonging 
to this gallery as it was in 1802 or 1803? 


Mytens. — I have a fine three-quarter portrait 
of a lord mayor, in a dress of the Elizabethan 
period, showing a portion of a gold chain upon 
each shoulder. Upon the left side is painted, in 
letters nearly an inch in height, " ^Et^atis suse 83,'' 
1628. The arms are painted underneath. Shield, 
red ground, saltire, brown bars, and four martlets. 
Can any one inform me whom the portrait repre- 

sen ts ? 

E. Lander. 

122, Upper Grosvenor Road, Tunbridge Wells. 



According to a paragraph quoted 

* Literary Anecdotes ' (vol v. p. 697), a certain 
Mr. Hughes edited Shakespeare. Can any reader 
of * N. & Q.' tell me who this Haghes was? Was 

did this edition appear ? 

Poem and 

(1677-1720); andwfcen 

G. F. K. B. 

Wanted. — It is believed 

that about the year 1800, or perhaps a little later, 
a humorous and satirical poem, describing the 
adventures of a military subaltern in India, was 
published. The hero was named ^Tom Raw." 
An amateur draughtsman made a series of designs 
to illustrate these verses ; the designs are fifty-two 
in number, and coloured. Can a reader of 

N. & Q 

author, and the draughtsman? 

L ■ 

' Butler Family.' 

N. & Q 

7*** S. ix. 300, of my work on Butlers in America 
encourages my hope of tracing my lineage across 

the water. 

Mr. Mark 

nard Castle, to write me particulars regarding a 
British family of Butlers which may prove to be 
connected with my own. My earliest American 
ancestor was Stephen, whopo first appearance was 
in Boston about 1635. He was then a boy, and 
his mother, the widow Butler, had been long mar- 


Now the 

James D. Butler. 

Ever made by the Hand above 1 

Did M 

If so, in 

what edition of her writings can it be found? If 
not, who was the author? J. Rose. 

West Dulwich. 

Symbolism.— Peter Vischer's great work^ the 

shrine of S. Sebald, at Nuremberg, is supported by 
colossal snails. What is their significance ? On 
the back of the eagle lectern in the cathedral at 
Aix la Chapelle there is a displayed bat, which 
confronts the reader. Has any authoritative 
explanation of its introduction ever been given? 
One may please oneself with fancies ; but I should 


name Stephen was rare. Of over thirty thousand 
Oxfordians between the years 1571 and 1622 only 
eighty-six were named Stephen, Stephen Butler 
is a name I have never discovered in any English 
pedigree, though I have sought it often and long. 
One of that name has, however, been mafle known | 
to. me by Mr. BuHen. This Stephen, son of 
George Butler, of Fen Drayton, and of Tewin, co. 
Herts — so named after his mother's father — was 
born after 1577, d. 1639 in Belturbet, Ireland. 
A younger brother, or some other kinsman, may 
have been father of my Stephen. Any genealogist 
who can confirm or confute my conjecture will do 
me a great favour. 

Madison, Wis., U.S. 

'A Woman's Qqestion/ — A poem with the 

above title is generally attributed to Mrs. E. B. 
Browning. The poem begins : 

Do you know you have aeked for the costliest thing 

7"" 8i X. AiTG, 9, '96.] 



1 ke to know what the artists themselves intended 

t D set forth. 

4i I * 

« k^i- 

St. Swithiw. 





r le- 

Somersetshire Antiquarian Societies. 


thould be much obliged, to any one who would 
Icindly give me the names and headquarters of any 
antiquarian or archaeological societies existing 
in Somersetshire, other than the Somersetshire 
Archaeological and Natural History Society. I 
believe there are some smaller local societies. 



/ • 

t } 

Brith, — The above is a word in common use in 
this part of the country, which does not appear in 
the * New Dictionary.* It denotes the young plants, 
called elsewhere/^ quick," of which thorn hedges are 
made. Can any of your readers suggest its deri- 

vation ? 


C. Soames. 

Mildenhall Rectory, Marlborough. 

The Poet Bautra. — Who was the poet Bautra 
in the following quotation ? 

_ _ I 

'* It is of no conBequence what you and I do, as the 
king's fool Angeli said to the poet Bautra, urging him 
to put on his hat at the royal dinner-table." ^ 

Where can I find the whoL 



Quotations Wanted 

Forgiveness may be spoken with the tongue, 
^•^^^orgiveness may be written with the pen; 
, But think not that the parchment and mouth pardon 
Will e'er eject old hatreds from the heart. 



A setting sun 


Should leave a track of glory in the sky 

' V 

J. D. 

Naufragium rerum est mulier malefida marito. 

-' "' ^^ ' - R. G. Marsden. 

-•4 a 


^ ' 

yr . 

* ■ 





- (V*'^ S. vii. 168, 278, 357, 416 ; viii. 89, 369 ; 



ix. 297.) 

me that some short time after the appeafance of 
my note at 7"* S. viii. 369, I wrote another upon 
this subject which has never appeared in * N. & Q.* 
Turning to my desk, I now find it there among a 
number of miscellaneous papers. It is to the effect 
that being, shortly before, in conversation with 
Canon Overton, he referred to this verse of Worda- 
"worth's for the purpose of assuring me that in his 
judgment there could be no question but that 
my interpretation is the correct one. He added, 
as a reason for saying this, that having recently 
had the privilege of reading a great number of 
Wordsworth's unpublished letters (and especially 
some written at a time when the poet was tem- 
porarily debarred from fellowship with his beloved 
hills) he had been much struck by the tone of the 

many referiences to mountain scenery contained in 
them. I have Canon Overton's authority for say- 
ing here that in these letters the note sounded in 
the verse we have been discussing is constantly 

It is the restfulness of the hills that 


Wordsworth moat longed for. They were to him 
places of retiremeiDt and silence, and of that passive 
receptivity, as Id sleep, of the healing and refreshing 
iDiiaences of nature to which he owed so much 
both as a man and as a poet. So strongly did he 
feel this tranquilliziog influence of the scenery he 
most loved, that even in the recollection of it he 
was sometimes "laid asleep in body, and became 
a living soul," and there could be to him no 
violence in such a figure as that of this verse. 

I do not write for the sa'ke of convincing Mr. 
EwiNG or any one else who considers Wordsworth 
capable of writing nonsense, or of allowing it to 
stand for ^ half a century when written ; but I 
think that Canon Overton's testimony will be 
welcomed by all sympathetic students of the 
areateat Eo&lish Doet of the centurv. and I am 

in a savour of red herring. 


G. 0. B. 

I have not hitherto taken any part in this dis- 
cussion, nor given any opinion as to the meaning 
of the phrase " the fields of sleep/' for the excellent 
reason that, as I have never understood it, I had 
no opinion to give — that is, until quite recently. 
Now I have an opinion. May I first ask Mr. 
0. A. Ward to pardon me if I venture to differ 
from his view (7'^ S. viii. 370) that **many words 
should not be spent upon the theme; it is not 
worth it"1 As the ' Intimations of Immortality' 
is one of the finest lyrics in our language — remem- 



very finest — I think it is hardly possible to spend too 
many words in order to come to a right under- 
standing of every line, so long as the discussion is 
not extended to an interminable length. Without 
further preface, — I was lately reading Tenny- 


N. & Q 

308), and on coming to the words, *^ quiet fields of 
eternal sleep'' in stanza vii., my thoughts naturally 
reverted to the discussion that has been going on 
in 'N. & Q.' with regard to Wordsworth's ** fields 
of sleep," and it almost instantly fell on me, like a 
flash of light — a cloud of darkness possibly some of 
your correspondents will say, and it is not for me 
to deny that they may be right — that Wordsworth 
means the Elysian fields of mythology. Here we 
must go back to the great father of poetry. Words- 
worth is speaking of the balmy winds of mid- 
spring — "this sweet May morning" — which, if 
they are not always as balmy as we could wish, do 
not, at all events, "blow us through and through," 
like Perdita's "blasts of January." In the 



[7'»> S. X. Aug. 9, '90. 

'Odyssey' (book iv. 566-668), the poet, in de- 
scribing the 'HAvo-tov TreSt'ov, says : 



^pv)(jeiv avOp 

" No snow is there, nor yet great storm, nor any 
rain ; but alway ocean sendeth forth the breeze of 
the shrill West* to blow cool on men " (Batcher 
and Lang's version). 

It is true that Homer's Elysium is not the abode 
of the dead in exactly the same sense that it is in 
Virgil (^ Aen./ vi. 638, et seq.), but Virgil's descrip- 
tion of the "locos laetos sedesque beatas" of 

his Elysium was most probably suggested partly by 
Homer's lines above quoted, partly also, no doubt, 
by * Odyssey,' vl 42-46. 

Milton, in a lovely passage near the end of 
*Comus,' although he is actually describing the 
gardens of the Hesperides, speaks of " west winds 
with musky wing," and of Iris " drenching with 


>fV' My 

italicizing these expressions will be obvious. Is it 

not possible that Wordsworth had both the above, 

or some kindred passages, more or less consciously 

in his mind; and that by " the winds coming to him 

from the fields of sleep," he meant that the wind 

on that particular May morning was so mild and 

balmy that it might be said to have come from the 

Elysian fields, these being fields of sleep ^ because 

they are inhabited by the dead, of whom it is one 

of the commonest of metaphors to say that they 
« sleep '^ ? 

Whether this interpretation be right or wrong, 
it will, I hope, be allowed that it is not unworthy 



Wordsworth, especially A. J. M. and Mr. 1 
EwiNG, what they think of my interpretation ? 

In the note signed W. B. (7'^ S. viii. 37., 

who I am glad to see writes from San Francisco, 

thereby affording another proof of the length of 

N. & Q 

there are two errors in his 


In the second 

line, for ^^ rolls " read rocky and in the sixth line, 


Jonathan Bouchier. 

Ropley, Alresford. 

P.S. — I have submitted the above to a literary 
friend in whose judgment I have much confidence, 
and who replies as follows : 

" As to ' fields of sleep '; I must confesB that no 
question had ever arisen in my mind about this beautiful 
phrase. Surely it is, as you suggest, an allusion to the 
Elysian fields, to the utter stillness and rest in the place 
of departed spirits, where there is no room found for 
grief or lamentation. To me the phrase bears also a 
secondary significance ; the first breath of dawn — the 
early morning wind — comes to the poet from the fields 

* Buckley, reading irviiovTaQ^ translates it "the 
gently blowing breezes of the west wind." 

of sleep — from darkness and obscurity— into light and 
warmth. Like many other beautiful things, this phrase 
can be felt and is apprehensible, but it does not admit of 
strict interpretation ; but I am sure you have given the 
correct one." 

Quaker Marriage (7«» S. ix. 208, 273, 417). 

It should be borne in mind that there is a 
special favouritism in the English marriage-law for 
the members of this sect. By the Act 4 Geo. IV., 


marry according to their 
Mr. Serieant Stenhen 

usages. ThiSj as 

harshness upon tnat numerous and important class 
of English subjects who, not being' either Quakers 
or of the Jewish manner of belief, yet dissent" 
from the Church. Consequently the Marriage 



formist nuptials ; but subsequent statutes have 
continued the indulgence shown to Jews and 
Quakers, whose '^building '' is allowed to be " out 
of the district," see 3 & 4 Vict., c. 72, s. 5 ; and 
19 4& 20 Vict., c. 119, s. 13 ; also 23 & 24 
Vict, c. 18 ; and 35 & 36 Vict., c. 10. 

Marshall, M 


Winch ENDON 

According to *The Manual of Monumental 

Brasses,' by the Rev. Herbert H 


Church contains the following brasses : " I. A man 




c. 1420. Lipscomb, vol. i. p. 533. II. John Bar- 


Ibid. " 

W. E. Buckley. 

Scottish University Seals (6*^ S. xi. 169, 
250; 7**^S. vii. 63).— Since I replied in March^ 
1885, to a query on this subject two new seals 

have been introduced. 

1885. Edinburgh. A shield bearing the Uni- 
versity arms (as at 6*^*^ S. xi. 250) within a quatre- 
foil, the foils ornamented with thistles. Inscription 
in surrounding circle, sigillum commune uni- 
versitatis academica edinburgensis. Diameter, 

2 in. 

1890. Aberdeen. A shield bearing the Uni- 
versity arms (as at 7"^ S. vii. 63) on a richly 
diapered background within an octofoil : thistles 
in the spandrils. In the uppermost foil the date 
of foundation, mxdiv. On a ribbon beneath the 
shield the University motto, initivm sapientiae 
TIMOR DOMINI. Inscription in surrounding circle, 


Diameter, 2| in. An admirable piece of work,, 
executed by Moring, High Holborn. 

P. J. Anderson. 



Belgian Stove (7*^ S. ix. 348, 416).— Such 
a stove as your three correspondents describe 

Ttb S. X. Aug. 9, '90.] 



18 in common use in France under the name of 
:liavffrettey and in Italy under that of scaldino 
(^*the little warmer" being the exact English 
equivalent of each word). In the former case it is 
generally a box of perforated iron in a perforated 
wooden case.' Any one who has travelled at all 
must have seen tbem in the hands or under the 
feet of the concierges^ or of the old women who sit 
at the doors of churches, or those who supply 
candles, &c. The scaldino is a small round earthen- 
ware cross-handle basket, generally just big enough 
for the hands to clasp round, though often larger 
till it graduates into a hrasero. A little hot wood 
ashes to fill these is a thing as often begged for as 
bread or broken meat. They form a more effectual 
mode of obtaining warmth than might be imagined; 
the wood ashes retain their heat many hours, and 
it is easily revived by waving them in the air or fan- 
ning them with a common feather fan. The small 
extent of their radiatory power is compensated by 
the great convenience of being able to hold them 
close to any part of the person. On the other 
hand, cases occasionally occur of women burned to 
death from having fanned up the embers of the 
scaldino too recently before putting it under their 
petticoats or in their beds; but when the embers 
are not glowing this is commonly done with entire 
safety, and supplies pleasanter warmth than a fire. 

tt inappreciable cost. 

R. H. Busk. 

■ * 

Referring to this subject, a Belgian friend makes 
this note^ which I send to * N. & Q/: 

" L'usage de cette machine est encore aujourd'hui bien 
repandu en Hollande et memo dans le nord de Tltalie. 
C'est surtout en usage parmi les gens de oampagne qui 
par des froids intenses quittent leurs villages vers trois k 
quatre heures du matin pour aller aux villes avoisinantee 
vendre leurs produita. On voit les femmes, jeunes et 
vieilles, assises dans leur charrettes (tire par des chevaux, 
des mulets, ou des chiens), chacune avec deux chaufferettes 
(Flamand stove), une qu'elle tient sur ses genoux pour se 
chauffer les mains et 1 autre dessous ses jupons. Tene- 
ment ces gens ont Thabitude d*employer ces chaufferettes 
qu^arrivees a un certain age elles ont I'interieur des 
cuisses fume comme des harengs^ou bien culotte comme 

un amateur desirerais sa pipe ! " 

Chas. Welsh, 

I believe they were a Dutch invention, a sort of 
iron footstool drawn in under their clothes by 
ladies to keep their lower limbs warm. They were 
said to be unwholesome, and, I think, soon went 

out of fashion. 

P. P. 

J. F. Mansergh. 


Sharpe's edition (1812), printed by 0. Whitting- 
ham, of Gay's ' Poetical Works ' has footstool, not 
footstep, in the line from ' Trivrn ' which was quoted 
by Mr. Bouchier. 

Cf. Pope's line 

Fruits of dull heat, and SooterUns of wit. 

*Dunciad,' 1.126. 

And see the explanation given of the italicized word 
in Ogilvie's ' Dictionary. ' F. W. D. 

I am obliged to your correspondents for their 
replies to my inquiry. "Footstool" makes the pas- 
sage quite clear. Mr. H. A. Evans's suggestion 
that •' footstep" is a misprint is undoubtedly right. 
The edition of Gay's Toems' from which I quoted 
is 0. Oooke's pretty little edition in two volumes^ 
1804. I have corrected the error in my copy. 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

"Pro Olla" (7*^ S. x. 47).— At Durham 

Abbey, in the Common House, 

" dyd the Master thereof keepe his Sapientia, ones in 
the yeare, viz. betwixt Martinmes and Cbristinmes, a 
soUemne banquett that the Prior and Covent dyd use at 
that tyme of the yere onely, when ther banquett was of 
figs and reysinges^ aile and caikes, and therof no super- 
flwitie or excesBey but a scholasticall and moderat con- 
gratulacion amonges themselves." — ' Rites ' (Surt, ed.), 

P- 75. 

The custom was not confined to Durham, and 
at Ely the olla may have been to hold the ale, or 
possibly the word may stand for the contents of 
the olla, spiced ale, or whatever it may have been» 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

Without the context it is not very safe to hazard a 
conjecture; but does not this phrase mean "for the 
oflfertory '^ ? At any rate, olla elemosin^ is under- 
stood to be an almsdish. See ^ Liber Quot. Oont 
Gard.,' in other words, the * Wardrobe Accounts of 
Edward I.,' 1787, pp. 332, 368. Olla in the sense 
of *'a kind of vase," appears in the last edition (by 

Favre, 1886) of Ducange. 

Geo. Neilson. 

Penny Family (7*** S. ix. 468).— The^ royal 

descent of the Pennys is through the marriage of 
Stephen Penny, tailor, of St. James's, Westminster^ 
with Sarab, the youngest daughter of Catherine, wife 
of Isaac Peter Bouillie, and the youngest daughter 
and coheir of her mother, Lucy Knyvett (second 
daughter and coheir of John Knyvett), by he? 
second husband, John Field, of Reading, car- 
penter. Stephen Penny had three sons, Wm. 
John, an upholsterer ; Stephen James, sexton of 
St. George's, Hanover Square ; and Thomas, shoe- 
maker, at Brompton; all of royal descent from 
Thomas of Woodstock through their mother. 
Stephen James Penny left one surviving son, 
James Penny, who was an apprentice to a saddler 
when Mr. Long wrote his book of * Royal Descents,' 

whence these particulars are taken. 

B. Florence Scarlett. 

Translations op Quintus Smyrn^us or Gala- 

BER (7^** S. ix. 327, 378).— Some portions of this 
poet were translated into English verse by the late 
Alexander Dyce, Oxford, 1821, 12aao. The whole 
was translated into Italian ottava rima by Paolo 
Tarenghi, Vilna, 1807, 8vo. ; second edition, Roma, 
1809, 8vo. (this is rather a paraphrase than a ver- 
sion). Again by Teresa Bendettini Landucci, Mo- 
dena, 1815, 4to. (this is more elegant than faithful). 



[7th S.X.Aug. 9, '90. 

By Cav. Luigi Rossi, Milano, 1819, 18mo. (a faith- 
ful version). By Ab. Eustachio Fiocchi in ottava 
rimay Pavia, 1823, 8vo. (an easy and elegant ver- 
sion). By Bernardino Baldi da Urbino, who died 
in 1617, and whose translation was edited by L. 
Ciardetti, Fiorenze, 1828, 4to. Some short passages 
from book iii. were translated into German by 
Schaffler in 1787 in Wiedeburgi Humanistisches 
Magazin, p. 322, sqq^. There have also been Latin 
versions of the whole poem, and of selections from 

it. There is also a French version by R. Tourlet, 
Paris, 1800. 

Tarenghi in 1806 published his translation of 
the third and fourth books, describing the death 
of Achilles and the games at his funeral, in allu- 
sion to the death and funeral of Lord Nelson. 

W. E, Buckley. 

Engelmann's * Bibliography' makes no aljusion 
to any English version of Qaintus Smyrnaeus; but 
a translation into German by Platz (Stuttgart) is 
mentioned as having been published in 1858. 

Alex. Leeper. 


The replies cannot be taken to contain the whole 
of the case. The Englishman may see parts of 
Quintus Smyrnseus in * Select Translations from 
the Greek of Q. Smyrnseus,' by the Rev. Alexander 
Dyce, Oxford, 1821, 12mo. Just a caution about 
the name. He is only called Calaber from the dis- 
covering of his works in Calabria. 

Ed. Marshall. 

Pliny and the Salamander (7'^ S. ix. 365). 

The editor of the Fhilosophical Transactions 
(1716) considered it worth while to insert a para- 
graph which relates how a salamander, being cast 

^'into the Fire, the Animal thereupon swelVd presently* 
and then Vomited store of thick Slimy Matter, which 
did put out the neighbouring Cools^ to which the Sala- 
mander retired iiDmediately, Putting them out again in 
the same manner, as soon as they Rekindled; and by 
this means eavirig himself from the force of the Fire 
for the space of 2 Hours; That afterwards it lived 9 
Months," &c. (vol. ii. p. 816). 

There is a good deal of information concerning the 
salamander to be found in * A Natural History of 
Serpents' (1742), by Charles Owen, D.D., who 
states that 

' *' the common Report is that the Salamander is able to 
live in the Fire, which is a vulgar Error; The Hiero- 
glyphick Hi&torian observes, that upon Trial made it was 

80 far from quenching it, that it consum'd immediatelv " 
(p. 93). ^ 

Our author concludes that 

*'upon the whole, the Salamander being of a mucous, 
slimy, and cold body, will, like Ice, soon extinguish a 
little Fire, but will be as eoon consum'd by a erreat Fire " 
(p. 94). 

Mr. Owen has also aomftthJna tn sqv alinnf " Sflin, 

Wool " = asbestos. 


J. F. Man 

Bates: Harrop (7'^ S. ix. 508). — Joah Bates 
was born at Halifax, Yorkshire, March 19, 1740-1, 
and is described in the obituary notice in Gent 
Mag. J 1799, vol. Ixix. part i., p. 532, as of John 
Street, King's Road (Gray's Inn Lane). He mar- 
ried Sarah Harrop on Dec. 14, 1780 ; she died at 
Foley Place, St. Marylebone, Dec. 11 j 1811. See 
further ' Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. iii. pp. 397, 399. 

. Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Sterridge or Stirrtdge (7'^ S. ix. 167). — 
Ridge near a stream called Ster,Stir, e g.\ Stour. 

R. S. Charnock. 


ViNCENzo Monti (7*^ S. ix. 128). — As no one 

has replied to my query at the above reference, 
I am enabled, thanks to the courtesy of an Italiaii 
gentleman in Milan — a stranger to me — who, on 
seeing my note, sent me a copy of the * Bassvill- 
iana,' with annotations brief, but to the point, to 
answer it myself. Perhaps I had better do so, for 
the sake of other readers who feel an interest in 
Monti's poetry. As no one has attempted to ex- 
plain the passages which puzzled me, I conclude 
they are equally obscure to others. By the '* Ipo- 
crito d'Ipri" the poet means Cornelius Jansen, 
Bishop of Ypres (o&. 1638), and by his 
^'schivi settator tristi" the Jansenists generally. 
(At the date of the ' Bassvilliana,' 1793 or 1794, 
Monti was an ardent Royalist.) *' Borgofontana" is 
explained in a note as ^^ una Certosa nel bosco di 
Viilers-Coterets, distante 16 o 17 leghe da Parigi. 
Ivi nel 1621 si adunarono quelli che poi furono 
chiamati Giansenisti, e vi fermarono, dicesi, la loro 
dottrina." The title of the little book above men- 
tioned is ^La Bassvilliana et La Mascheroniana di 
Vincenzo Monti, annotate da Zanobi Bicchierai ': 
Firenze, 1885, una lira. Jonathan Bouchier. 

' * * 

. I 

i k 

Harington's Shakspeare Quartos (7 



ix. 382). — However interesting Dr. Furniv all's 
quotations may prove, they seem inconclusive on 
the main points. 

It seems to me that before the ghost of ^ Lingua' 
can be laid to its final rest we must dispose further 
of the two Brewers. The initials T. B. are ap- 
pended to the prose ^ Merry Devil' of 1608, and 
the revival of Tomkins opens up the initials J. T., 
appended to 'Grim the Collier of Croydon,' circa 

I think it over hasty to ascribe * Lingua'^ to 
Thomas Tomkiss on thie ground that he also wrote 
* Albumazar,' this last attribution being still un- 
proven. Tomkiss — we have no proof that he was 
Tomkins — was a Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, unquestionably mixed up with the enter- 
tainment there given to King James in 1614/15. 
The doUege authorities apparently sent to Coventry 
for a play, and Tomkiss received 20/. (as agent or 
principal ?) for furbishing it up for the occasion. 

K ^ 

rtJ" S. X, Aufl. 9, '90. ] 

t .4 



B was partly modernized, perhaps translated ; but 
T jmkiss may have been merely the local patron of 
seme other writer, and the money paid to him 
p )8sibly handed over to some other party. Tom- 
kiss's intervenlion in the matter was, however, 
fully acknowledged, and if he kept his own counsel 
hs could retain all the credit. 



reports "of Trinity College action and invention"; 
bat these parties knew not that it was then an old 
play, certainly written before 1603. How can we 
reconcile this "local invention" with the purchase 
at Coventry ? So with •Lingua.' Sir J. Haring- 
ton cites mere gossip ; he shows no connexion with 
author, printer, or publisher that can constitute 
him an authority. > Apart from any hunt after 
J. T., it seems to me that the authorship of these 
two pieces is still as completely unknown as the 
authorship of * Pilgrimage to Parnassus' of 1597- 
1601. V > 
As to T. B., I propose to question Chetwood's 



venison. The play has been ascribed to Shakspere, 
and may be the origin of the mythical poaching 
exploits at Charlecote. The prose version is signed 
T. B., and reprinted in 1657 as by T. Brewer, 
Gent.; while in 1655 the 'Lovesick King' is by 
Ant. Brewer, Gent. * The Country Girl,' a play, 
dated 1647, bears the initials T. B., used by 
Thomas Brewer in 'The Weeping Lady,' poems of 
1625 ; but no play has been traced to the 'full 
name of Thomas Brewer. 

We may withdraw Anthony from any participa- 
tion in the ' Merry Devil,' play and tract ; but is 
it possible that the T. B. of 1608 should in 1656 

produce the account of 


'London's Triumph'? This literary career seems 
to need confirmation. 

As to Chetwood, I fear he romanced on occasion; 
so I now ask, can the alleged old poem ' Steps to 
Parnassus' be produced? I write without pre- 
judice ; but though many compilers quote or refer 
to it, no one gives the date or author's namp. 

A. Hall. 

Mayor: Major (7*^ S. ix. 506).— Mr. Pea- 
cock should add an earlier and more illustrious 
example of "major" for mayor , for is not Magna 
Carta itself signed, among other lords, by the great 
" Major d( ' 


Marshall. M 


Day's Work of Land (7^ S. ix. 489).— By Sir 
Roger Twysdep'sMSS. (1597-1692), "Four perches 
make a day-worlce; ten days works make a roode 
or' qaarter." 'In 'The Interpreter/ by Dr. John 
Cowell, Professor of Jurisprudence and Master of 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, published in 1605— 
which, by the way, was burnt by order of the 

House of Commons, on account of its contaimng 
unconstitutional doctrines relative to the king's 
prerogative — we have, ^' Day were of land, as much 
arable ground as could be ploughed up in one day's 
work, or one journey, as the farmers still call it." 

Again, in Norden's 'Surveiors Dialogue,' issued 
in 1610 : 

'* You must know, tbat there goe 160 perches to one 
acre, 80 perches to halfe an acre, 40 perches to one roode, 
which is I of an acre, ten dates worke to a roode, four 

perches to a daies worke, 16 foote and a halfe to a 

In the ' Craven Glossary,' by Carr, a day work 
is described as three roods of land. 

EvERARD Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

C. asks for an explanation of entercommon. 
There is the following in Blount's * Law Diction- 
ary,' 1691 : 

" Intercommoning is where the commons of two 
manors lie contiguous, and the inhabitants of both have, 
time out of mind, depastured their cattle promiscuously 
in each of them." 

Jacob's *Law Dictionary,' 1762, has the same, 
s.v. " Intercommoning," with the reference ^ Termes 
de Ley/ 411, by which I suppose is meant * Terms 
of the Law,' Lond., 1567, originally by W, Ras- 
tell, also by R, Tottel in the same year. 

The explanation of ^'day's work" is as follows: 

•^ Day were of land. As much arable land as could be 
ploughed up in one days work ; or one Journey, as the 
farmers still call it. Hence any young artificer who 
assists a master workman in daily labour is called a 
journeyman. * Confirmavi abbati et conventui de Rading 

tres acras et sexdecim daywere de terra arabili ' (Car- 
tular. Rading MS., f. 90)."— Jacob, s.v. *' Daywere." 

Ed. Marshall. 

When the fields lie in ridge and furrow, as in so 
many northern counties, the ridges between the 
furrows are locally called "stetches," or *Mands." 
A "land" normally contains either one or two 
roods, being a furlong (t. e., a furrow long) in 
length, and either one rod or two rods in breadth. 
In old documents these "lands" are called terrce^ 
each messuage having attached to it a certain 
number of lands, interspersed with lands attached 
to other messuages, in the common fields, of which 
there were usually three in each township. A 
"land" corresponds to the GeTmB,n zelga {sulca), 
A day's work of land is a "journey," or acre (the 
German morgen^ or morning's work), and would 
comprise the ploughing of two or four " lands," 
according to their breadth. By Yorkshire cus- 
tom nine "lands" or "small lands" constitute 
one "great land," or half an oxgang by the great 
hundred in a three-field township. 

Isaac Taylor. 

It may be of some use to 0. to know that the 
French have the phrase " journ^e de terre," mean- 
ing the space of land which can be ploughed in a 



[7t"»S.X. AU0.9,'90. 

day. A " day's work of land " may, therefore, have 
the same meaning in the deed here referred to. 
As for an *^ enterrcommon townfield," does it not 
mean a field common to two or more towns ? 



[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

Arch-^ology or Archaiolgqt (7"^ S. x. 3). 

The claims of this word to an archaic spelling can- 
not be taken into consideration without exciting 
the jealousy of other words containing a vowel- 
sound derived from the Greek at. Among them 
is one descriptive of a hospital intended^ at all 
events originally, to put children straight. In the 
few dictionaries into which it has effected an en- 
trance it is spelt either ortkopcedic or, with appa- 
rent acknowledgment of its arrival through a 
French medium, orthopedic. In directories it 

generally appears as orth 

in newspaper 

notices as orthopcedic or ortkopcedic. The promi- 
nence given in the newspaper and directory notices 
to the cure of club-foot might entitle it to be spelt 
orthopodic. It would be satisfactory if the spell- 
ing of this word were ascertained while it is yet 

The inconvenience caused by the similarity of 
the diphthongs (b and ce in MS. or italics is de- 
serving of separate consideration. The inconveni- 
ence impressed itself on me when, living abroad, I 
had to send English copy to press, to be set up by 
printers who, being unacquainted with English, 
derived no hint from the context of even other 
letters. It was necessary not only to mind one's 
^'s and q% and particularly one's v^s and r% to re- 
frain from a long double s (which was sure to be- 
come a p\ but to write the ce in ordinary print 
hand to prevent its appearing as the comparatively 
rare ce. Any one examining the two diphthongs as 
printed in italics at the above reference will see 
how difficult it is to discriminate between them. 


As the alphabet we use is the Latin, and not the 
Greek, we conveniently follow the conventional 
Latin representations of Greek sounds. We can- 
not stop at the proposed change of ai for ce, but 
must also, to be consistent, dismiss the ch in 
archeology and use a Greek chi^ and write arxai- 
ologei. We should also have to write Aineias for 
iEneas, Aisxulos for ^schylus, and many similar 
unpleasant pleasantries. But even then we should 
not have attained consistency, as we should be 
without signs for omega and theta^ even if we 
used h for the long e and an inverted comma for h. 
It would be easier to discard our Latin alphabet 
altogether and boldly revert to its Greek prototype. 

Isaac Taylor. 

Sign of Death (7^^ S. ix. 466).— A belief 
somewhat similar to that mentioned by L. L. K. is 
found in Lincolnshire. There if a fire be lighted 

in the morning and be afterwards forgotten or 
neglected, it will occasionally forbode " death or 
news of death'^ by continuing to burn till late in 
the evening, instead of dying out for want of fuel. 

M. G. W. P. 

Another sign of death is given when a " live '* 
cinder drops from the grate, if the imagination of 
the beholder can conceive the cinder to be in the 
shape of a coffin— no difficult matter, I find, for 
those who believe in this superstition. 

On one occasion, while staying in Norwich, I 

forgot to extinguish the light in my bedroom before 
leaving it. I was told by the lady of the house 
that it was a sure sign of death for either a mem- 
ber of my family or of hers. She was very much dis- 
turbed in mind, for at that time her only son was 
lying seriously ill. I am glad to add that he re- 
covered, in spite of my carelessness. 

S, Illingworth Butler. 

In this neighbourhood I have frequently heard 
it said that if a corpse does not stiffen within a 
reasonable time it is a sign of another death in the 
family, and know of one case where the supersti- 
tion chanced — I say "chanced '^ advisedly— to be 
verified. W. W. Davies. 

Glenmore, Lisbum^ near Belfast. 

This folk-lore contribution, which is confirmed 
by the testimony of your esteemed correspondent 
A. J. M., 6*^ S. ix. 137, may serve also as a note 
for the localization of folk-lore. Folk-lorists have 
of late years been much occupied with tracing the 
universality of many legends and sayings formerly 
supposed to be local. The fact of a fire remaining 
alight from over-night can only be sufficiently rare 
to make it serve for a portent in countries where 
coal is burnt. A wood fire will as often remain 
alight all night as not ; in fact, a bit of log buried 
under hot ashes, accidentally or otherwise, will in- 
fallibly be found red hot in the morning. The 
same may be said of another portent mentioned bj 
the same correspondent and others, 6'^ S. x. 87, 
158, where the fact of a tree presenting at the same 
time blossom and fruit conveys the warning of 
impending death. This could not, at all events, 
hold good in "Das Land wo die Oranien bliihen." 

R. H. Busk. 

Commissariat (7«» S. ix. 508).— The ' Military 
Dictionary/ which was published in the British 
Military Journal of July, 1799, gives the informa- 
tion that a 

" commiBBary is generally a civil officer, though apper- 
taining to military aflFairs. It [sic] is of various denomi- 
nations, as Commissary General of the Musters, who 
takes account of the strength of every regiment, and 
sees the horses be well mounted, and complete in num- i 
ber. Commissary General of Stores, an oflBcer attached i 
to the artillery, having the charge of all the stores, of 
which he is accountable to the office of ordnance. Com- * 
missary General of Provisions, who has the charge of 
furnishing the army in the field with all sorts of pro- 1 




•IthS. X. Aua.9, '90.] 




In time of war their 

vie ions, forage, &c., by contract. 
numbers is \_sic'] unlimited, and their emoluments yery 
coisiderable. They are besides allowed pay as a staff 
of icer, with bat, baggage, and forage money, and have 
c larks and store-keepers under them" (vol. i. p. 404). 

J. F. Manseegh, 


Liverpool. . 

The Army List of 1782 makes no mention of 
any Commissariat ; apparently there was none. In 
IS 28 a list of officers of Commissariat appears in 
the Army List. But in those days they held no 
military rank whatever. Afterwards relative rank 
was granted them, and honorary rank in 1885. 
The Commissariat is now called the Army Service 
Corps, and is regarded as a combatant branch of 
the service. 

^ 1 


Hungary Water (7^** S. x. 4). — A curious 

reference to " Hungary water" appears on the last 
page (8) of a rare pamphlet : 

The Happy Sinner : or the Penitent Malefactor, being 
the Prayers and Last Words of one Richard Cromwell 
(some Time a Souldier and Chyrurgion in the Late D. of 
Monmouth's Army (and since of their Present Majesties) 
who was Executed at Leichfield [sic] for Murder on the 
3rd day of July, 1691, &c., and further with his Legacy 
to his County of Choice, Physical and Chirurgical Re- 
ceipts, viz. [seven are specified], and Lastly, Directions 
to make Two several Waters for the Eyes, with the Last 
of which he Cured a Boy in Leichfield [sic] that had 
been Blind Three Years, &c. Licensed and Entered 
according to Order. London : Printed for R. Cavell at 
the Peacock in St. Pauls Church Yard, and are to be 
Sold by Mich. Johnson, Bookseller in Leichfield, 1691. 

The full details of the '^ receipts " are given, and 
are very curious, but too long to be copied. The 
little thin quarto closes with this : 

"Advertisement. All these Ingredients mention'd, 
are to be had at the Apothecaries ^ except the Queen of 
Hungaries Water, which is sold by Mich. Johnson, Book- 
seller in LeichfieUV^ 


Not only rosemary but Hungary water itself was 
formerly officinal — or I would rather say official — 
under the name olAqua Begince Hungari(B. The oil 
of rosemary, indeed, is still official, and enters into 
several pharmacopoeial preparations. It is a valu- 
able stimulant and rubefacient. The spirit of rose- 
mary of the present British pharmacopoeia does not 
differ materially from the Hungary water of the old 
dispensations, which, by the way, ought not to be 

innocent name) for great ladies." We 


the same of eau de Cologne, if all tales are true. 
Rosemary was a favourite remedy with all classes, 
and rosemary tea (a purely aqueous infusion) is 
still made and drunk to some extent by country 


C C £. 

preparation : 


'* It is put up for sale in a similar way to eau e 
Cologne, and is said to take its name from one of 

queens of Hungary, who is reported to have derived 
great benefit from a bath containing it, at the age of 
seventy-five years. There is no doubt that clergymen 
and orators, while speaking for any time, would derive 
great benefit from perfuming their handkerchiefs with 
Hungary water, as the rosemary it contains excites the 
mind to vigorous action, sufficient of the stimulant being 
inhaled by occasionally wiping the face with the hand* 
kerchief wetted with these waters. Shakspeare, giving 
us the key [''rosemary, that's for remembrance"], we 
can understand how it is that such perfumes containing 
rosemary are universally said to be * so refreshing ! ' " 

Piesse supplies the following prescription, noting 
that continental rosemary yields quite a different 
smelling otto from that grown in England : 

** Grape spirit (60 over proof), 1 gallon; otto of Hun- 
garian rosemary, 2 oz. ; otto of lemon peel, 1 oz. ; otto of 
balm {melissa), 1 oz. ; otto of mint, h drachm, esprit de 
rose, 1 pint; extract of fleur d'orange, 1 pint." 

St. SwiTHiN. 

Forest Gate (7'^ S. x. 68).— I perfectly re- 
member the old five-barred gate leading to Wan- 
stead Flats, from which the suburb of Forest Gate 
takes its name. Not more than thirty years ago 
the surroundings were perfectly rural, however 
improbable it may seem to-day. Approaching the 
gate from the south (or from the railway station), 
on the left hand the lane was bordered by a row of 
labourers' cottages, with a pump in front of them, 
the houses dating from the beginning of this cen- 
tury. At the end of this row of cottages, which 
have now been built out and turned into shops, 
stood the gate-house, projecting into the road, and 
the gate itself spanned the road to a post on the 
other side. Opposite to these cottages was the 
park of West Ham House, with a fine row of elms 
overhanging the lane. The mansion is still stand- 
ing, but is quite hemmed in by small houses and 
shops. On passing through the gate, on the right 
was a small brick cottage and a smaller wooden 
one (now, or quite recently, standing), and, adjoin- 
ing them, the old '^ Eagle and Child '' inn, which 
was approached by a double row of stone steps. 
This old inn is now transformed into a modem 
tavern. Beyond that again was a mansion, stand- 
ing in its own grounds, at the corner of Chestnut 
Avenue, and another large house where the lane 
merged into the Flats. On the left hand, after 
passing through the gate, were fields, bordered by 
a hedge and elms opposite the inn, and at the fork 
of the road, opposite Chestnut Avenue, were the 
fine grounds, splendidly timbered, of a very large 
mansion, running on that side as far as the Flats. 
A local tradesman has adopted an old woodcut 
giving a fair representation of the gate itself for 
his trade mark, and I now enclose you two copies 
of the same in case Mr. Treyelyan should care 
to have them. 

Martin A. Sharp Hume, Major. 

[If Mr. Trevelyan will send a stamped and addressed 
envelope, we will forward him the representations in 



[7"" S. X. Aug. 9, '90. 

The Real Shape of 



47^^_ The doctrine of the sphericity of the globe 
in antiquity is also called the doctrine of the four 
worlds of the school of Pergamus in Asia Minor. 
An account of it will be found in my 'Khita and 
Khita- Peruvian Epoch' (1877), p. 68, and in the 
* Legend of Atlantis' (Longmans, 1886), p. 7. 
One of the most curious circumstances is the in- 
dication that in prehistoric times there was know- 
ledge of North and South America and Austral- 
asia. The proofs of intercourse as shown by me 
are illustrated by the evidences of language (* At- 
lantis,' p. 11). This doctrine of the four worlds or 

quarters of the globe subsisted till the time of 
ColumbuSy when it ceased to be a theory, and, 
being a recognized fact, disappeared in its old form. 
One peculiarity in its career is that it passed into 
the domain of theology, and became an incriminated 
doctrine, more particularly because its acceptance 
would imply that the mystery of the Passion took 
place in one world alone, and not in the other three. 
Hence in the Middle Ages it was kept in abey- 
ance; but it was known to Columbus, and there is 
good ground for thinking that it was this heretical 
doctrine which was the chief basis of his convictions 
as to the existence of a new world. Perhaps with 
the approach of the fourth century of his great dis- 
covery this subject may attract more attention. 

Hyde Clarke. 

Dr. Vincent's * Defence of Public Educa- 
tion' (7^^ S- X. 28). — This pamphlet was written 
by William Vincent when head masted of West- 
minster School. The first and second editions 
were published in 1802 (London, 8vo.), and the 
third in 1802 (London, 8vo.). The full title of the 
third edition is as follows: 

A Defence of Public Education, addreased to the Most 
Reverend the Lord Bishop of Meath, by William Vincent, 
D.D.y in anewer to a Charge annexed to his Lordship's 
Discourse preached at St. Paul's, on the Anniversary 
Meeting of the Charity Children, and published by the 
Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 

There is a copy of the first and of the third edition 
in the British Museum. At the end of his pamph- 
let Dr. Vincent gives a short account of the re- 
ligious instruction in Westminster School. Curi- 
ously enough, there is no mention of this pamphlet 
in Mr. Phillimore's account of Dean Vincent 
('Alumni Westmon.,' 1862, pp. 367-369). The 
history of the origin of this controversy on the 
neglect of religion in public education will be 
found in Nichols's * Lit. Anecdotes ' (1815), vol. ix. 

pp. 129, 130. 

G. F. R. B. 

Jerry- BUILDER (7*^ S. ix. 607). — A correspon- 
dent who wrote from Liverpool to Truth some 
years ago regarding the origin of the word jerry as 
applied to bad builders said : 

"The origin of the term was the name of two brothers 
who resided in Liverpool, and who built many of those 

rapidly-constracted, ill-built, and showy houses which 

form 80 large a portion of this ci^y, which are inhabited 
chiefly by the lower mi Idle classes/ The stjle of the 
firm, * Jerry Brothers, Builders and Contractors/ caused 
the name to become generic for such builders and their 
work; first in this city, from whence the term spread/* 

This seems to be a very satisfactory account of the 
origin of the term, only, unfortunately, I have not, 
30 far, been able to come across any trace of such a 

firm as " Jerry Brothers" in Liverpool. 



Beeston Castle (7'^ S. ix. 407; x. 14). — Seven 
generations of the family of Beeston of Beeston are 

to be found in the * Visitation of Cheshire,' 1580 
(Harl Soc). 

Ormerod's * Cheshire' gives an account of the 
siege of Beeston Castle during the Civil Wars, and 
the hardships of the garrison. 

B. Florence Scarlett. 
Barwell and Warren Hastings (7*** S. ix. 

328, 414; x. 58). — The passage which Mr. Hope 
quotes about Barwell must not be accepted as 
impartial or just until an estimate of the character 
of Sir Philip Francis has been taken into con- 
sideration. Macaulay does not exaggerate in say- 
ing that ^ '' 

I _ 

"the friends of Sir Philip Francis must acknowledge 
that his estimate of himself was extravagantly high, 
that his temper was irritable, that his deportment was 
often rude and petulant, and that his hatred was of in- 
tense bitterness and long duration." — ^* Warren Hastings,' 
p. 27 of Longman's " Ship Edition." 


The passage quoted by your correspondent some- 




what bears out Macaulay's views. 


Silver Box (7**^ S. ix. 328 ; x. 16).— While on 
on a visit lately to a friend in the country, he 
showed me a beautiful snuff or pouncet-box in his 

which had been given to him many 

It is 


years ago as a. memento of a deceased friend. 

of tortoiseshell, the shape oval, and the edges of 
both box and lid bound with a thin band of silver. 
On the under surface of the box is a portrait of 
Charles L, crowned, worked in silver filagree. The 
lid is covered with silver filagree ornament^ and in 
the centre is a kind of funereal vase supported by 
two birds. The history of the box, as given to my 
host, was that it was one of twelve manufactured by 
order of Charles II. after the K^-storation, to be 
given away in memory of his deceased father. 

Joseph Beard. 


Girl pronounced Gurl (7*^** S. ix. 472 ; 
X. 24). — Poets, like other people, may have 
occasional gleams of common sense ; and it is by 
no means fair to charge them with pronouncing 
girl as gurly rnerely because the word girl is but 
slightly furnished with accurate rhymes. ^^ - 

Leaving out of count the Scottish word tirl, 

there are, I think, only six words that can fairly be 

yth S. X. Aug. 9, '90.] 



ased to rhyme with girl: they are curl, churl^ 
pearly early whirl, knd twirl. But all these are 
singularly apt. ''The appropriateness of curl is, or 
was till lately, quite manifest ; churl is obvious by 
way of contrast ; pearl is a natural compliment to 
the sex ; earl (if the girl has money) is really most 
appropriate; while as to whirl and twirl^ it would 
be superfluous to point out their happy signi- 

The favourite poet Anon., in those well-known 
verses of his^ has managed to include all the six 
rhymes to girl except curly which he probably 
omitted because curls were out of fashion, even in 
his time. Some readers may like to be reminded 
of the stanza, which is as follows : 

I am, eaid he, no lowborn churl ; 
I am a bold and belted earl. 
Intent to win and wear that pearl 

Which is thy heart : 
Ah, give me then, bewitching girl ! 
But one more dance — one mystic twirl 
^T 1^ ; Of thy fair form, one rapturous whirl. 

Before we part ! 


but absurd. Agriculture in England last • 
is not likely to have been so diflVrent from what it 
is to-day as to have had labour stopped at noon. 
The whole scene presented by the poet in his 
opening stanza, clearly that of a rural landscape in 

early autumn, is in every feature correct, natural, 
and harmonious. W. B. 

Macaulay's Style (7*** S. ix. 8, 73, 171, 237, 

473). — The "bitter lines of Voltaire'* mentioned 
at the last reference, commencing *^ J'ai vu," which 
procured him lodgment in the Bastille, were not 
written by Voltaire. They were written by A. L. 
le Brun, author of the words of a long-forgotten 
opera, and other hack-work of that day. See 



W. Mac 

* k 

A. J. M 

Chaworth (7'^ S, X. 8).— John Chaworth^ 
second Viscount Chaworth, of Armagh, &c., died 
ahout 1645 (Visit, of Notts, 1662, Heralds' College 


1889, vol. ii. p. 215. 
3. - 

Daniel Hipwell. 

:i.^ Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

/ V 

Labour-in- Vain Court (7*^ S. vi. 268, 356). 
In Stow's 'Survey of London/ edited by John 
Strype, ^ 1720, the following account is given of 
Labour-in-Vain Yard, viz. : "A large place, having 
at the upper end, on the north side, a good hand- 
Bome court with private houses, the southern part 
being taken up with stablings, where it hath a 
passage into Lambeth Hill." 



68).— In his will, dated Nov. 23, 1713, Dr. Hickes 


She had died 

between the date of the will and that of the codicil, 
July 18, 1715. The will was proved in P.O.C., 
Dec. 20, 1715.. See CurlPs * Last 


ment of the Reverend Dr. Hickes,^ Lood., 1716, 
8vo. The testator was buried Dec. 13, 1715, in the 
west end of St. Margaret's churchyard, West- 
minster. ^ :" Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Chalmers's * Biographical Dictionary ' says of 
Hickes, "In Sept., 1679, he married,^' the lady 
not being specified. 

Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 

. Hastingg. 

' Gray's ^ Elegy ' (7'*^ S. ix. 468 ; x. 18),— There 
was evidently some mistake on the part of Warton 
m regard to the allu&ion in the ' Elegy.' His, not 
^e poet's, is undoubtedly the bookish observation. 

His statement in. fn a ^nrfai'nK- nrvf ^«^1tt ;n»/.^..«.^4-^ 

Bridgeport, Conn., U.S. 

The Dukedom of Clarence (7'** S. x. 1, 42, 

62). — I am deeply obliged to several correspondents 
for their addenda et corrigenda. The whole series 
illustrates the great value of 'N. & Q.' as a medium 
for ascertaining accuracy of knowledge. I am now 
writing away from home and from books, and can- 
not verify every correction. In reference, however, 
to the valuable note of Mr. Wylie, permit me to 
say that all historians agree that Aquitaine was not 
English in 1412. It was erected into a principality 
for Edward the Black Prince in 1362, but was 
annexed to France, with the exception of Bordeaux 
and Bayonne, in 1370. " It was riot reconquered 
till 1418, when the title of "Duke of Aquitaine" 
was assumed by Henry V. J. Maskell, 

Church of Scotland, Campvere (7^^ S. x. 69). 
— In a book full of interest for Scottish folk, 
entitled * The History of the Scottish Church, 
Rotterdam/ by Rev. Will. Steven, M.A,, Edinb., 
1833 (which finds mention in Lockhart's * Life of 
Scott'), D. F. C. will find, at pp. 288-294, an 
account of the congregation formerly existing at 
Campvere. It was broken up on the establishment 
by the French of the Batavian Republic in 1795, 
and all the privileges of the old factory of Scottish 
merchants were abolished in i799. Until 1797 
the congregation continued to be represented in the 
General Assembly, but after that date no deputy 
appeared, although Mr. Steven writes that at the 
time of the publication of his book *^it still 
remains on the roll of the House, and is called 
over like other places entitled to send deputies." 

W. D. Mac ray. 

Early Age of Matriculation at Cambridge 

(7^^ S. ix. 388, 516).— The practice of matriculating 
at a very early age, in the eighteenth century, does 
not seem to have been confined to English univer- 
sities. Jamieson, who wrote the * Scottish Dic- 
tionary,' entered Glasgow University at the pre- 
mature age of nine. There had been two pre- 



[7tb S. X. Auo. 9, '90. 


paratory stages. He was first, for a year, under the 
junior master in the Glasgow Grammar School, but 
was withdrawn, as the junoir master was of that 
old-fashioned type of instructor that rejoiced in boon 
companions, and favoured pupils who (unlike Jamie- 
son) were able to give him substantial " Candlemas 
ojfferings." After two years under a private teacher, 
Jamieson was deemed ready to enter the university, 
joining, says his biographer, "the first ^ Humanity,^ 
or Latin class when only nine years old." There is 
no wonder that Dr. Jamieson afterwards "gently 
expresses his regret that his excellent father should 
have so hurried on his education." 

Thomas Bayne. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

Jeremy Bentham's appears to have been the 
earliest case of matriculation at Oxford. Born 
Feb. 15, 1748, he matriculated June 26, 1760, others 

it. I fancy it is in the 'Essays,' but in a hurried 
search I cannot put my hand on it. He used on 
returning home to throw off his official robes with 
*^Lie there, my good Lord Treasurer," leaving 
cares aside till he resumed them all again with to- 
morrow's business. Fuller, as he tells it, has 
managed to spoil the bloom of Bacon's neat narra- 

0. A. Ward. 


Marco Sadeler (7'*^ S. ix. 348, 435).— ^gidius 
or Gillis Sadeler seems to have been most talented 
of this large family, being termed *^ the phoenix of 

I have a * Virgin and Child' inscribed "Albertus 
Durer Almanus Inventor, S. E. M*^^ Sculptor 
-^gid: Sadeler, Sculpsit." My impression is un- 
equal, being faint in some parts, very dark in 

under the age of twelve and a half. 

J. M. Wheeler. 

* England's Parnassus,' by E. A. (7*^S. ix. 486). 

Besides that of Eobert Allot, the name of Kobert 
Armin has been suggested as the full form of this 
E. A., and it is so far a better suggestion in that, 
physically speaking, he could have been the editor. 
On the other hand, there is not a single ghost of 
fact, either in his known history or in his writings, 
beyond the sameness of the initials, to associate 
bim with this book. Nay, more, there is nothing 
known which in any way connects him with that 
small poet E. Guilpin. But a Eobert Allot, 
father, uncle, or other ancestral relative, as may be 
supposed, of the publisher, was joint author with 
Guilpin of a sonnet before Markham's * Devereux/ 
1697. This vague and otherwise unknown an- 
cestral relative can, therefore, with a good deal of 
probability, be supposed to be, as I said before, 
the E. A. of the ^ Parnassus ' title-page. 

Br. Nicholson. 

I do not admit that in early days "publishers 
naturally chose the latest day; they could" for 
entry at Stationers' Hall, whatever may be the 
modern usage; on the contrary, I say "sharp" 
was then the word. 

Dr. Nicholson does not appear to have con- 
sidered the claims of Eobert Allot, M.D., of St. 
John's College, Cambridge, Linacre Professor of 


A. Hall. 

The Study of Dai^tb in England (7**^ S. v. 
85, 252, 431, 497; vi. 57).— Here is another direct 
reference to Dante in the " Waverley Novels'' in 
addition to that which I pointed out (p. 431) in 
' Eob Eoy.' See ' The Fortunes of Nigel,' chap, 
xxviii., a few lines from the beginning. 

Jonathan Bouchier. 


439).— Fuller is not the authority for this. It is 
Bacon tells it, and Fuller no doubt thence derived 

If the plate was worn, it has been 
" touched ^ afterwards. Where is the original ; ' 
and was it at first produced as a painting, a wood- 

block, or an etching ? 

A. Hall. 

Goldsmith's * Traveller ' (7'^ S. ix. 364, 437). 

In Todd's ^ Johnson ' no example is given of the 
relative that having the first person as an ante- 
cedent. Here is a verse from Shakspeare in which 
the first person is an antecedent to that: 

But I that am not shaped for sportive tricks. 

' Richard III.,' I. i. 

E. Yardley, 

Great Ormes Head (7*** S. ix. 507; x. 57). 
In classing the name of the city of Worms among 
the Teutonic "worm'' names, your correspondent 
0. 0. B. has overlooked the fact that Borbeto- 
magus, the oldest form of the name, which we 
find in Ptolemy, is decisively Celtic. The last 
portion of the word means a " plain," while the 
first portion is believed to denote "defence" or 



Isaac Taylor. 


Church of Sta. Maria del Popolo, Eome 
(7*^ S. ix. 366). — This church is noticed in the 
'Life of Father Thomas Burke, O.P.,' chap, viii., 
London, Kegan Paul, Trench & Co., 1884. 


Spurs (7'^ S. x. 9, 75).— Let me advise your 
readers who take an interest in this subject to pay 
a visit to Westminster Abbey and inspect the 
tomb — said to be one of the finest in the church 
of the gallant general Sir Francis Vere, who died 
in 1609, in the chapel of St. John the Evangelist. 
The spurs cannot, indeed, gingle or jingle, but 
they are finely carved on the heels of the four 
knights in armour who support the canopy on their 
shoulders, on which lies the armour of Sir Francis, 
having amongst it a pair of spurs. An excellent 
model of this monument faces all visitors on their 
entrance to the South Kensington Museum. It is 

said that the idea of it was taken from the monu- 

T" a. X. Aug. 9, 'fiO.] 



t#- •- 

nent of Engelbert of Nassau in the cathedral 
c hurch of Breda, in Holland. 

Probably gingling or jingling, and clinking or 
c fenJfcm^ have the same meaning. In a p oem by 
the present Bishop of Derry, recited at Lord 
Derby's installation in the Sheldonian Theatre at 
Oxford in 1853, is the following illustrative stanza: 

Time pasa'd— my groves were full of warlike stirs ; 
The student's heart was with the merry spea rs. 

Or keeping measure to the clanking spurs 

Of Rupert's Cavaliers. 



Seeing that the rowelled spur has been in vogue 
ever since the eleventh century, is it unreasonable 
to suppose that in 1599 the military dandy of the 
day had already discovered what is now well 
known to every trooper in Her Majesty's service, 
I mean the deadly effect of a loosened rowel? 
But, unless my memory deceives me, I have seen 
Mexican spurs with enormous silver rowels, fitted 
with bars such as Dr. Nicholson describes. But 
this might simply have been a device to prevent 
the rowel from dropping out, though I am bound 
to admit that it would also increase the jingle. 




JB Mttrimuth Continuatio Chronicarum. Rohertus 
de Avesiury de Qestis Mirabilibus Regis Edwardi 
Tertii. Edited by Edward Maunde Thompson. Rolls 
Series. (Longmans & Co.^ 
It has often been remarked that when the great monastic 
chroniclers left oflF writing twilight settles on our history. 
It is true that the national records to be found in Rimer's 
* Foedera,' and yet remaining unprinted, in part supply 
this gap. They do not do so entirely, however, and when 
they furnish us with full information as to a treaty or a 
preparation for war we miss all the interesting and life- 
like touches which render the monastic chroniclers such 
delightful reading to those who are not deterred by the 
language in which they are written. The notion yet 
exists that the Latin of the Middle Ages, because it 
differs from that of Tacitus, is therefore barbarous. So 
silly a superstition must die of itself, and is not worth 


The second of the little chronicles in this volume is 
very interesting. It is almost solely a military history, 
and as such most valuable, though we cannot help wish- 
ing that Robert of Avesbury had taken more interest in 

home affairs. 

''My country, right or wrong," is an immoral maxim 
which is attributed to America. Wherever it comes 

from, it is a harmful proposition, which Englishmen 

who never heard the saying in its proverbial form have 
acted on for ages. Many people yet have a notion that 
in the long and cruel wars with France which were 
waged in Plantagenet times England was almost always 
in the right. No statement can well be more contrary 
to fact. The ambition of our English kings was well 
seconded by the nobles and the common people. No 
one class is to be blamed for these long-continued 
horrors. The wars of the last century have been cruel 
enough, but the atrocities of English, French, and Ger- 
man of late years have been as nothing to what took 
place in France when England was reaping what men 

call glory. The chronicler Speed was well aware of this, 
and gives a striking picture, far too long to quote here, 
of the crimes of our countrymen. Southey gives it at 
length in his notes to the first book of his 'Joan of Arc' 
We find little of this in Robert of Avesbury's pages ; but 
his is an accurate chronicle, which must be of the greatest 
use to any one who shall undertake the task of writing 
a really good history of the great Anglo-French wars. 
Our readers must judge for themselves as to motives ; 
but it is a curious fact worth mentioning that the Pope 
wrote a long letter and otherwise exerted himself to 
hinder Edward III. proceeding with his ambitious de- 
signs. We need not say that this intervention came to 
nothing. The secular power of the Popes had declined 
much from the almost absolute position as arbiters in 
European politics which they had held when Hildebrand 
and Innocent III. occupied the throne of the fisherman. 
Robert of Avesbury does not confine himself entirely 
to fighting. We have a highly condensed account of 
that terrible scourge the Black Death. He speaks of it 
as " pestilentia, quae in terra per Saracenos occupata 
primitus incohavit." This is in a measure, but not fully 
true. That it reached Christendom from Moslem lands 
is certain ; but there is good ground for believing that 
it came from the furthest East. Those to whom the 
tongues of Asia are not a sealed book would do a service 
if they would give us an English version of what the 
Orientals have to tell of the most terrible pestilence 
which ever attacked the human race. 


Banhury Chap-Books and Nursery Toy-Booh Literature^ 

By Edwin Pearson, (Reader.) 
Under a title long enough to stand beside that of Nares's 
'Life of Burleigh,' Mr. Reader has issued, in a limited 
edition, a large series of the chap-book and nursery-book 
illustrations which remained in vogue till near the middle 
of the century. Very unequal in merit are these, ex- 
tending from the most rudely executed wood-blocks of 
primitive times to the works of Bewick and Cruikshank. 
They are, however, of equal interest. Mr. Pearson has 
not confined himself to the productions of the Banbury 
Press, but has dealt with other presses at York, New- 
castle, Bath, and elsewhere. The first series of cuts he 
gives are those by John Bewick* executed for the ' Sur- 

E rising Adventures of Philip Quarll.' All but inex- 
austible is, however, the matter, including various sets 
of illustrations to -^sop's 'Fables,' 'Jack the Giant 
Killer,' * Goody Two Shoes,' * Blue Beard,' &c. These 

are carefully reproduced. 'Banbury Chap-Books' ia 
both entertaining and valuable. It will commend the 

volume to book-lovers to say that it is likely in time to 

become as scarce as are the books and leaflets which it 


In his 'Armenia and the Armenian People,' con- 
tributed to the Fortnightly, Mr. E. B. Lanin continues 
the indictment of Russia which has led Mr. Swinburne 
to publish in the same magazine the fierce diatribe he 
calls ' Russia : an Ode.' Mr. Austin Dobson writes 
pleasantly and genially on ' Hogarth's Tour,' depicting 
for us the MS. as it exists to-day in the Print Room of 
the British Museum. Dr, Dillon gives a curious pic- 
ture of * Mickiewicz, the National Poet of Poland.' 
* Ethics and Politics ' is the title of a thoughtful paper 
by Sir Rowland Blennerhassett. Mr, Oswald Crawfurd 
returns to the charge against actor-managers, and breaks 
another lance against Mr, Irving and Mr. Tree. — To the 
Nineteenth Century "Adalet" contributes, under the 
title of ^ A Voice from a Harem,' some curious informa- 
tion as to the changed views now prevailing in Turkey 
concerning women. Mr, H. G. Hewlett writes at msoe 
I length concerning 'Charles I, as a Picture Collector.' 
1 * On the Rim of the Desert,' by E. N. Buxton, is a record 



[7^ S. X. Aug. 9, '90. 

Dr. Ewart has some remark- 

of sbootmK ^'big game." ^ ^ ■. ir . 

able obseivationp conce'Tiing hypnotism and its eflects. 
His paper is entitled 'The Power of Suggestion.' Mr. 
Romanes writes on * Primitive Natural History, Mr. 
Mew on * The Hebrew Hell/ and Mrs. Frances Darwin 
on ' Domestic Service.'— The Cm^nr^ contains very many 
noteworthy and admirably illustrated articles. Such are 

* The Treasures of the Yosemite,' * The Perils and R( mance 
of Whaling/ *An Artist's Letters from Japan/ |Pro- 
vencnl Pilgrimage/ part ii., with its pictures of Avignon 
and Villeneuve, * The Women of the French Salons/ and 

* A Yankee in Andersonville/ Mr. JeflFerson's 'Reminis- 
cences' deal with John Brougham, Browning, and 
Fechter. Mr. StiUman writes on 'Sandro Botticelli/ 
some of whose works in the Florentine galleries are 
reproduced, — *Sc*tt's Heroines ' recommences in Mac- 
millan's a task begun and suspended eome years a^o. 
Alice Bridgenorth is tlie heroine with whom the writer 
principally concerns himself. Mr. Goldwin Smith writes 
on *The Two Mr. Pitts/ There is also a paper on 

* Piranesi 

Works, .„ 

Collins.'— 3/wrray8 deals with ' Heligoland in 1890/ and 

gives from the pen of Mile. Blaze de Bury a disquisition 
upon * Pierre Loti.'— In the Gentleman's Mr. Walford 
writes on * Old Q./ as the Duke of Queensberry was 
irreverently called, atd Mr. W. J. Lawrence on * Iri^h 
Character in Engliph Dramatic Literature/ 'Among 
Rooks ' and * In Ceylon ' are readable.— The first part of 
an account of ' The Empiie in Mexico ' begins in Bel- 
gravia.—Frof. Max Miiller writes in the Ntto Review 'A 
Lecture in Defence of Lectures.'— In the English Illu^-^ 
trated appears a fully illustrated account of ' Heligoland.' 
Sir Donald MMckenzie Wallace continues his account 

*An August Ramble down the 
Mr. Walter Herries Pollock 

-' Summer 

lesi.'-r^mjo/g 5ar has papers on ^Dryden's Prose 
i/ on 'Whttenu/ on ' Rivarol/ and on • Wilkie 

Overland from India.' 

Upper Thames * is pleasing.- 

writes in Longman's on * Th6ophile Gautier/ 

in Normandy ' and *The St^a and Seaside' appear in the 

CornhtlL—Newbery House, the Sun^ and All the Year 

Round havfe the customary variety of contents. 

With Part L5^ XXIX. of the Encyclopcedic Biciionary^ 
"Urceola" to ^' Villenage/' the monthly publications of 
Messrs. Caseell & Co. lead oflF. The illustrations, which 
are a feature of the book, are in this part principally 
applied to suVjects connected with natural history, as 
** Vaccinium/' ** Valeria n/' •* Vampire Bat/' &c.— Part 
LV. of the Illustrated ShoJcespeare, with an extra sheet, 
completes * Othello' and gives two acts of * Antony and 
Cleopatra/ The illustrations to the latter play are 
spirited.— OW and JSexo London, Part XXXV., lingers 
near Westminster, giving views of the coronation of 
George IV. and that of Anne Boleyn, St. Stephen's 
Cloisters, Guy Fawkes's cellar, the execution of the 
conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot, and St. Mar- 
garets Church. A third volume is completed.— Nau- 
mann's History of Music, Part XXIX., has a 
chapter on * Mozart' and one on 'Muic in England 
after the Death of Purcell.' The illustrations include 
portraits of Beethoven and Mozart and the Mozait 
monument at Salzburg.— Pic^wreA^we Australasia, Part 
XXII., has capital views of Perth and the Swan river, 
and some striking representations of a bush fire. — Part 
XI. of Dr. Geikte's Holy Land and the B'hle is occupied 
with the country north and south of Hebron, and has 
views of Solomon's Pools, Dhaheriyeh, and other spots. 
Woman's World has a portrait of Mrs. Kendal. 

The Bookbinder, now issued by Raith by, Lawrence & 
Co., reproduces many curious and interesting bindings, 
ancient and modern, and has a pleasant variety of 
general contents. With it is incorporated the Book- 
maker, and the combined works constitute an im- 

portant organ of the book trade. A portrait of Mr, 
Joseph Zaehnsdorf is the first in a newly-established 
" Portrait Gallery." 

JPraotical experience has convinced us that the 
authors' paper pad of Messrs. Field & Tuer is an ideal 
paper for literary purposes. Acting on a suggestion of 
Punchy and with a view to assist the travelling writer, 
the publishers have now issued a wooden pad-holder, by 
aid of which writing may be accomplished comfortably 
in a carriage or in any place in which full facilities are 
not to be obtained. It is a simple and very useful in- 

The catalogues of Sotheran & Co. contain, as usual, 

many books of high interest and importance, as a collec- 
tion of Arctic voyages ; Ormerod's ^ Cheshire '; Vindelin 
de Spira's 'Divina Comraedia' (1477); *L'Art de Verifier 
les Dates,' large paper, &c. James Westell of Oxford 
Street issues an interesting catalogue, the first for very 
many years. The catalogues of Jarvis & Son and Picker- 
ing & Chatto contain always some scarce books. Arthmr 
Reader of Orange Street issues two. 

Reeves & Turner of Fleet Street catalogue a large 
collection of books. Wm. Ridler of Booksellers' Row, 
John Salkeld of Clapham Road, W. V. Daniel of Mor- 
timer Street, Albert Jackson of Great Portland Street, 
Tregaskis, Stibbs, Wm. Hutt, and Spencer (all of New 
Oxford Street), Garratt & Co. of Southampton Row, 
Rimell & Co. of Oxford Street, Buchanan of Great 
Queen Street, Dobell of Charing Cross Road, Spencer 
of HoUoway Road, Alfred Cooper of Kensinjiton, Jas. 
Aston, of Lincoln's Inn Fiel is, Bailey Bros, of Newington 
Butts, Palmer of Richmond, and Avery of Greek Street, 
catalogue miscellaneous works, including, of course, many 
that are scarce and valuable. 

Turning to country booksellers, the catalogue of Kerr 
& Richardson of Glasgow is, as usual, full of curious 
works; that of Geo. P. Johnston of Edinburgh includes 
a collection of works on mathematics, &c. Birmingham, 
always an intellectual centre, sends the catalogues of 
James Wilson of Bull Street, Alfred Thistlewood of Broad 
Street, William Downir)g of the Chaucer's Head, New 
Street, and Charles Lowe of New Street. From Bristol 
comes the catalogue of Wm. George's Sons, from Exeter 
that of James G. Commin, from Leamington that of 
Thomas Simmons, and from Portsmouth that of W. H. 

fitiiUtfi to CorrfKpanDfntK. 

We must call special attention to the following notices : 

On all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, bu 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. ^ 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents^ 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication ** Duplicate." 

W. M, M. AND G. S. B. C^Wayzgoose").— See6thS. 
iv. 80. 

Jno. Hughes (** Microbes") .—This is a dissyllable. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of 'Notes and Queries'" — Advertisements and 
Business Letters to " The Publisher "—at the OflSce, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com-* 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 

to this rule we can make no exception. 







7th s. X. Aug. 16, '90.] 



ri .L 


• k 

CONTENTS.— N« 242. 

K0TE8:— Massage, 121 — Rabbit and Riot, 122 — A Crom- 
wellian Commonplace Book, 123— Charles II,— Bar-Jonah, 
124— John Lilburne — Singular Solecism — ' Glenarvon '— 
Boteler Family — Wotton, 125 — Grange — Demography- 
Vulcan, a Christian Name — Carious Inscription — Holy 
Earth— The Banner of. St. George— Superstition concerning 

Bees,126._ ^^ • . '^^' ' 
QUERIES :— Fletcher Christian— Prior at Derehurst— ** Jack 
an Apes Bower"— Sir Robert Jermin— Edward Fitzgerald 
Jabez Hughes — Guevara Family, 127 — Samuel Coate 
Escapement-MS. Poem— William Shawcross — Shop — To 
draw the Line Somewhere — Chatterton — Carey, 128— A 
Shield of Brawn— The • Feth Fiadha '—Verses attached to a 

* V 

• Picture— Exihoor, 129. 

REPLIES :— The Corn-pbppy, 129— James : Jacob, 130— Mrs. 
Hartley— Turton Family — Errors of Printers— Statue of 
George IV. — Heligoland — Hamilton of Castle Hamilton, 
131— Byron's Birthplace— Royal Poets, 132— Mourning Lace 
—Crown of Ireland— Dab, 133— Old Jokes in New Dress— 
"Rump and dozen"— Senegambian Folk-lore, 134— Angels 
Und Needles — Betula — Byron, 135 — Highgate— Athassel 
Abbey — Register, Registrar, 136 — Waller — Rev. John 
Boucher-Folk-lore— Bibliography of Dialling, 137— Digby 
Change of Climate— Caf6 Procope— Marriages of '. 
of Argyle, 138. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :— Macray's * Annals of the Bodleian ' 
Jessopp's ' Trials of a Country Parson/ / 

Notices to Correspondents. 

t\ • 



The following case, which happened last August, 
affords a curious instance of a custom existing 
amongst the Fiji Islanders^ closely resembling that 
of a system of medical treatment which is largely 
adopted in European and other civilized countries 
at* the present day. I will merely narrate the 
facts^ and although somewhat of a folk-lorist myself, 
will leave it to the more profound students of com- 
parative folk-lore to decide whether the system now 
in vogue in civilized countries under the name of 
^' massage" may not have had its prototype in the 
means adopted by South Sea Islanders (possibly 
from time immemorial) to drive out certain evil 
spirits that were supposed at times to inhabit the 
human body. Whatever the result of that opinion 
may be, I think the case is interesting as affording 
evidence that an ** elixir of life" can be just as 
eagerly sought after by the islanders of the Western 
Pacific at the present time as ever it was by the 
alchemists of earlier days ; and especially is it 
interesting as showing under what dark superstition 
the native race of one of our British colonies may 
still lie, a colony which has been the scene of one of 
our most glorious triumphs of missionary enterprise, 

enterprise^ nao'reover, which has been quickened 
oy the generous rivalry of half a century of Wes- 
leyan and Eoman Catholic influence. / \ 

For the accuracy of the following facts I can 

speak^ as they formed the subject of a magisterial 
inquiry, the result of which I had myself to con- 
sider. It would appear that a certain woman, the 
wife of a Fijian, was taken ill, and complained of 
severe pains in her head ; to relieve which the 
husband had from time to time procured washes 
from native doctors, but without obtaining any 
relief. Subsequently hearing that a certain mid- 
wife (it should be mentioned that the woman was 
said to be somewhat advanced in pregnancy) who 
lived in the neighbourhood had the reputation of 
being able to cure pains in the head, the husband 
sent for this woman. In the mean time he obtained 
medicine from a missionary near, and administered 
some of it to his sick wife. Upon the arrival of 
the doctress she was told that the patient had 
taken some of the missionary's medicine, upon 
which she gave a yell, and exclaimed : *^ Oh ! I am 
afraid of that. White man's medicine is a bad 
thing. Native medicine is good," and expressed a 
wish to leave at once. This apparently had the 
desired effect upon the husband and a local 
magnate, or huli^ who was present, and the 
offending medicine was at once put away, and the 
doctress allowed to have her own way. She then 
set to work and poured some decoction from leaves 
into the patient's nostrils, which caused her to 
sneeze and vomit, and in consequence the pains 
somewhat decreased. Nothing more was done that 
evening, and^the next morning the woman, feeling 
rather better, partook of some light food. How- 
ever, it having been suggested that something had 
during the night banged against the end of the 
house near where the sick woman had been lying, 
the presence of spirits was feared, and she was 
directed to be carried across the river to her own 
village, which was done. During that morning 
the husband left the house to go to a neighbouring 
village, and on his return found that the doctress 
had during his absence fetched another woman of 
her acquaintance, presumably also skilled in such 
matters, to assist her with the patient. The woman 
who had thus been called in to consult, after a while 
proposed massage (bohoka), which the buli^ 
who was still present, and also his wife, approved 
of; whereupon the two women appear to have 
entered within the screen which in Fijian native 
houses divides the sleeping portion from the rest 
of the compartment, behind which on a rude bed of 
mats the sick woman lay, the men remaining out- 
side the sanctum. The husband gave evidence at 
the magisterial inquiry, and asserted that on the 
proceedings commencing he heard his wife scream 
out, as if in pain, several times, and implore them 
not to squeeze or press upon her, because she was 


This the doctresses affected to dis- 

believe, and, going on with their operations, asked 
her '^ Who is here?" meaning the name of the 
spirit in her body. To which the sick woman 

answered, ^' What spirit are you giving me all this 



[7*** S. X. Auo. 16, '90. 

trouble about ? " Then, as the two women kept on 
at the massage^ &he called out the name of a man 
who, it was suggested, she might have been intimate 
with at some time of her life ; but the doctresses, 
not satisfied, kept on saying, "Tell us who you 
have got inside of you, and we will let you go "; 
the woman meanwhile expostulating with them, 
and begging them to let her alone. The woman 
who had first proposed this treatment presently 
said, ^^ There is something else I intend to find out 
from you." Then the sick woman called out the 
name of a man noted for his licentiousness, where- 
upon the two women stopped, and the first one 
said, " You are all right now. Spit him out ! 
Spit him out!" The patient then, as the buli 
(who gave evidence) naively remarked, *^ spat the 
spirit out, but I only saw the spittle, not the spirit." 
The inquisitorial doctresses then departed, saying 
they would return next morning with medicines to 
prevent a relapse. After they had gone the woman 



husband that he 

sent after the two women and asked them to return. 
The instigator of the massage thereupon returned 
alone, without any medicine, but carrying a small 
pinch of leaves, which she held between her thumb 
and forefinger, so small in quantity that it could 
hardly be noticed. These leaves were then rubbed 
between the palms of her hands, and holding them 
still between the thumb and forefinger, she lightly 
dabbed them on the sick woman's chest, armpits, 
and thighs. This done, she recommenced the same 
kind of treatment of hand-friction (yamoca) as 
before, with the assistance of another woman who 
happened to be present ; in the words of her hus- 
band, "forcing their thumb-nails under the eyes, and 
forcing out the eye-balls, and squeezing her wind- 
pipe and loins with considerable force, endeavouring 
to find the spirit, and to squeeze it out at her eyes, 
or at any other place." The object of what was 
done, it was explained, was to discover the exact 
spot the spirit was in, and then to press heavily 
down with their thumbs, the intention being to 
expel the spirit by pressure at any opening. After 
this it was not to be wondered at that the un- 
fortunate woman began to utter inarticulate cries, 
whereupon the prime mover in this torture ex- 
claimed, '^She has got a Samoan spirit in her," 
induced to imagine this, possibly, by the inability of 
the ill-used and exhausted woman to utter sounds 
of any articulate character. The husband ap- 
parently then became alarmed at his wife's con- 
dition, and asked for some medicines to prevent a 
relapse (!), when the doctress poured a little liquid 
in a cocoa-nut shell and dabbed a piece of masi ^ 
occasionally into it and put it to the sufferer's 
mouth, remarking that " the medicine for relapse 
was not so effectual as the medicine to get spirits 

out that they were using." Meanwhile they kept 
on urging the woman to disclose the name of the 
spirit, and to spit, squeezing her loins and body 
all the time. This, however, the wretched woman 
was unable to do, and eventually, finding they 
could get nothing more out of her, the two women 
departed, leaving their patient in a fainting and 
exhausted state, from which she never rallied, and 
died a day or two afterwards, having been baptized 
by the priest and having received the last sacra- 

The husband was much upset at his wife's death, 
and was very angry that the treatment to which he 
had assented as a supposed remedy for bad head- 
aches should have ended so disastrously. He 
further stated that both he and his wife were most 
anxious to have children ;* and from the very first 
he said he had never missed an opportunity of 
getting the "elixir of life" {wai ni tuJca) from both 
male and female doctors (native) whenever he 
could. With one exception all he got was from 
friends, for which he paid nothing ; on that one 
occasion, however, he paid a woman doctor "a 
box, two * bolts' of cloth, two ready-made pinafores, 
and three shillings in money." That time his wife 
alone drank all the medicine. 

It was also given in evidence that before the 
massage operations commenced the patient's ears 
were ^^ steamed," and something was poured into 
them ; also, that a native doctor had been pre- 
viously called in, who had rubbed her head with 
leaves. A curious part of the case seemed to be 
that whenever the name of any celebrity was men- 
tioned to the sick woman, she had him or her at 
once sent for, as though this were a part of the 

attempted cure. 

J. S. Udal. 



* A kind of native cloth, 


Much has been heard lately of rabbits in Aus- 
tralia, and much has been heard more recently oi 
riots in Europe. Babbit and riot, perhaps, are 
two of the commonest words in the English lan- 
guage, yet their etymologies are unknown. I ven- 
ture to suggest that a close connexion exists between 
them, which clears up the etymology of both. 

The demonstration of this relationship may b 
premised by the citation of Diez's conjecture, 
quoted by Prof. Skeat, as to the derivation of riot 
a tumult. Diez surmises that Cotgrave's Frencl 
riote, "a brawling," stands for rivote, from 01( 
High German riben (German reiben), to grate, ruV 
(originally, perhaps, to rive, rend), and he refen 
to the German sich an einerti reiben, to mock 


* The Fijiaus would seem to be more anxious to res 
children properly than many native races are. Only 
little time ago I had certain preceedings for divorcii 
before me, in which the only complaint alleged agaiof 
the wife was that three children she had borne to hj 
husband had all died ! 

'ttS. X. Aug. 16,'90.] 



at :ack, provoke one, lit. to rub oneself against one. 
F)r this supposition of Diez that there used to 
e: ist in French a word riote or rivote, meaning to 
grate or rub, there seems to me to be veiy good 
ground; but they will, I think, be found different 
from and more interesting than those Diez in di- 
cii.tes. My contention regarding the word riot, as 
ajjplied to tumult and brawling, is that, far from 
hiving been originally used under such circum- 
stances in its signification of grating or rubbing, it 
is nothing more nor less than an old word for a 
rxbbit, and that in applying it to tumult and brawl- 
ing we are simply making use of an easy and ready 
metaphor afforded us by the hunting-field. 

The author of a manuscript in the Bodleian 
Library, quoted by Halliwell in his * Dictionary of 
Archaisms,' instructs the world as follows : 

*^ What rache [hound] that renneth to a conyng yn 
any tyme, hym aught to be ascryed, saynge to hym 
Joude; War, ryote, war ! for noon other wylde beeste yn 
Ingelonde ib called ryote saf the conyng alonly," 


This is suflficiently explicit. But how are we to 
establish the identity of the ryole which is a 
synonym for cony with the riot which is a syno- 
nym for debauchery ? Where is the mother term 
which shall bear witness to the affinity between the 
rabbit and drunkenness ? It seems to me that it 
is found in the current fox-hunting phrase "run 
riot," applied to hounds running off the true scent, 
often after a rabbit. The rabbit is pre-eminently 
the scooping or burrowing animal ; indeed, its 
older name of cony is derived by Prof. Skeat from 
tbat habit, and most of our terms pertaining to the 
chase we owe to the Normans, who were great 
hunters. There appears, therefore, good reason to 
suppose that ribote^ or rivote^ as specifying a 
burrower or scraper, was Old French for rahbit, 
and that whenever a young hound ran wild after 
rabbit we learnt from our Norman conquerors to 
speak of it as running rivote, ox riot, absorbing the 
phrase subsequently, just as we have absorbed 
many other of the ideas and idioms of our favourite 
sports, into our every-day conversation, and apply- 
ing it by analogy to young men pursuing a wild 
course of life, and hence, naturally, to wildness 
and uproar itself. Otherwise, why do we talk of 
running riot ; and why do we never run drunken- 
ness or dissipation or revolt, or any other of its 

' Whether the word rabbit, in its present form, is 
of French, or, as our dictionaries interpret it, of Dutch 
origin, it is not important to inquire ; but as rab- 
bits have been extensively reared in the Nether- 
lands, and the English have had much commercial 
intercourse with the Dutch, the great shipping 
people of a past time, it would be rash to assert 
that the English form bears no impress of Dutch 
influence. The French riote, or rivote, the Old 
Dutch robbe, and the English rabbit, have all, pro- 
bably, their root in the Teutonic riben. The ex- 

planation of the existence of the French word ribote 
(meaning debauch, drunkenness), the origin of 
which M. Brachet states is unknown, may perhaps 
be that the Normans had begun to employ their 
hunting term in its simple, but graphic, meta- 
phorical sense before they came over and settled in 




In the pretty rural parish of North wood, in the 
Isle of Wight, an old vellum-covered book has 
been preserved ever since the days of the Common- 
wealth, when its learned owner, Mr. Sparkes, held 
the cure. Its closely-written pages are disappoint- 
ing to the local historian of to-day, who would fain 
find in them some references to the quiet wooded 
parish by the Medina, or to the stirring times in 
which all this erudition was thus patiently com- 
mitted to paper. But they are interesting as show- 
ing how a moderate man in those troublous times 
regarded the burning questions of his day, and 
how a scholar, far from books and learned 
society, employed his mind in deep calculations, 
exercised his fancy in Greek and Latin verse, and 
kept his pen busy in copying all manner of religious 
pamphlets bearing on the theological points which 
had well-nigh distracted the Church and paralyzed 
her vitality. 

Although in some of the island churches the 
great wave of Puritanism which swept over the 
country had caused the suspension of the beneficed 
clergymen, Northwood (a perpetual curacy under 
Carisbrook, one of the livings belonging to Queen's 
College, Oxford) does not appear to have been dis- 
turbed. It is said by Neal that the island had 
never been greatly given to the strict observance 
of those ceremonies, "cap, tippet, surplice, and 
wafer bread," which so greatly tried the faith of 
the more rigid purists of the period. It had been 
a well-known resort for foreign Protestants and 
for foreign seamen, and the worship of its churches 
had, in consequence, a simplicity of its own, so that 
we read of none of those ravages and rude reforma- 
tions which in other places destroyed so much that 
was venerable and defaced so much of the beauty 
of past ages. 

At Newport, indeed, where for a time Puritanical 
feeling ran very high, the people prayed Queen^s 
College to send them 

"an orthodox minister, wee having at this time none 
other but one wee conceive infested with schism, as 


But from Northwood no complaint came, and we 
only read in the college records that during these 
disturbed times 

*' Mr. Sparkes was to have a competent and proportion- 
able allowance for his pains in discharge of the cure 
there in the time of the vacancy." 

He must have approved himself to the "triers'' 



[7"> S. X. Aug. 16, '90. 

who in 1653 were appointed "for the approbation 
of publike preachers "; and as these commissioners 
were Presbyterians, Independents, and Baptists, we 
can imagine that to pass the ordeal of their ex- 
amination was no easy matter. 

It appears to have been in 1654, on the death 
of the voluminous writer and divine Alexander 
Eosse, celebrated in Hudibrastic verse, that Mr. 
Sparkes came to Northwood. That his place was 
not soon filled we learn from a letter preserved in 
the old book, and written by the then governor of 
the island, Sir William Sydenham, brother of the 
well-known doctor of that name. It runs thus : 

For Mr. Sparkes, Minister, of Northwood, these. 
There being yet noe Minister settled at Newport I shall 
desire you to supply that place Againe for next Lords 
Day at ye request of ye maior thereof, is a trouble 
thus given you by Your assured friend, 

W. Sydenham. 
Carisbrooke Castle, July 3rd, 1657. 

It has been said that during the eventful years 
of the Protectorate the Church of England had no 
existence save in the persons of scattered and 
oppressed members of its communion j but here 
in this peaceful little hamlet we find a courageous 
and fair-minded Churchman shirking none of the 
difficulties of controversy, and yet yielding in no 
minutest point where the Churches rules and his 
clear, unbiassed conscience make his path plain. 

A brief note of some of the contents of his com- 
monplace book may be read with interest by those 
who would know "the graver thoughts of a country 
parson" during the memorable years of the Pro- 

On the first page we find, in the cramped and 
difficult writing of the day, an entry which throws 

light on a question recently discussed in ' N. & Q.' 

It runs : 

^^ Prohibited Times for Mariage 1626, 
«a. fi*ro' December 4, 1626, to January 14. 

"2. flFro' January 22 to Aprill 21. 

"3. flFro' Aprill 30 to May 20. 

'* 4. flFro' December 3 to ye end of ye yeare. 

*^A11 ye rest of ye yeare ye Church forbids not 

*'Coniugium Adventus toUit, Hilary relaxat Septua- 
gena vetat, sed Pascha octava relaxat Rogamen vetirat, 
concedit Trine posestas: Post crux, post cineres, post 
Spiritus atq Luciae Mecurij, veneris, sabath ieiunia fient." 

"That is ye Wednesday Friday and Saturday next 
after ye exaltation of ye Crosse being ye 13*^ of Sep- 
tember after ash Wednesday : after Whit Sunday and 

after St. Lucies Day are ember and fasting, 13^^ of 

Next, after some deep calculations anent the 
golden letter, we find the only scrap of folk-lore 
in the book. It is not to be found in any collec- 
tion I have had access to, so it may be worth 
noting : 

" If you would know what a yeare will ensue take four 
oake apples about St. Michael's Day and cutting them; 
and if within they be full of spiders then followeth a 

naughty yeare. If ye apples have within them flies yt 

betokens a hard yeare : if they have maggots in them^ 
then followeth a good yeare : if there be nothing in 
them then followeth greate dearth : If the apples be 
many and earely ripe it shall be earely winter, and very 
much snow shall be before yeares tide, and after yt it 
shall be cold : If the inner pte or kernell be faire and 
cleare then shall the summer be faire and come good: 
bt if they be very moist yn shall ye summer also be 
moist. It they be leare then shall there be a hot and 
dry summer : Lastely if in October ye leaves will not 
fall fro' ye trees then followeth a cold winter or a greate 
number of catterpillars on ye tree.'* ' ^ 

(The old Saxon word leare, for empty, hungry, or 
doubled up, is still in use in Northwood and the 
island generally ; but this is almost the only occa- 
sion on which the old scholar drops into homely 

The next entry of note (after long lists of words 
from a Latin dictionary) is a copy of 

^^the Articles agreed upon by the Archbishop and the 
Bishop and the rest of the clergy of Ireland in the Con- 
vocation holden at Dublin in the yeare of o* Lord God 
1615 for the avoiding of the diversities of opinions by ye 
establishing of consent touching true Religion." 

And truly in no uncertain words do these articles 
set forth the faith. They are nineteen in number, 
and in one we find some very familiar words : 

" Our duty towards o* neighbour is to love ym as 
o'eelves, and to do to all men as we would they should do 
to us, to honour and obey our superiors, to preserve the 
safety of mens persons as also their chastity goodes and 
good names/* &c. 

The same article goes on to state the freedom 
the clergy may exercise " to live the single life, or 
to abstaine from mariage at their owne discretion," 
and it ends with an emphatic condemnation of the 
" Romish doctrine of equivocation,'* 

In the article on baptism we read that ^ 

" exorcisms, oile, salt, spittle and superstitious hallowing 
of ye water are for iust causes abolished, and without 
ym ye sacrament is fully and perfectly administered to 
all intentes and purposes agreeable to ye injunctions of 


(To he continued,^ 

- \ 

Charles XL, Prince of Wales. — In the large i 

octavo edition of Eckwi/ BacrtXtKrj, 1649, I have a i 
copy of Hollar's portrait of the prince, in an oval, 
dated on the margin 1641, with the inscription, i 
*^ Charles, by the Grace of God Prince of Wales, i 
Duke of Cornwall, York, and Albany, borne i 
May 29, 1630." So that he was considered to be 
Prince of Wales by the chief portrait engraver of 
the day, who, moreover, was much employed by 
the court and nobility. J. 0. J. 

Bar- Jonah. — The good Lenette in Richter's 
romance feels her faith in Holy Scripture seriously 
shaken when she first hears the apostles whom ' 
hitherto she had known as Petrus and Paulus | 
called Petros and Paulos. Our New Testament 
revisers should have thought of such simple souls 




^- • 

7 " S. X. Aua. 16, '90.] 



DefDre changing "Simon, son of Jonas," in the 
second lesson at Morning Prayer for this day 
(Ji ne 15) into "Simon, son of John." The change 
is the more remarkable because *^ Simon Bar- 
Jo lah" is retained in the Revised Version of Matt. 

xvi. 17. ^ ;, ' ' ■ '.'.; ■ ■ . ■ 

The author of the ' Sermo in festo Apostolorum 

Petri et Pauli' (MS. Ashm. 42, fol. 281b) has a 

curious gloss upon this name : 

His thrid name was Baribna ; 
J)e resone whi \>at he hight swa, 
Es j)is ^at to vndirstandinge is 
"A doufe Sonne " in propir ynglihsse; 
For doufe sonne was Petir iwisse, 





To haue of Criste sight effter )?e time 
jpsit he sawe Jesu stye fra hime. 
Horstmann's ^Altenglische Legenden,' 77. 

The pious writer appears to have been unaware 
that in Eastern symbolism the dove was an emblem 
of authority and intelligence, whence it comes to 
pass that it is still represented upon the sceptres 
of kings. A few pages earlier in this work, by 
the way, there is a line that may throw some light 
on the abbreviation " Xmas." recently noticed in 




[ "- 

3r j^an 
tnd sai< 

\>\is bartill 

0. 0. B. 

John Lilburne. — About two years ago I pub- 
lished in ^N. & Q/ as complete a catalogue as I 
could make of the writings by or relating to John 
Lilburne. I have since met with the following, in 
thejcatalogue of Messrs. Garratt & Co., 48, South- 
ampton Row, Bloomsbury : 



Lilbum (Colonel). — Jones (John, Gent.). 
Jurors Judges of Law and Fact, or certain Observa- 
tions of certain DiflFerences in Point of Law, between a 
certain reverend Judge, called And. Horn, and uncertain 
Author of a certain Paper, styled a Letter of due Censure 
and Redargution to Lieut.-Col. John Lilburn, touching 
his Tryal at Guild-Hail, in Oct. 1649. 24mo., boards, 
vellum back, rare, 75. 6d. 1650.— The dedicatory epistle 
* To the Politique Bodie, and unanimous Fraternitie of 
the Army of England,' is signed * John Jones, from my 
Lodging at Mr. Munday's hous in Clarkenwell.' " 

I never heard of the book before. I think, for the 

should have a place in your pages. 


Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

Edward Peacock. 

[See 7th S. v. 122, 162, 242, 342, 423, 502.] 


Singular Solecism. — At the end of the 
obituary notice of Baron Dowse, in the Times of 



great Irishman has passed away. God grant that 
many as great may follow him." Of course we 
charitably believe that the writer intended to ex- 

press the (at the moment specially magnanimous) 
wish that other Irishmen may follow him in being 
great ; bat he has worded it so that he seems to 
wish other great Irishmen may follow him to the 
land of the passed-away from earth ! 

R. H. Busk. 

^Glenarvon.' — The following explanatory list 
of characters and places in Lady Caroline Lamb's 
novel has been inserted in the copy of the edition 
of 1816 in the British Museum : 

Lord Glenarvon 

Ld. Avondale 

Ld. Byron. 
Mr. Lamb. 

Lady Calantha) ., . . fLady Caroline. 
Great Nabob J ^'^^ ^^-^^^ \ Lord Holland. 
Princess of Madagascar ... 
Barbary House 

* • 9 

« * • 

D. of Myrtlegrove 

Lady A. Selwyn 

Sir E. and Lady Mowbray 

Lady Mandeville ... 

# • • 

• • 9 

Lady Margaret Buchanan 
Lady Sophia 
Lady Francis 

ft « # 

Mrs. Seymour 

# • • 

Ld. Trelawney 
Miss Monmouth 
Monteith House 
Yellow Hyena or 

Pale Poet 
Lord Dallas 
Sir E. St. Clare 

• •• 

ft t • 

■ « • 

• • • 

y A, 

• •• 

■ ■ 

« a • 

• # • 

Lady Holland. 
Holland House. 
D. of Devonshire. 
Lady Cahir. 

Ld. and Lady Mel- 
Lady Oxford. 
Sir G. Webster. 
Duchesss of Devon, 
Lady Morpeth. 
Lady Middleton or Lady 

Mrs. Primmer, Governess 

at Devon House, or Lady 


Lord Granville. 
Lady Byron. 

Brocket Hall 


Mr. Allen, 
Mr. Ward. 
Sir W. Farquhar. 

No authority for any of these statements is given. 
Can any reader of ^N. & Q.' confirm these ex- 
planations? Mrs. Primmer is^ I imagine, a clerical 

error for Mrs. Trimmer. 

G. F, R. B. 

BoTELER Family. — On a broken stone in the 
churcyard of Old St. Pancras, co. Middlesex, is an 
inscription which is fast becoming illegible. It 
runs : 

Edvardug Boteler 

Obiit Octauo die Januarii 

Dom 1681. 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

WoTTON OF Marley. — There seems to be a 
doubt as to the date of the decease of the first 
baron, and the succession of his son, the second 
baron, to this short-lived peerage. Sir Edward 
Wotton, born 1548, half-brother to the Provost, 
Sir Henry, who died in 1639, and is commemorated 
by Tzaac Walton, was created Baron Wotton of 
Marley in 1603. Hasted, in his ' History of Kent,' 
vol. ii. p. 430, says he died 15 James I. (a.d. 
1617/18) ; but later on, in vol. iv. p. 662, he puts 
the date at 1628. Nicolas, in his 'Synopsis,' is 
judiciously silent, for he writes ^' obt 16..." Court- 



L7* S. X. Aug. 16, '90. 

hope, ' Historical Peerage/ says " 1604," as if un- 
doubted. Burke, ^Extinct Peerage/ says "about 
1604." Sir Thomas, the second baron^ born 1588, 
died in 1630, about which there is no dispute. I 
should fancy that in some church register there 
will be found exact proof on this point. 

A. Hall. 

Grange. — It has been supposed that "grange " 
is a word which any householder can use, like the 
many Irish houses which are called " castles," never 
having been such. In fact, no land or no house 
ought to be called a *' grange " unless it was before 
the Reformation an appanage or "home-farm" of 
a religious house. In Oxfordshire, near Chipping 
Norton, is a house and farm called Bruerne, or 
Bruen Abbey, and not far off is a house and lands 
rightly called Bruerne, or Bruern Grange. It had 
been originally the " home-farm *' of a monastery. 
The word occurs (and doubtless often elsewhere) in 
a letter to St. Bernard : 

"Henrici episcopi Trecensia ad S. Bernardum de 

Bulencurise abbatiS, Bruliam cum omnibus appen- 

diciia et pertinentiis ipsarum grangiarum,^^ &c. — ' Sancti 

Bernard! Opera Genuina,' tom. i., P^risse Freres, 

Lyon et Paris, 1854, p. 328. 

The surnames Granger and Grainger no doubt come 
from the same source = custodian of the grange or 

home-farm of the monastery. 

H. DE B. H. 

Demography. — This should be noted as a new 


word, coined in 1890, and about as clumsy a con- 
trivance as new technical words generally are. It 
is thus explained : 

" I was invited to attend a meeting at the Mansion 
House on Thursday to help to promote the International 
Congress of Hygiene and Demography, to be held in Lon- 
don next year. The promotion of hygiene, as everybody 
knows, is an exciting and captivating occupation, but 
' demography ' is a science not generally understood. I 
went, accordingly, for information, but found that my 
Lord Mayor was, as well as myself, in the dark as to its 
meaning. Fortunately, Sir Douglas Galton explained 
that it is * the study of the life condition of communities 
from a statistical point of view.* " — Metropolitan , July 5. 


H. Marshall. M 

Vulcan, a Christian Name. — Daring a part 

of the period that Innocent III. occupied the Papal 
throne there was a King of Dalmatia called Vul- 
can. Mention of this strangely named sovereign 
may be seen in the English version of Cardinal 

has had more than one editor. There are "reasons 
which make it improbable that Wolfgang should 
be thus classically transmuted. ' Anon. 

Alleged Curious Inscription. — The following 
may be, perhaps, not inappropriately transferred 
from the ephemeral sheet of the CorJc Examiner of 
April 19 to ^N. &Q" 

^ *' In a Welsh church the following enigmatical inscrip- 
tion was painted under the Ten Commandments, and 
remained a puzzle for over a century : — 


After generations had gazed with awe on the mystic in- 
scription, an ingenious person discovered that, supplying 
the necessary e's, the inscription ran : 

Persevere, ye perfect men; 
Ever keep these precepts ten. 



Holy Earth. — " St. PauPs earth was supposed 
to be an antidote for snake bites, and the terra 
sigillata Melituse considered cordial and sudorific" 
(Dr. Leith Adams's ^ Malta,' &c.). In Ireland the 
peasants in the south and west regard that portion 
of the earthern floor of their poor homes just inside 
the threshold — " the welcome of the door," as it is 
called^ where he who enters pauses to say, " God 
bless all here " — as sacred, and the clay taken from 
this spot is frequently given medicinally, with full 
faith in its curative qualities. C. A. White. 


The Banner of St. George. — On a recent 
visit to Oxford, on the occasion of the inspection by 
the Duke of Cambridge of the Eoyal Military Col- 
lege at Cowley, and again on the anniversary of 
the Queen's accession, June 26, I saw this flag fly- 
ing on several towers in the fair city. The arms 
blazoned were Argent, a Greek cross gules. A flag 
of this kind on the keep of Norham Castle, on the 
Tweed, in 1513, is described in well-known lines 
in ^ Marmion,' beginning 

St. George's banner broad and gay. 

Asking several friends in the university the mean- 
ing or the reason for the adoption of this ensign, 
I found they were unable to assign one. 

John Pickford, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Superstition concerning Bees.— Some time 

Hergenrother's ' Catholic Church and Christian ago a friend of mine who keeps bees had a relative 

State,' vol. ii. p. 91. The only other Christian 
that I have ever heard of who bore the name of the 
Roman god of fire is mentioned in Southey's ^Com- 
mon-place Book.' A son of the Count of Fursten- 
berg, he says, who was named Vulcan, was killed 
at the battle of CensoUes (vol. iv. p. 507). He fur- 
ther tells us that the editor of Brantome supposes 
Wolfgang is meant, but he does not inform his 
readers what edition he is quoting^ and Brantome 

die, and shortly after all his bees died as well, be- 
cause, he was told, ^'he had not put crape round 
their hives." The singular thing is that when 
another relative deceased, a few months ago, his 
second lot of bees died too, and he had omitted to 
put the bees into mourning again. On making 
inquiries here in Norfolk, where the occurrence 
took place, I find it is a very common belief tnat 
unless the bees have crape put on their hives on 


7'b S. X. Aug. 16, 90.] 




t le death of a relative of the owner they will die. 
I P the superstition has not already found a place in 

/it may be sufl&ciently interesting to do 

. S. Illingworth Butler. 

. [See 4'h S. xii. 366.] 


83 now. 

* . 


We must request correspondenta desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to aflfix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 

answers may be addressed to them direct. 

Fletcher Christian and Peter Heywood. 
The mutiny of the Bounty in 1789 was originated 
by the former of these two persons, and the latter, 
who was implicated in it, was only a youth of 
sixteen at the time, serving as a midshipman on 
board, and apparently influenced for evil. It is 
known that they both belonged to good families in 
the Isle of Man. In Burke's ^Landed Gentry' 
(1879) is a pedigree of the ancient family of 
"Christian of Ewanrigg Hall, co. Cumberland, 
and MilntowD, in the Isle of Man "; but the name 
of Fletcher Christian does not appear in it, nor 
does that of his brother Edward Christian, Chief 
Justice of the Isle of Ely, and Downing Professor 
of Law at Cambridge, who graduated as third 
wrangler from St. John's College in 1779, and 
was junior Chancellor's medallist. The latter is 
mentioned by Gunning in his * Reminiscences of 
Cambridge.' The Hares of Docking Hall, Norfolk, 
are descended from this family, and it was their 
original patronymic. In former years they were 
Barons Coleraine in the kingdom of Ireland, and 
their sepulchral memorials are yet in existence 
within the altar rails of Docking Church. Fletcher 
Christian was subsequently murdered at Pitcairn. 

Peter Heywood, the midshipman, when the 

Was he in any way allied to the Christian family, 
as many leading families in the island in those 
days intermarried ? Penning these lines reminds me 
of an old and frequent correspondent of ' N. 4& Q.,' 
William Harrison, of Rock Mount, Isle of Man, 
who was removed by death Nov. 22, 1884. He 
both could and would, had he been here, have 
easily answered the questions raised. 

John Pickford, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Prior at Derehurst. 



any or your 
readers oblige me with an answer to the following 
query ? Who was prior at Derehurst, or Deerhurat, 
Priory, Gloucestershire, in the year 912; and what 
other particulars are known of that place ? 

Wm. Ransom. 


"Jack an Apes Bower.^ — In a book relating to 
the office and accounts of the bailiffs of the late 
Corporation of Winchcomb is the following item : 

*' Richard Caritas for Jack an Apes Bower at pennyless 
benche, iiijci.'* 

What was this bower? At the "pennyless bench" 
in Oxford the freemen met to await the coming of 
the mayor to accompany him to the sermon. Where 
was this bench, and why called "pennyless"? 

David Royce. 

Sir Robert Jermin, Knt. — I should be glad 
of any information about Sir Robert Jermin and 
his daughters Anne and Frances, living in 1597. 

G. P. A. 

Edward Fitzgerald.— In a letter to Prof. 
C. E. Norton, published in W. Aldis Wright's 
* Letters and Literary Remains of Edward Fitz- 
gerald,' vol. i. p. 418, the gifted translator of 
^ Omar Khayyam ' refers to a little work he had 
compiled entitled "Charles Lamb. A Calendar in 
four pages." The brochure^ it appears, was never 
Pandora, sent out by Government, arrived at published, but only printed and distributed pri- 
vately to friends. Can any reader of *N. & Q/ 
oblige me with a loan, or inform me concerning the 

Otaheite, was seized and put in irons, with the 
other mutineers, in a cage on the deck of the 
frigate, called " Pandora's Box." She was wrecked 
off New Holland, but he escaped by swimming, 
and, after unexampled hardships, arrived in Eng- 
land as a prisoner in 1792. Heywood was tried 
by a court-martial at Portsmouth, and sentenced 
to death ; but afterwards received a free pardon, 
whilst three of the mutineers were hanged at the 
yardarm of a ship in Portsmouth Harbour. He 
ultimately died in the Isle of Man, in retirement, 
in 1831, and my father told me that he had met 
him there in society a few years before that time. 
Once when on a visit to the Isle of Man, nearly 
forty years ago, I saw in a corner of the quiet 
churchyard of Kirk Onchan, near Douglas, a large 
railed enclosure, and in it a square pedestal, on 
which was inscribed, '* Entrance to Deemster 
Heywood's Vault." Most probably his mortal 
^ remains repose there with those of his relatives. 

contents, of the calendar ] 

Joseph Mazzini Wheeler. 

27, Eukel Street, Holloway, N. 

Jabez Hughes, Translator and Poet. 

When and whom did he marry ? Where was he 
buried? Hughes died on January 7, 1731, and 
his widow, whose Christian name appears to have 
been Sarah, is said to have died in Barbadoes in 


G. F. R. B. 

•Guevara Family. — Willoughby Skipwith, of 

Skipwith, CO. York, Esq., in his petition to the 
Commissioners for Compounding, speaks of his 
having the reversion of a rent-charge issuing out of 
the manor of Skipwith, " after the death of Mrs. 
Ann Guevara, his mother" (^Roy. Composition 
Papers,' second series, viii. 215). Who was she ; 
and who was his father ? A Sir John Guevara, of 



[7^S.X. Aug; 16/90. 

Lincolnshire, was knighted hy James L, March 23, 
1604/5 ; and Burn (* Hist. Parish Registers/ 
p. 135) quotes from the parish register of Berwick- 
on-Tweed the burial, on May 22, 1609, of Sir 
Henry Guavara, Knt., adding this note : " He was 
grandson of John Guavara, of Segura, in Spain, 
the only Spanish family that settled in England on 

A. S. Ellis. 

the marriage of Philip and Mary/' 


Samuel Co ate. — Can any of your readers furnish 
me with any particulars relative to the above ? 
He was the author of the curious ' Poikilo- 
graphia ; or. Various Specimens of Ornamental 
Penmanship,' London, 1812. I regret to say that, 
so far, there is no copy of the ' Diet, of National 
Biography ' in this province, as there would likely 
be some account of him in that work. 

Archer Martin, 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

[No account of Coate appears in the ^ Diet, of Nat. 

Escapement, Scapement. — I should be glad to 
be furnished with examples of these words of 
earlier date than 1779. The Fr. echappement, in 
the horological sense, is exemplified by Littr^ 
from a book of 1767. Can the English word be 

traced further back? 

Henry Bradley. 

6, Worcester Gardens, Clapham Common, S.W. 



my hands containing the end of a poem, which 
seems to be. an appeal for help, supposed to be 
addressed to some English courtier or statesman 
by George III. in case he had been dethroned 


France. These are the concluding lines. 
anybody recognize them ? 


Then with what joy will the converted nation. 
Crowned with oak branches, hail my R-st-r-t-n ! 
Again, as at the vagrant Charles' return. 
These curst Republicans will hang or burn; 
Belle shall be rung, and bonfires ehall be made. 
And the park guns all fired on the Parade ; 
Bright Thames the famed Regatta shall renew, 
And Ocean glory in a grand review ; 
A new thanksgiving by the Archbishops made, 
In all the churches shall be sung or said ; 
For three whole days the people shall be drunk, 
And thou shalt be created Baron Monk. 

Warren, M, 

Longford, Coventry. 

William Shawcross, or Shalcross, as the name 
is spelt in Mayor's ' List of Admissions to St. 
John's College, Cambridge/ Part I., 1882 (all as 
yet printed), was master of the Stamford Gram- 
mar School, 1662-65 ; succeeded by Samuel Geery, 
1665-73 ; and the latter by Joseph Sedgwick, 
clerk, who, by entries in the parish registers of 
St. George's, Stamford, was schoolmaster 1678-82, 
perhaps later. Wanted to know where graduated 

at Oxford (?) ; also any notes respecting Joseph 
Sedgwick, rector of Fiskerton, in this county, ins. 
1683, on the presentation of the Dean and Chapter 
of Peterborough, bur. July 12, 1702; also any 
particulars of his brother (?) John Sedgwick, rector 
of Potterhanworth, 1698-1703/4. Joseph Che- 
vallier, clerk, ins. to the rectory of Tickencote, 
Rutland, Aug. 3, 1692, where graduated, &c. 
Perhaps he was father to Rev. Nathaniel Michael 
Chevallier, whose name occurs in the parish register 
of Great Casterton, Rutlandshire, as curate, 1729- 
1737. Answers sent direct will greatly oblige. 

Justin Simpson. 

St. Martin's, Stamford. 

I . 

Shop. — Blackwood^s Magazine for 1827 con- 
tains some papers by the Ettrick Shepherd, James 
Hogg, in one of which, entitled * Dreams and 
Apparitions,' occurs the following passage : 

*^ One day, as George was sitting in his shop, as he 
called it (for no man nowadays would call that a shop in 
which there was nothing to sell), sewing away at boots 
and shoes for his customers." — Vol. xxi. p. 554. 

This is very puzzling. We have been accustomed 
all our lives to hear of the shops of tailors, black- 
smiths, carpenters, and shoemakers, and have come 
across them constantly in literature of all sorts. 
Shop has surely had for many years two meanings: 
(1) the place where things are sold, (2) the place 
where certain things are made. Was there at the 
time Hogg wrote a passing prejudice against the 
second use; or was it a peculiarity restricted to 

Scotland ? 

N. M. AND A. 


pression is familiar enough at the present time. 
Is it known who was the author of it? It occurs 
in S. Footers play of * The Devil upon Two Sticks,' 
Act I. sc. i., first performed 1768 : 

" Marg. As Serjeant Second'era said in the debate on 
the corn-bill, * Then why don't you chuse better ground, 
brother, and learn to enlarge your bottom a little? 
Consider, you must draw the line of liberty somewhere; 
for if these nights be long 

F. C. BiRKBECK Terry. 

Chatterton. — I should be glad if some corre- 
spondent of ^N. & Q.' could give me information* 
respecting a play called * Chatterton.' I wish to \ 
know its author and publisher. If I recollect * 
rightly it was performed at the Theatre Royal, 
Birmingham, about 1885 or 1886, Henry Irving | 
assuming the title role. 

J. Cuthbert Welch, F.C.S. 

The Brewery, Reading. 

['Chatterton,' a play by Mr. H. A. Jones and Mr. 
Henry Herman, was produced by Mr. Wihon Barrett 
at the Princess's Theatre, May 27, 1884.] 

Carey. — In an early will of Carey preserved 
in the Court of Husting in the City of London, 
1298, Thomas Cary, called " le Marchal of the Con- 
duit," left to Roger Brunne the moiety of a tener 

7th S. X.Aug. 16, '90.] 



I lent in the parish of St. Mary de Colchirche, to 
] old for a term of sixteen years from the day of 
Ids death; remainder to Johanna his daughter 
in tail if she should survive, otherwise the same 
to he sold for pious uses— Roll 27 (94). Did 
t,he neighbourhood of Conduit Street, near Bruton 
Street, at any time belong to the Careys in Lon- 
don I and did the name of Conduit Street derive 
its meaning from a well or reservoir before Lon- 
don was built over? In the same court is the 
will of John Cifrewast, in which he leaves to 
Thomas Cary his tenement in London without 
Ludgate. Johanna Cifrewast, his mother, Sir J. 
Simon Cifrewast, and Sir John, parson of "la 
Hoke" (Hook, co. Surrey), appointed executors. 
Dated Kinggeston, Tuesday next before the Feast 
of St. Luke, Evangelist (October 18), a.d. 1348 

,Roll 76 (239). 

f * 

T. W. Carey. 

* ■ r. 


A Shield of Brawn.— In no dictionary, glos- 
sary, notiDgs, or book known to me have I been 
able to come across a clear explanation of this 
phrase. Holyoke's * Rider's Eng.-Lat. Diet/ gives 
its Latin equivalent as "Glandium"; and in the 
Lat.-Eog. portion this word is explained as^*a 
kernell in the flesh '? (i. 6., a gland). Thomasius, 
1594, gives, "Glandium. Plin. The parte of a 
Bore next the necke which is full of kernels : the 
necke itselfe : also a kernell in the flesh." Th. 
Cooper's ^ Thesaurus/ 1578, gives the same down 
to " itselfe, as others thinke," omitting " which is 
full of kernels." Coles gives Glandium, "A Hog's 
sweet-bread." Can any one kindly give me — say 
from any cookery book or elsewhere — a more 

determinate meanicg ? 

Br. Nicholson. 

The ^ Feth Fiadha.' — Can any one oblige me 
with the words of the metrical version of St. 
Patrick's hymn (the * Feth Fiadha '), published in 
Duffy^s Magazine by the late J. C. Mangan ? 

' . ' R. W. Cochran-Patrick. 



Verses attached to a Picture. — The follow- 
ing verses are attached to a water-colour drawing 
by Thomas Stothard, R. A., which is one of a large 
collection given to the Nottingham Art Museum 
by Mr. Felix Joseph : 

So weak poor Cloe's nets were wove, 

That the' she charm'd into them 
New game each hour, the youngest Love 

Was able to break through them. 

Meanwhile young Sue, whose cage was wrought 
Of bars too strong to sever, 
• One Love with golden pinions caught, 
And cag'd him there fore ever. 

Can any of your readers inform me who the author 


Nottingham Castle. 

C. Harry Wallis, F.S.A. 

ExMooR. — In the new six-inch Ordnance the 
stream joining the Barle at Castle Bridge, under 
Hawkridge, is named Danes Brook. In the 

'Perambulation' of 26 Edward I. it is called 
Dunmokesbroke. Locally I have always heard it 
spoken of as Dunn's Brook. What is the authority 

for "Danes"? 
Wootton St. Lawrence. 

C. S. Ward. 

(7*^ S. X. 45.) 

It is generally assumed by modern writers on 
British botany that the corn-poppy is not one of the 
aboriginal inhabitants of this island, but a " colonist." 
The reason for this is doubtless to be traced in the 
circumstance that the plant is never found far away 
from cultivated land. At what period the coloniza- 
tion first took place it is, of course, impossible 
to say ; but it must have been so long ago that, at 
any rate for literary purposes, the plant may be 
considered as good as native. As a wild plant in 
this country it is probably older than any historical 



Ellacombe, writing in the Gardeners' Chronicle ^ 
Nov. 3, 1888, gives a list of plant-names taken 
from the*Epinal Glossary,' which is supposed to 
date from the eighth century. In this list occur 
the words "papaver-popaeg''; but there is nothing 
to indicate whether the words in question applied 
to what we now know as the opium-poppy {Pa- 
paver somniferum)^ or to one or other of the field- 
poppies, of which P. rhceas is the best known. 

In William Turner's ^Libellus,' published in 
1538, and of which a facsimile reprint was issued 
by Mr. Jackson in 1877, the following note 
occurs: "Papaver sativum. Papaver sativu' grseci 
mecona sativu' dicunt, angli Poppi, Papauer errati- 
cum redecorne rose, aut wylde pappy vocatur." 
Gerarde, in his * Herbal,' 1597, gives a good figure 
of the " Corne Eose, or Wild Poppie," which he 
also calls by its Latin name, Fapaver rhceas. 
"They growe," says he, "in earable grounds, 
among wheat spelt, rie, barley, otes, and other 
graine, and in the borders of fieldes." 

We have thus certain evidence that the plant 
grew three centuries ago in this country, in situa- 
tions similar to those in which it is now found. 
That its " habitat " now, as then, is restricted to the 
vicinity of "earable grounds," lends support to 
the assumptions that the plant is not a true native, 
and that it would probably disappear if the culture 
of wheat or clover were discontinued. Johnston, 
in his 'Botany of the Eastern Border' (1853, 
p. 30), states that in the formation of the railway 
cuttings near Berwick great quantities of poppies 
sprang up on gravel which was brought to the 
surface from some depth, a circumstance which 
leads M. Alphonse de CandoUe to suggest that the 
plant might be taken as an indication of the culture 
of cereals by the Romans in that locality. 



[7t^ S. X. Aug, 16, '9% 

Throughout Europe the plant grows in similar 
localities to those which it affects here. In Greece, 
from the time of Dioscorides to the present time, 
the plant has been noted only in fields ; but in 
parts of Dalmatia and in Sicily the poppy, accord- 
ing to M. de Candolle, is found '^incoUibus apricis 
herbosis ubique." Now Sicily was a great Roman 
granary, and our fields may have been stocked 
with poppies from thence, or at any even earlier 
period, from the shores of Northern Africa, where 

the plant is also found. 

Maxwell T. Masters. 


not inaptly terms the historic botany of Great 
Britain, he may with advantage consult Dr. Charles 
Pickering's exhaustive and ponderous quarto, ^ The 
Chronological History of Plants; Man's Record of 
his own Existence,' published at Boston in 1849. 
I have not it before me, or else I might supply, per- 
haps, thence an earlier mention of the corn-poppy 

Mr. Peacock. 


Peacock can hardly mean to adduce such poetical 
references as evidence of the existence of poppies 
(or other plants) in any particular country. 

Dryden obtained his simile of the poppy from 
Virgil and Homer ; and had he mentioned the 
oleander, for instauce, in his lines, such quotation 
could not have proved that oleanders bloomed in 
the riverside banks of the Thames in the days of 
the Merry Monarch. Dryden had previously trans- 
lated Virgil's lines, '-^aeidos,' lib. ix., describing 
the death of Euryalus : 

Volvitur Euryalus leto, pulchrosque per artus 
It cruor, inque huraeros cervix collapsa recumbit : 
Purpureus veluti cum flos, Bucciesus aratro, 
. Lauguescit moriens ; laasove papavera coUo 
DemiBere caput, pluvia quum forte gravantur. 

Rendered by Dryden thus : 

Down fell the beauteous youth ; the yawning wound 

GuBh'd out a purple stream, and stain'd the ground. 

His snowy neck reclines upon his breast. 

Like a fair flow'r by the keen share opprees'd — 

Like a white poppy sinking on the plain, 

Whose heavy head is overcharged with rain. 

But Virgil had derived, in like manner, his simile 
from Homer. See 'Iliados/ ^., describing the 
slaughter effected by Teucer's mortal arrows and 
the death thereby of fair Castianira's son Gorgythio, 

KapTTcp [ipiOoixkvq voTirjcrl T€ etapLvfjo-iv. 

And we know that Sicyon was formerly named 


lation runs : 


Pope's trans- 

As full-blown poppies overcharged with rain 
Decline the head, and drooping kiss the plain ; 
So sinks the vouth: his beauteous head, deprest 
Beneath his helmet, drops upon his breast. 

I should not like to venture an opinion on the 
date of the introduction of the corn-poppy; but, 
speaking off-hand, I should judge that it has been 

in these islands as long as wheat has been cul- 
tivated. Probably I am wrong in my surmise ; 
but Dryden's lines are no evidence one way or 
another. S. Pasfield Oliver, F.S.A, 

Anglesey, Gosport. 


[Very numerous replies are acknowledged.] 

James: jAC0B(7"*S.i3r. 189, 354). — The equiva- 
lents of these names in other languages which will, 
I think, be found of use in investigating the con* 
nexion between James and Jacob — or rather Jacob 
and James, as Jacob is evidently the older form 

are, so it seems to me, the following. Italian:. 
Giacobbe, Jacopo, lachimo, Giacomo. Spanish : 
Jacobo and Jaime (the j pronounced like the ch 
in Germ. hoch). Portuguese : Jaime. Provencal: 
Jaime, Jamme, Jaume (cf. Bret. Jalm), and^ in 
old Prov., Jacme, Jagme, Jamme (and Jammes), 
Jaime, Jayme. French: Jacomme, Jakemme and 
Jacquemme, Jakeme and Jacqueme, Jakemes, 
Jaime, Jame (more frequently Jamme), Jam, Jake,' 
Jakes, Jacques. Dutch: Jaap. Gaelic: Hamish. 
My authorities for these forms are Miss Yonge 
(i. 58), Larchey (^ Dictionnaire des Noms,' Paris, 
1880), Albin Body ('Etude sur les Noms de Fa- 
mille du Pays de Lifege/ Liege, 1880), Mistral 
('Diet. Prov. Fr.'), and Legonidec ('Diet Fran. 


And now I may as well say at once that I 
believe James to be a corrupted form of Jacob, 
and that I am inclined to believe that it has come 
to us not from the Spanish or Port, Jaime, 
but from the Italian Giacomo through some 
of the French forms given above. The diflferent 
steps may be given as follows : Jacobbe (now 
found in the form Giacobbe* only), with the accent 
on the 0, as in Hebrew ; Jacobo (now no longer 
found in Italian, but found in Spanish), with 
the accent on the a; Jacopo, Giacomo (with Gi 
for J and m for p, this latter an uncommon 
change); Jacomme (comp. our surname Jacomb), 
Jakemme, Jakeme (comp. lachimo), Jakme 
(the first e of Jakeme being dropped) or Jaeme 
(with the h of Jakeme left out— Jaeme no 
longer exists, but comp. the French, Span., Port., 
and Prov. Jaime), Jame, and (with the addition 
of the 5, which is found in the French forms' 
Jakemes, Jakes,t Jacques, and the old Prov. 
Jammes, and comp. the sh in the Gaelic Hamish|) 
James. § This s is probably the s of the Lat. nom. 

* For the change of a Lat. j into gi in Italian, cf. 
Giovanni (from Johannem), Giulia (from Julia), Giovane 
(from Juvenem). 

t Jakes (and Jake) are also found in M.Eng. (see 
Bardsley, index), but he takes it to be=John, not James. 
j3i)seB=^locus tertius may well be the same word. 

t Cf. Hamish with the Spanish Jaime, pronounced 

§ The Dutch Jaap is formed in precisely the same 
manner as Jam(e8), only in Jaap p has taken the place 
of the b of Jacob, whilst in James it is m. 

7^^ S. X. Aug. 16, '90. J 



*► -J 

J acobus (cf. Georges = Georgius and Jules = Julius), 
V hilst the French forms in e without s are probably 
firmed from the ace. Jacobum. But it is, of 
cdurse, quite possible that the French forms have 
originated in France itself, and the forms in 5 and 
the Proven gal forma* rather point in this direction. 
In our surname Jacomb (Kelly's * London 
])irect6ry '}, if, as seems probable, it = Jacob, the 
m has been introduced without the h being left 


F. Chance. 

Sydenham HilU 


The Beautiful Mrs. Hartley (7^^ S. viii. 

229, 277, 311, 414, 495; ix. 395),— The burial 
register for Union Independent Chapel, Woolwich, 

CO. Kent, now preserved at Somerset House, con- 
tains this entry : 

"Brick Grave.— Eliz. White of King St Woolwich died 
Jany 2Gth 1824 ap:ed 73 and buried in Sect 11. No. 102. 
Feby 6th 1824 by Mr Burtenshaw." 

Mention of this celebrated actress in connexion 
with a fracas which occurred in Vauxhall Gardens 
on the evening of Friday, July 23, 1773, will be 
found in a scarce pamphlet in the British Museum 
library entitled * The Vauxhall Affray ; or, the 
Macaronies Defeated/ 1773, 8v( 

the ground of 


the company of her husband and " Parson Bate," 
had been " put out of countenance by what she 
deenjed the impudent looks of four or five gentle- 


34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 


I » 

' f 

TuRTON Family (6"> S. xi. 189 ; xii. 9).— One 
of this family lived in Berks, and died 1722. I will 
give F. F. 0. what information I possess if he 



Lulhamstead Park, Berks. 

Errors of Printers and Authors (7^^ S. ix. 

261; X. 11). — The following passage bearing on 

this subject is worth a place in *N. 



quote from the Rev. John Edward Bowden's ^Life 
and Letters ^ ^ - - - — - 

1869, p. 490: 

"When they[Paber'fl 'Poems'] were first published, 
the phraseology of the North Country was not so well 
Known as at present ; and his printer three times re- 
turned to him a sonnet in which the word tarn occurs, 
with the line, 

By the black larn where Fairfield meets Helvellyn." 

Edward Peacock, 

Statue of George IV. (7'^ 
In confirmation of Precentor Venables*s remark 
that " the wretched thing was built up of brick, 
coated with cement, and moulded into the royal 
form," I venture to quote from memory a line of 
a song which was current about town fifty years 

ago, and which I heard in my boyhood, * The 
Literary Dustman/ Among other proofs of his 
ability and accomplishments, he says : 

And George's statue at King's Cross 
Was built by my design, sir. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

E. S. W. 

Heligoland (7'** S. x. 47).— Mr. Attwell 

will find the derivation of this name discussed on 
pp. 10, 11 of my * Heligoland and the Islands of 
the North Sea' (1888). Mr. Attwell has been 
anticipated in his suggestion as to Hallig-Land 
by Prof. Ernst Hallier in his *Nordseestudien,' 
pp. 84, 85 (second edition, 1869). A halltg^ as I 
understand the word, is a eand-island, occasionally 
covered with water; Hallig-lunn would, then, mean 
the island that is more than a hallig. I am afraid 
Hallier's derivation is but a guess. It is quite 
true that the Heligolanders always (among them- 
selves) speak of the island as "detLunn,''the land, 
and their language they call "Hallunner." On 
the other hand, it is quite certain that so far back 
as we can go Heligoland was a sacred, or at the 
least a mysterious land, to which the name Holy 
Land might appropriately enough be given by 
dwellers on the continent. The simple name 
" Det Lunn," or " The Land," was enough for the 
islanders, who lived chiefly on the water. 

William George Black. 

1, Alfred Terrace, Glasgow. 

The following verses, composed in the ancient 
and genuine Frisian dialect of Heligoland (which 
bear, at least, an early testimony to the popular 
identification of Heligoland with Holy Land among 
the native inhabitants), may deserve to be recorded, 
though it does not pretend to settle the original 
derivation of the name in its earliest form and 


Gron is det Lunn, 
Koad isde Kant, 
Witt is de Sunn ; 
Deet is det Woapen 
Van't hillige* Lunn. 

Green is the land. 
Red is the edge. 
White is the sand ; 
That is the signal 

Of the Holy Land. 


H. Krebs. 

In the fifth volume, lately issued, of ^ Chambers's 
Encyclopsedia,' it is said; " Heligoland (Ger. Hel- 
goland, native name det Limn, * the land')." 


Hamilton of Castle Hamilton 

^ * Italian would, however, be likely to have great 
influence on the Provenfal forms, for even now where 
rrovengal ends Italian begins. 


(7'^ S. ix. 248).— Francis Hamilton, of Killogh, 
(or Kealagh ?), co. Down, was created a baronet of 

[ Hillig, hilg, hallig, helligy hUlig=Old Pris. helech, 
Mlichy *.ۥ, holy {v, Doornkaat Koolman's * Ostfriesisches 
Worterbuch,' 3 vols., Norden, 1879-84). 



[74" S. X. Aug. 16, '90. 

Nova Scotia, with remainder to his heirs male, by 
patent dated Sept. 29, 1628, and sealed on Oct. 10, 
(see Milne^s list of Nova Scotia baronets prefixed 
to Foster^s ^Baronetage'). His son, 

Sir Charles Hamilton, of Killeshandra, was 
second baronet, and Gustos Rotulorum of the county 
of Cavan. He married Catherine, only daughter 
of Sir William Sempill, of Letterkenny, co. Long- 
ford, and died 1689. (Lodge names his wife St. 
Paul, alias Sempill.) He had issue 

1. Francis, his successor as third baronet, who 
married, first, Catherine, daughter of Hugh Mont- 
gomery, first Earl of Mount Alexander ; secondly, 

Anne, daughter and heir of Claud Hamilton, and 
died s.p. 

2. Nichola, married, first, Philip Cecil, of Drum- 
murry ; secondly, Arthur Culme, of Lisnamain, 
both in Cavan, and had issue, besides other chil- 
dren, (1) James Cecil, "successor to his grand- 
father''; (2) Philip Cecil, died 1684, leaving a son, 
Arthur Cecil Hamilton, heir to his uncle, married, 
Nov. 16, 1720, Anne, daughter and heir of Thomas 
Connor, of Dublin, and had two daughters and 
coheirs — Margaret, married, 1741, first Viscount 
Southwell, and Nichola, married, March 4, 1750, 
Richard Jackson, of Forkhill, s.p. 

3. Dorothy, married Francis, son of Sir John 
Edgewortb, and had issue. 

The above information is mainly taken from 
Lodge's * Peerage of Ireland.' Sir James (? Wil- 
liam) Sempill, of Letterkenny, was son of Robert, 
fourth Lord Sempill, by his second wife (see 
Wood's ^ Douglas Peerage,' ii. 495). There is some 
discrepancy here between Lodge and Douglas. 
I cannot trace any connexion between the Cecils 
of Drummurry and the Marquis of Salisbury. 
The present owner of Castle Hamilton does not 
appear to be descended from either of the 
daughters and co-heirs, but purchased it in 1844 

from Robert Henry Southwell. 


Byron's Birthplace (7*^ S. viii. 366; ix. 233, 
275, 431).— With reference to Mr. C. A. Ward's 
opinion that "the house which bore the tablet in 
Holies Street" was "not the actual house in 
which the poet was born," it may not be out of 
order to reply that in 'Literary Landmarks of 
London ' (Unwin, London, 1885), " the chief aims 
of which book," its American author, Mr. Laurence 
Hutton, states, in the introduction, **have been 
completeness and exactness/' it is recorded at 
p. 30 that 

** Byron was born at No. 16, Holies Street, Cavendish 
Square, in a house since numbered 24, and marked by 
the tablet of the Society of Arts. It is probably un- 

6, Freegrove Road, N. 

Henry Gerald Hope. 

the present Queen of Roumania, have sacrificed to 
the muses. The following are all I can think of 
at present. 

King Ren^ of Provence, immortalized by Scott 
in ^ Anne of Geierstein.' 

Charles IX. of France. Two sets of verses ad- 
dressed to Ronsard, included in "Poesies choisies 
de P. de Ronsard, par L. Becq de Fouquieres, 
Paris, 1885." To the first of these is appended 
the following note : 

"A ces vers, publics en 1578, se joignent TEIegie snr 
Me Livre de la chasse,' compost par le roi C^iarles IX. 
et une autre piece du roi accompagnee de la reponse de 

Of the second the editor says : "Publies en 1651, 
et sans doute alors remani^s." 
Frederick the Great. 

*^ In the midst of all the great king's calamities hia 
passion for writing indiflFerent poetry grew stronger and 
stronger. Enemies all round him, despair in bis heart, 
pills of corrosive sublimate hidden in hia clothes, he 
poured forth hundreds upon hundreds of lines hateful 
to gods and men, the insipid dregs of Voltaire's *Hippo- 
crene/ the faint echo of the lyre of Chaulieu," — Macaulay, 
' Essay on Frederic the Great.' 

Napoleon at the age of thirteen. Doubtful. See 
^K &Q.,'ptS. vii. 301. 

To the above may fairly be added the trouba- 
dour prince, Charles, Duke of Orleans, who, 
although not actually a king, was the grandson 
of one king and the father of another. ^^ II a 
laiss^ cent cinquante-deux ballades, sept com- 
plaintes, cent trente-une chansons, et quartre cent 
deux rondeau" (Chapsal). The Scottish kings 
James I. and James V. and Mary, Queen 
Scots, can scarcely be considered foreigners. 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

High in the list of royal poets must be place 
King Robert of France, author of the hymn * Veni 
Sancte Spiritus,^ still unsurpassed as a Whitsun- * 

tide hymn. 

C. C. B. 

PtOYAL Poets (7'** S. x. 9).— W. B. asks for in- 
formation as to what foreign potentates, other than 

The poems of Charles XV., King of Sweden ► 
and Norway, who died at Malmoe on September 18, 
1872, were published at Stockholm about 1862, in 
three small volumes, and were much admired. 

EvERARD Home Coleman. \ 

71, Brecknock Road. 

May I be allowed to instance Bdbar, the founder / 
of the Moghal dynasty in India, of whom it was [ 
said, *^He was a poet, scholar, and musician"? 
He was a warrior-poet. He wrote his ownt 
'Memoirs,' which are also said to be the besti 
picture of his life. An admirable writer, an 
admirable prince, a most admirable father. "I 
have borne it away ! I have borne it away ! '' he* 
joyously exclaimed, speaking of the sickness of 
his beloved, brave, exemplary son and successor' 
Humayun (died January 25, 1556). Have the* 
'Memoirs' been lately translated into our tongue; 
or have his verses ever been gathered into one 

7^ 3. X. Aug. 16, '90.] 




rolume ? I wish we were more conversant with 
he history of his life and the lives of Humayun 
ind Akbar. Their lives are full of faith, clemency, 
ovable memory, and such honour as we do not 
ilways see in our time. 

■ May I also instance Aurangzib, 1658-1707? 
Se was scholar and poet, and Emperor of India ; 
viewer of the greatest prosperity and the beginning 
of the end of Babdr's dynasty. I doubt not that 
many warrior poets were also royal poets. 

/ Earls Heaton. 

Herbert Hardy. 

Mourning Lace (7'^ S. ix. 388, 494 ; x. 34). 
Gualterulus wishes to know my authority for 
stating that the officers of the 63rd Foot wore 
silver lace with a black stripe previous to 1830. 
Without wasting space in answer this question, I 
will refer him to the Military Exhibition. He will 
find in Gordon House an officer's coat of the 63rd, 
circa 1820, showing the lace, the method of wear- 
ing it, and the celebrated ''fleur de lys" skirt 
ornament peculiar to the regiment. 
. 84th Kegiment and black gloves. — The latter 
were undoubtedly worn at one period, as the fol- 
lowing extract from the official report of the 1828 
inspection shows, "The officers wear black kid 
gloves with the blue great coat, sanctioned by Col. 

^M'oi'fToTi/l ;« 1QOO Jf rru:« , :i-i_- i i 

"Maitland in 1823. 

This may possibly have been 

in memory of some esteemed commanding officer, 

S. M. Milne. 

The Crown of Ireland (7'*^ S. viii. 467; ix. 
72, 176, 267, 356; x. 14).— When one who pro- 
fesses a jealous regard for the " facts " of history 
also insists that the line of the Milesian monarchs 
of Ireland through 183 kings is as historically " in- 
disputable as that of either England or Scotland," 
what shall we say? When he tells us, as if to 
silence cavil, that the list of these kings is to 
be seen in the works he quotes, once more what 
shall we say? Any one can see also a list of the 
preadamite sultans if he looks in the right place. 
But do Soliman Gian Ben Gian, and Soliman 
Ben Daoud come, therefore, any nearer being his- 
toric personages ? The chronicles (or the modern 
rechavffes of them) cited by J. B. S. tell us that 
the Milesian dynasty of Ireland lasted from the 
year 1698 B.C. to about the year 1183 a.d., or 
2,880 years. But Tighernach, admittedly the 
most reliable of all the Irish annalists (although 
J- B. S. does not mention him), lays it down 
(Moore's ' Hist, of Ireland,' i. 105 ; and O'Curry's 
'MS. Materials of Irish Hist.,^ Lecture III.) that 
^[ all the records of the Scoti (Milesians) before the 
time of King Cimbaothare uncertain." Such items 
as, e. g., that which the record of the thirty-fourth 
monarch includes— "lived 250 years and reigned 
150 "—were too much for even the Abbot of Clon- 
macnoise, and '^he makes the historical epoch begin 
from Cimbaoth (the sixty-third king on the list), 

about 289 B.a'' — a respectable antiquity enough, 
observes Mr. Justin H. McCarthy, "for Numa 
Pompilius was still listening to the sweet counsels 
of the nymph Egeria when Cimbaoth reigned'' 
(^Outline of Irish History,' chap. l). When one 
of the annalists himself cuts down the alleged 
2,880 years' duration of the dynasty by about 1,400 
years, striking sixty-two kings off the list, what 
has that list to expect from genuine criticism ? 

I have already referred to Moore's * History,^ 
and in vol. i. caps. viii. and ix. will be found some 
curious instances of the methods by which the list 
of kings has been spun out by the chroniclers. I 
need not multiply references. There is, however, 
one statement of the true relation of these legendary 
chronicles to history which I must not omit. To 
the question " Are such works, then, historically 
useless ? " Mr. Richey, in his valuable lectures on 
Irish history, delivered in the Dublin University, 
replies : 

. '* No : most useful ; but for purposes diflFerent from 
those to which Ihey are ordinarily applied. They are 
useful, not as evidence of facts which occurred at dates 
long prior to the writer, but as evidence of the habits, 
civilization, and ideas which existed at the time of the 
writer. They exhibit, not the events which they detail 
so much as the mode in which such events might be sup- 
posed by the author to occur at his own time. It is 
waste of time to detail the events related in such stories 
or poems; but it is most useful to exhibit the ideas 
which they assume. Early Irish history must be treated 

in this manner, "■ — Lecture L, First Set. 

But does not J. B. S. betray conscious weakness 
when he resorts to the argument that the election 
of Bruce " shows that there was a crown or tnon- 


archy to offer, as does also the fact that by Act of 
Parliament the crown of Ireland became merged 
in that of Great Britain and if a crown existed 



crown that the one hundred and eighty-third 
Milesian king resigned. But let that pass. In 
the argument just quoted we see the indisputable 
dynasty, dating from 1698 B.C., snatching at a 
straw of support for its credibility in a presumption 
drawn from the election of Bruce in Edward II. ^s 
time and an Act of the Anglo-Irish Parliament. 

Thomas J. Ewinq. 


Dab (7'^ S. x. 46).— The expression "He's a 
dab-hand" is frequent amongst workmen when 
speaking of one of the number who. is not only 
rapid in the execution of his work, but turns it 
out in a superior manner. It is also used in rela- 
tion to all things done in a clever way. 

Thos. Ratcliffe. 


Dab in French slang is God^ Icing y father /in the 
argot of. thieves ; by employes it is used in the 
sense of master, " boss." Delvau, in his * Diction- 
naire de la Langue Verte/ says, " Les Anglais ont 



[7th s. X. Aug. 16, '90. 

Henry Attwell. 

le meaie mot pour signaler un homme consomiu^ 
dans le vice :—A rum dahe [sic] disent-ils/^ That 
a rum dabe is an English epithet for a thorough- 
paced rascal will be a surprise to most readers of 

Barnes . 

Old Jokes in New Dress (7*^ S. viii. 66, 136, 

291, 409, 433 ; ix. 30, 158, 251, 354).— The CorJc 
Examiner of Saturday, March 29, gives promi- 
nence to the following : 

"A story is told of a certain Mayor of Cork, who 
headed a deputation to the late Emperor of the French, 
and commenced an oration to His Majesty in what he 
conceived to be the French tongue. * Pardon me/ said 
the Emperor, after he had listened to the speech with 
much patience, * English I know fairly well, but I regret 
to say I have never had an opportunity of studying the 
Irish language.*' 

In my ^Life of Father Thomas Burke, P.P.' 

an Irish Lacordaire 


& Trench published six years ago, the true version 
of the story will be found, vol. i. p. 310 : 

" Fr. Burke brought home with him a pleasant story. 
Prince Napoleon visited Galway in his yacht; and a 
local swell, rejoicing in an historic Christian name, who 
plumed himself on bis scholastic attainments, undertook 
to compose and to read, in the name of the town com- 
missioners, an address in French to the Prince. He had 
pompously proceeded through the introductory sentence 
only, when His Highness, interposing, said, in excellent 
Saxon, * Perhaps you would not mind addressing me in 

English, for, alas ! gentlemen, I do. not understand 
Irish.' " 

The local magnate to whom I allude was a colossal 
man — Sarsfield Comyn by name — and familiarly 
known as "the Great Western''— alluding, of 
course, to his Connaught home. I fear it may 
seem a little egotistical to write this note ; but no 
one else could testify to the point. 

Garrick Club. 

W. J. FitzPatrick, F.S.A. 




In a 

dozen " the wager laid on the priority of birth of 
two cousins expected about the same time. I never 



a dozen of wine. The phrase is explained in Dr. 
Brewer's * Dictionary of Phrase and Fable ' under 
'* Bumping Dozen." 

A. W. B. can find something on this subject in 

Hussey v. Crickitt, 3 CampbelFs Reports, p. 168, 

a case decided in the Court of Common Pleas in 

1811. The marginal note to the case is as fol- 
lows : — 

'^An action may be maintained upon a wager of a 
rump and dozen, whether the defendant be older than 
the plaintiflF. 

** When a dinner is ordered at a tavern by the autho- 
rity of two persons who have laid a wager of a rump and 
dozen, if the winner pays the bill, he may maintain an 

action against the loser for money paid to recover the 

It appeared that the wager was laid in May, 1809, 
when the plaintiff, the defendant, and seven other 
gentlemen were dining together in FurnivalUs Inn 
Hall. The parties met again in the same place on 
June 8 the next year, and it was resolved that each 
should name a friend for the purpose of deciding the 
question and of ordering a dinner at a tavern for 
the "rump and dozen.'* The plaintiff named H. and 
the defendant named K., who agreed in appointing 
the 14th of the same month, and ordered a dinner 
on that day for the parties and the other gentle- 
men present when the bet was laid, at the '*Albion 
Tavern " in Aldersgate Street. At the day ap- 
pointed it was found that the defendant was six 
years older than the plaintiff. He had notice of 
the dinner, but did not attend. The bill was 18? 
which was paid by H., who was repaid by the 

The witnesses stated that a " rump and dozen ^ 
means a good dinner and plenty of wine for the 
persons present. 

Sir James Mansfield, C.J., in giving judgment, 
said, " I do not judicially know the meaning of *a 
rump and dozen.' There seems great uncer- 
tainty as to what is meant by ^arump and dozen,''* 

and he complained of the frivolous nature of the 

Heath, J., said, "We know very well privately 
that ^ a rump and dozen ' is what the witnesses 
stated, viz., a good dinner and wine, in which I 
can discover no illegality." 

Chambre, J., said, "The witnesses have ex- 
plained 'a rump and dozen' to mean a good dinner, 
and this is sufficiently certain." 

3, New Court, Lincoln's Inn. 

Wm. Barnard. 

Senegambian Folk-lore : Sorcery (7*^ S. ix. 
401 ; X. 14). — The widespread custom of placing 
a plate of salt on the breast of a corpse is supposed 
by some folk-lorists to have originated in the be- 
lief that salt is antagonistic to evil spirits rather 
than in the knowledge of its antiseptic property. 
Mr. Conway (^Demonology and Devil-lore ^ fre- 
quently refers to this supposed power of salt over 
spirits and their ministers. Thus the Jews of the 
Vosges say that if 

"at nightfall a beggar comes to ask for a little charcoal 
to light his fire, you must be very careful not to give it; 
and do not let him go without drawing him three times 
by his coat-tail ; and, without losing time, throw some 
large handfuls of salt on the fire." 

Again, there is a weird tale of Heine's of a 
knight who, wandering in a wood ia Italy, 
came upon a wonderful statue of Venus, and 
lingering near it, was met by a servant, who in- 
vited him to enter a villa he had not before per- 
ceived. Here, to his amazement, he was ushered 
into the presence of "the living image of his adored f 
statue," and amid splendour and flowers was 'soon*! 
seated with his charmer at a banquet where every ? 

7'" S. X. Aug. 16, '90.] 



h xury of the world was served. But there was 
c 3 salt. When the knight suggests this want a 
c oud gathers upon his beauty's face. Presently 
he asks for salt. It is brought to him by a servant, 
V ho shudders as he brings it. The knight takes 
il* Madness seizes him, and after frightful visions 
of fiends and monsters he awakes in an agony of 
terror in his own villa. 

In his second volume (p. 

Mr. Conway 

quotes a curious and most interesting account, 
given by Mr. James Napier in his book on folk- 
lore, of a charm against the evil eye to which the 
author was himself subjected by an old Scotch- 
woman, in which salt played the principal part. 
He refers also to the * Liber Revelationum ' of the 
Abbot Eichalmus, to Job's sacrifice, and to the 
Jewish *^ Covenant of Salt," as throwing farther 
light upon this superstition, which he attributes to 
the notion that devils, as the powers of death, 

hate the "agent of preservation.'' 

C. 0. B. 

w _ 

This appears to be a case in which emphasizing 
italics"^ would have made the writer's meaning 
more clearly understood. Mr. Yardley's ** but " 
at the last reference has the appearance of imply- 
ing that the writer of the original note was 
oblivious of " the common belief that witches have 
an objection to salt." Had the word " this " been 
italicized it would have been clear beyond all need 
for reply that it was only this particular applica- 
tion of salt to the skin of a sorcerer's animal-form 
that was said to be peculiar to Senegambia. Other 
uses of salt in superstitious rites have been often 
recorded in 'N. & Q/ (6^^ S. ix. 461 ; x. 37, 92, 
256, 374; also 6*^ S. ix. 428, 514; x. 134, &c.). 
All this and much more concerning salt supersti- 
tions could not but be well known to so experienced 
a folk-lorist as Mr. Clouston. 

With regard, however, to his recommendation 
to the Senegambians to burn, instead of pickling, 
the cast skin, I will venture to remind him that 

is preparing is neutralized and made powerless by 
a bag of salt which the hero throws into it. 

J. Carrick Moore. 


Angels and Needles (7*^ S. viii. 247; ix. 436, 
514). — The Rev, J. Hooper refers to Alagona for 
the phrase *' An plures angeli possint esse simul in 
eodem loco." Alagona wrote a '' compendium" of 
the *Summa' of St. Thomas Aquinas (Taurin., 
1866), and the reference for this is to p. 62. But 
the expression belongs, of course, to St. Thomas 
himself, who at 1% qusest. lii., examines these 
three points : 

"Utrum angelus sit in loco; utrum angelua possit 
esse In pluribus locis simul ; utrum plures angeli possint 
simul esse in eodem loco "; 

which last is still more like the dancing. But 
neither in the ^Summa,'nor '^ on the sentences," 
nor anywhere else, can I make out that Aquinas 
justifies the reference to him by I. D'Israeli. 

The Pev. W. E. Buckley, at ix. 436, was able 
to show from Cudworth that there was an earlier 
use of the phrase in my query than that byD^Israeli. 
Can Mr. Hooper trace it to a still earlier source 
by a reference to Bernardo de Carpino, whose use 

of it he mentions ? 

Ed. Marshall. 

In the conversation between the servants in 
Addison's play of the * Drummer, or the Haunted 
House,' one of them, the butler, says : 

** Why a spirit is such a little, little thing, that I have 
heard a man, who was a great scholar, say that he '11 
dance ye a Lancashire hornpipe upon the point of a 
needle." — Act i. sc. i. 

This seems to prove that Addison was acquainted 
with the passage in Cudworth, or perhaps with 
the author from whom Cudworth derived the cus- 


W. E. Buckley. 

Many curious and interesting observations on 
angels, their nature and offices, are to be found 
in the '* Preliminary Discourse" prefixed to Sale's 

we have many instances of that process proving Koran, chiefly in chap, iv., but also scattered 
''* ' ^ ' - - - about in the various explanatory notes to the Koran 

disastrous and by no means final. Thus, in my 
* Sagas from the Far East,' which are not unknown 
to him, as he has honoured me by quoting largely 
from them in his collection, the second Siddhi-kiir 
story tells how Cuklaketu, the beautiful son of the 
gods, had two bird-forms, and that the burning of 
the feathers of one of them was not only transferred 
to the other, but to his human form also, and that 
without destroying him. In the seventh, the white 
bird'^ wife gets into a terrible lot of trouble by 
burning her husband's bird-form ; and in the 
twwty-third the husband gets into similar trouble 
by burning his wife's red dog-form. 

E. H. Busk. 


H. E. Wilkinson. 

16, Montagu Street, Portman Square. 

In Comte Hamilton's charming story 
d'Epine ' the hell-broth which the old wit 

of ' Fleur 
witch Dentue 

?h S. X. 12. 


Anerley, S.B. 

Betula, thl Birch (7'^ S. ix. 328 ; x. 12). 
In the Erse and Gaelic beith{older beth) the aspirated 
dental is mute, the word being pronounced like 
English bay. But the dental is organic, and re- 
mains softened to d in the Welsh bedueUy still 
more in the Breton bezOy bedhu. The French boii- 
lean is the Latin betula^ contracted to boule^ with 
a further diminutive making it bouUau. Doubt- 
less the Latin and Celtic words are cognate, but 
there is no Celtic form bertha^ as quoted by Mr. 

C. A. Ward. Herbert Maxwell. 

Byron (7**^ S. x. 8).— The third edition of 
* English Bards and Scotch Reviewers ' consisted 
of two issues. Of the first issue few copies 
seem to have been printed, since it is now very 

■ T 



[7th s. X. Aug. 16, '90. 

scarce as compared with the second issue. Fol- 
lowing the second edition, the first issue of the 
third edition has 1,052 lines, whilst the second 
issue contains but 1,050 lines, as do also the fourth 
and most succeeding modern editions. The varying 
collation is due to 11. 741-744 in first issue having a 
substituted reading in the second issue, whilst 11. 745 
and 746 are omitted entirely in the second issue. 
The following are the two readings. First issue : 

Though CruRca's barda no more our Journals fill, 
Some stragglers skirmifih round their columns still. 
Last of the howling host which once was Bell's, 
Matilda snivels yet, and Hafiz yells; 
And Merry's metaphors appear anew. 
Chained to the signature of 0. P. Q. 

Second issue ; 

Though Bell has lost his nightingales and owls, 
Matilda sniyelsyet, and Hafiz howls, 
And Crusca's spirit, rising from the dead, 
Revives in Laura, Quiz, and X. Y. Z. 

The first issue bears no imprint on the back of 
title, the second issue bearing the imprint of " T. 
Collins, Harvey's Buildings, Strand, London." 

The knowledge of the cause for this alteration 
after a portion of the edition had been printed 
would be interesting. The third and fourth edi- 
tions being published vehilst Lord Byron was on 
his first tour abroad, may I suggest (awaiting 
proof) that the alteration in the text was received 
from Byron by his publisher during the printing 
of the third edition, and was at once made by the 
printer, the copies already struck off being sent 
out on their travels in the original unaltered 
state ? 


to say the preface advertised in the third edition 
as for that edition is really simply a reprint of the 
preface written by Lord Byron shortly before 
leaving England for the second edition, and pub- 
lished in that edition. 

J. CuTHBERT Welch, F. C. S. 

The Brewery, Reading. 

This mysterious " third edition " has been fully 
criticized in the Publishers^ Circular of June 2, 
16, and July 1. The writer of the first article 
says, after various details of other issues : 

"Next come four copies of the 'third' edition, all 
bearing Cawthorn's name on the title-page, together with 
the date 1810. The water-marks in the paper are 
respectively 'Joy Mill 1808/ 'Pine & Thomas 1812/ 
' Joy Mill 1817/ and * J. & R. Ansell 1818/ so that out 
•f the four only one has any claim to be rightly con- 
sidered an actual third edition/' 

Two other copies have respectively water-marks 
(1) 1809 no name, 1805 E. & P., 1805 J. What- 
man, 1807 Edmeads & Pine, and 1804 E. & P. ; 
and (2) 1812 Pine & Thomas all through, while 
the date on the title is 1812. It is, therefore, 
certain that there were several issues of the third 
edition, on various papers, during 1810. 


HiGHGATE (7^** S. T. 8).— Probably from the 
silly character attaching to Highgate, from the bur- 
lesque nugatory oath, sworn upon the horns kept 
at the various inns. See * Journey through England 
and Wales in 1752'; Hazlitt, 1869, p. 81, with 
note; Hone's *Every-Day Book,' ii. 73; Lysons's 
* Environs of London,' first ed., iii. 78 ; quoted in 
Hazlitt's * Proverbs,' p. 169, 1882. There is a re- 
presentation of the mockery in Chambers's ' Book 
of Days.' See vol. i. pp. 117-19. 

Ed. Marshall. 

Athassel Abbey (7*^ S. ix. 407, 477). 


Wits and Worthies ' (mainly a memoir of Rev. Dr. 
Lanigan, the ecclesiastical historian), a book now 
out of print, contains at p. 77 matter in point. 

Published by DuflFy in 1873. 


Register, Registrar (7'^ S. x. 66). — The old 

Registration of Deeds Acts for the West, East, 
and North Ridings of Yorkshire, 3 Ann, cap. 4; 
6 Ann, cap. 35 ; and 8 Geo. II., cap. 6, use the 
word register instead of registrar throughout. I 
have seen, within the last fifteen years or so, the 
memorandum of registration endorsed by the 
registrar on a deed signed by him thus, '* A. B., 
Register "; but it is quite the exception to see the 
word spelt in that fashion, and I should think 
there are but few instances of it of late years. I 
have heard the word register used by a County 
Court judge, when speaking of his registrars, fre- 
quently, and was much struck with it at first ; but 
it would now seem that, if the spelling of old Acts 
of Parliaments may be taken as an example, the 
user of the word register has at least some autho- 
rity for it. The present usage is undoubtedly the 
other way, and registrar almost invariably used. I 
happen to hold two offices, both of which have the 
title *^ registrar" affixed to them ; and never do I • 
remember, and I have held them for years, being 
addressed in writing as register^ and only very 
occasionally so in conversation. The present Regis- 
tration of Deeds Act for Yorkshire (1884) uses the 
word registrar J and register is confined to the book' 
in which the registration is entered, and to the 


W. 0. Woodall. 


In the Isle of Axholme, as in Mr. Peacock's » 
own neighbourhood, the word register is commonly^ 
used for registrar ^ but it is pronounced register^ , 
with a strong accent upon the middle syllable. 
This preserves an old form of the word, and (per- 

haps ?} an old pronunciation. 

0. 0. B. 

An earlier example of the use of register in the 
present sense of registrar than that given by Mr. 
Peacock (May 15, 1654) is to be found in the 
Launceston (St. Mary Magdalene's) parish register 
(1559-1670) ; 

*' Burrough of Dunheved, otherwise Launceston. 
October y^ x^^ 1653. Thomas Reese being before this 
tyme duly chosen to bee Parish Register within this 



7^ S. X. Aug. 16, '90. J 



1 orrough in obedience and according to the late act of 
t dis present Parliament in y^ behalfe made and provided, 
^ as this present day approved, allowed of. and also 
Fwome before mee Richard Grills, gentn., maior of this 
IJvrrough and one of y® Justices assigned. 

"Richard Grills, Maior." 

In the same is the following further entry respecting 
the same person being appointed to the same 
(office in the adjoining parish of St. Thomas the 

Apostle : 

" The nineth day of November 1653 Thomas Reese 
was dulye chosen and sworen Register of the parish of 
St. Thomas by Mr. Leanerd Trease." 

Alfred F. Bobbins. 

*' Court of Chancery. Sir Joseph Yate?, Chancellor. 
William Lee, Esq., Register. Mr. William Hopper, 
Deputy. Mr, Thomas Hugall, Cursitor and Examiner." 

Description of the County of Durham, appended to 
Sanderson's ed. of * Antiquities of Durham Abbey,' 1767, 
p. 133. • 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

Sir William Waller {1^^ S. ix. 508).— In 'A 

Book of Knights/ 1426-1660, edited by Walter C. 
Metcalfe, F.S.A. (London, Mitchell & Hughes, 
1885), at p. 180, in the list of knights made in 
1622, is the following entry, /'At Wanstead 20 
June: S' William Waller. Kent." See also 
Le Neve's * Catalogue of Knighta' (Harleian 
Soc.) and Wood's ' Athense,' therein referred to, 
and Granger's 'Biog. Diet.,' vol. iii. p. 67 (fifth 


T. Cann Hughes, M.A. 

Sir William Waller, of Kent, made 
Wanstead on June 20, 1622 (Metcalfe' 



William Waller 


the widow of Sir Simon Harcourt, the governor of 
Dublin for King Charles I., and he was slain 
there 1642. 

Sir William Waller, general of the Parliamentary 
Army. His daughter Anne married Sir Philip Hare- 
court, of Staunton Harecourt, in Oxfordshire (Le 
Neve's ' Knights '). 


' Landed Gentry.' 

1, Wansey Street, S.E. 


The Rev. Jonathan Boucher : ' Epsom, a 
Vision; by Sir F. Morton Eden, Bart. (7'^ S. 

ix. 462),— The advertisement to the edition of 

1820 is signed "The Editor, Dryebridge House, 
near Monmouth." . . 

"The editorship of * The Vision,' a humorous illus- 
trated poem on Jonathan Boucher's philological studies, 
written by Sir P. M. Eden, Bart., and published in 1820, 
has been wrongly attributed to [Barton] Bouchier." 
Diet. Nat. Biog.; vol. vi. p. 4. 

In the account of Sir Frederick Morton Eden, 

Bart. (* Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. xvi. p. 356), it is 
said that 

^* from his humorous poem called * The Vision,' in which 
he takes to task his friend Jonathan Boucher for being 
unduly engrossed in etymological study, one might ima- 
gine that his bent was not less to literature than to 
political economy. The notice in the Gent. Mag,^ 1804, 
vol. Ixxiv., p. 591, of Boucher is by Eden (pref. to ^Let- 
ters of Rich. RadcliflFe and John James,' Oxford Hist, 
Soc, p. xiv)." 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell, 

Folk-lore: Ears Burning (7'** S. x. 7).— In 
Wiltshire the old form was to cross the ear with 
the right or left forefinger and to say, 

If you 're speaking well of me 

I wish you to go on, 
But if you 're speaking ill of me 

I wish you '11 bite your tongue. 

I heard the second line, 


Left or right, good at night. 

a year or two ago, but had not heard it before 

that time. 

J. F, Mansergh. 

The Bibliography op Dialling (7'^ S. viii. 

142, 243 ; ix. 216, 298).— Since the date ot pub- 
lication of my previous list of works on dialling 
the following have come under my notice : 

Dictionarium Polygraphicum, or the whole body of 
Arts regularly digested containing the Arts of Designing, 
Painting, Washing Prints, Dialling, Carving, Etcbing, 
&c. 2 vols. London, 1735. 

The Spot-Dial very useful to shew the Hour within 
the House, together with Directions how to find a true 
Meridian, &c. By Gilbert Clarke. 1687. 

Mr. De Sargues Universal Way of Dialling; or Plain 
and Easy Directions for placing the axeltree and mark- 
ing the hours on Sun-dyalB. 1659. 

Plorologiographia Optica, Dialling Universal! and Par- 
ticular in a Threefold Pracognita illustrated by diverse 
Opticall Conceits taken out of Angilonius, Kercherius, 
Clavius and others; lastly Topothesia, or a feigned de- 
scription of the Court of Art, full of the benefit for the 
making of Dials and most propositions of Astronomie, 
together with many Instruments and Dials in Brasse 
made by W. Hayes at the Crosse Daggers in More Fields, 
by Silvanus Morgan. London, 1652. 

A Mathematical Compendium, or Useful Practices 
in Arithmetic, Geometry and Astronomy, Geography 
and Navigation, Erabattelling and Quartering of Armes 
Fortification and Gunnery, Guaging, Dialling, Explain- 
ing the Logarithms, &c with the Projection of the 

Sphere for an Universal Dial, &c. By Sir Jonas Moore, 
Kt., late Surveyor General of his Majesty's Ordinance, 

I take this opportunity of thanking Y. T. for 
his kind offer of a copy of the satire referred to by 
him, which would be very acceptable. 

EvERARD Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

W. G. B. suggests that the dials in parif^hes 
near Pocklington were perhaps made by William 
Watson, of Pocklington, who published a tract on 
the art of dialling in 1854. If W. G. B. refers to 
the *Book of Sun-dials' (second edition, Bell & 
Sons), p. 325, he will find an account of a well- 



t;'*' 3. X. Aug. 10, '90. 

known dial 


Jolin RiniLli, wVio wan 

l.orn at T^ollby, near rocltUnK*')", uikI orocind 
iimiiy (llalB at viirloiiH placcfi In YorliMli!r«, Mr. 
Hinilh** iiH'chunlcal taltrnt ftlniofit uiiiomil«^<l to 
u«'nluH, and It Hcomii more probal)l<< tlmt Im whm 

lu^ii I'drlandlt I'bland." 


Hint ici*. 



ilm inaK< r < 

.f 11 


Mr Wui 

Ron. wlio wiolo oil Iho nulJGCt. 

Pftocorr, (V^^ S 



Mr. Pft Hnrp;!!©! Unlvorinl Way ut Dyallng; or Tluln 

luni Kauy Dlicctloni for idnolny (lir^ nTolirpo and innrk- 
Ing ti»«^ !w)ur« on Htm-(lyulH. IVy Danltl Klni;. IGW. 


si If (he 

iViuul. and twoiitv (lul»t |»liit('i of UiiiKnurifl.) 

l^oumL July, IflflO, 


Idlo Diulr*: Bun- 

Meclmnlrlf Dlnlllnp:; or 
My <;. liCiulUUor. J7(5l*. Bvu, 

riio New All of HlirulowM. 

(Twelve copper- j/latcu.) 

The JliTwnry, llfudloij. 

DiunY(7*SS. X. 8). 

Pinion PiK^y» T^ImIioj) of 

of Dromoro. and Thuiimfiino. (luuiihtcr of Sir W 

may bo Intcrcating a8 a rider to your notioe of its 
iinponding disappoaranco, which ia owing to the 
«u|)orlor attractions of the Boulevard St. Oormula 

and Hour Micih' cafh. 

FninroiM IVocop^, a Ruulian, l»o(;ame noted m n 
I'otiiiler of good cofFoo at tlus St. 0(»rnMiin fair wlu u 
tJMi liovtTftge wjiB fipHt intrcxliuuul into Fruiio^, In 
1688 tho Hooioty of French cnm^dlanH bought the 

in the Ku© dcs 
a theatre there. 

Procopo floizcd tho opportunity in 1G89 to open 
caM near tho theatre, and 

old rarltet ground of T/Etoilo 

T^)HM<'rt St. Oorniain. and built 

rendezvous of Paris 

Rue des Fose^s 


liani (jlilberti 


who died in 1(551. A full pedigree of thif! family 

will bo found In Pcnnant'a * Chester to London,' 

ITutohini/H • Hlutory of Doraot/ &c. 







S. X. r>).— Surely an nitronomer like Mr. Lynn 

muit He<^ on conhidoratlon that tho prooes&lon of 
iho ot^uInoxoH iH bound to produc6 much cliniatie 
change in all Arotio and uub-Arotio latitudes, 
■nn Irt now hovcu dayn longor in our honuHphon^ 
than in tlu^ Houllu^rn. and Hix oonturii'H npfo waH 
ci^ht dayn longeri wiirrcM when the 

was at our longewt day he wuh eight dayn more in 
the southern hemisphere than in ourn. The total 
annual receipt of sunBhino by each polo is, indeed, 
alwaya ciiual ; but what a diiloronce between 
having all this poured upon you in loss than 
twenty flvo weeks, or spread over nioro than 
twenty - neven of tho llfty-two. Though our 
northern nummer Iuih but dccllued one day of the 

sixteen that it htiH to decline from Itfl nuixinuim 
\\\\ conturieH ago, thia huH made Kant (jreenland 
from a habita\)hH u non-luibitable Coaat, and has 
untiiiuated the viiuwHtreetfl aud vineyards of uU 

theatre wan pulled down.) A host of famous 
cllenl« of Pfocopo are mentioned in De Mailly's 
'Leu FntrctlenH don CaMcs do Paria' (1702), and 
Le Sage deseribeB tho aijlt in 'La VaHeo Trouvuo' 

"I go ro^ularly/' he Hiiyfl, " to two c'tf/Ji. fn the one 

you SCO twenty or ao grave poraoni pluyiof; at draughts 

or choHH on niarl>lo-topi)*»(l tttl>l<'H in a largr room fulorncJ 

with lulrriirH. They aru aurronnJcd by attontifo by- 
fltundori, and phiyorfl and audience keepBuch a profound 

ilh*n<U) Ihiil tho place might well bu called the Caf6 

d'llarpoorat. It is altoKotlicr the opposite In tho other 

(»f my hauntn, whoro thcro ih nu^re nolno than In tlie 

icroat room uf tho Taluco. There la an ebb atid flow of 

all oonditionM of men, nohloH and cookn, wUh und Hota, 

pull uicllf uU chultcrInK in full chorui to their hcart'a 


The firHt mentioned ih tho Cafu do la Ilegence, tho 
other the Oafr Procopo. It uied to amufte me to 

aflU Ihe PariH waitera for antimmrian wrinklofi. I 
think I elicited from about five at thirt nifi that 

it never atruck them to innuiro who Procopo was.' 
Not far oll\ oppowito the Oluny Abbey (once the 

reeidonoe oi " la Roino Blanehe,'' Mary, Qneen of 
Soots), is a restaurant *^\ lu rwoino Blanche." 
When I demanded from the gar^on who the 
" White ()ucen" was, " Tiens ! " ho said; ** Monsieur 
does not know tho game pf ehess, then ? " 


Engliflh towns. 

K L. G. 


olmervation in 

Ar* there did not appear to mo to bo much room 

for doubt an to tlu^ d«*rIvation of thiH name, T was 
hurprised io nrifft the fo11(»wing 

'l^radhhaw'M dontliu^nlal (^uido*: 

" Iceland (Pennuult). Tho name algnlflei hland.woi 

iho hind of lee, n luiHiaku for whirh Icoland may navo 

trnflorcd in the edllmation uf tourliti.'* 

The (pieation if ever there wart one — nefmi to be 




'^TVland": ^'llannfil 

an af baffsum, bv( kol- 

**' S. X, 07). — There is certainly something very 
curious in the quotation given from tho 'Memoirs 
of (jVieon Mary s Time,' and I fail to see the pro* 
babilily, not to say noasibility, of the daughter of 
llobert, fourth Lora Boyd, having been niarried 
jird to tho Fiarl of Argylo and secondly to llugh, 
fourth Earl of Kglinton. From tho *Boyd Papers,' 
)u\)HHh<^d by tho Archaeological Society of Ayr and 
igton, I Und tho following abstract of Sasine, 

printed in full in vol. 

fl f t 


*' Contract betwec 

n lluuh, third Earl of Eglintouii, on 

the one part, and Tlohort Lord Boyd on tho other part,i 

for the niarrhiKO of llugh, Master of Eglintoun, eon of ' 




I mUiwmWf witb Gt]^M Bcj'J, d^nj^A^ of the htt^, U- 

} wl WM lomid to Mtft th4 «id llagh ssd Oelii hii 

t Ml i//ar nt ToUuant 6&4 ctbert ; jtutfUm to himtelf tU 
1 Uftht ot the lan'i^f^ ttid th« fiffit of f^ccnj/jUif^ th*r 
Wef of PoIr*/.ri<6 , ain^ K^tert Lord Boj^ /7a^ I 


otind to 

1 17 to ite U&rl i'/C merk§ ; hi mpcet of the jonth of 

>P)# Tfnfrefcy tbej w^'t ntm^t for the g^/retr^fflf t&d 
tnidUi^ it » h//«iit, It »a;^ a^e^ to n^yAut un n/mert 

itan to xtUnd to tbeir hrt^fttf till the »ai4 ilugb, 

JfMter of Rirfiniflwif- tt^^ attain ibe :&/« of lerent^^.n 

ittrr. JMIntmrgb, Inrto, s^i li^idhj, 19*, Id**, and 

It wUI, of coarse, be noticed that tte lady'f D^ire 
if GelliL not T!giii!a^ «id tfce jcutb of tbo bride 
WM locn 2u to m^'kB & preriocu marna(?e rerj 


I wooM at^o po! 


th^ from tho 

&ttttr^ritT I Cr.d a ch^tUt tj Hoj/h Motit- 

fdometjj of IL&«ilL4jdy la if/ipf^m^Dt of contract 

betw^^fi Lord Boyd sind lltclen Boy^^ Lk d^ught^, 
Off fb^ on^ p<ift, and tho aaJd flrj^/h on the otb^r, 

«* f^lai^oir. T)<:c^r/ib^ 27, l/WHJ^ granting 

d^^ffib^ a« mire, ttwtl^wf. and 

ti> Htlen (irbo U 

p'jfet^ to T!/mort, I>>rd Boj^, bariDj; had a ^anj^htor 
imw^A Helen^ not ie(ontd to by Hioua^ What, 
ttto, ira« tho Bar^e ^ tho eWfft ^angbter 1 

The acc/^tint g^ren by 8iG2^A frora Ctewfard of 
X/;aiMoy ii partly corre^*, for tlie ^axl -^^ divorced, 
After a ^^bi/m, from Jean Htew^i tb^: b df-iiit^cr 
of Qa*>m Hiry, Tte c^?^ Uiafd to be tb^ flnrt 
otMttplo of tK<; kind itt B^jtTand* Argyle, ^bo 
wai & Reformer, while tL^ c^mnteof adhered to the 
Catholic party, m^A tet for adherence, and aft^r 
iorri^ yf::ar»' litigation gc4 & deofi4 of dirorco ogaiaitt 
h^r for d^uttion rm Jnoo 29, 1973, nndor a con- 
TMrfml AiSi of Parliament p^>.«d on April 30 of 

thftt jksxT, He proc^*:ded. 7/ithoat \nm ct tir/ie, to 
ally hinj^lf in Ao£n*t following to Jf^n Oannin;^' 

p, dMgbf>rr of anotber Eeformer, Alexander, 

1 ofGI ' - - - - 



y m rjep- 

Earl of GI*:r. Cairo, and he di*;d pro 

totttbt^ir, certainly before Dhc^MA/^.t, 157 

bowerer, proTo/i^ hia wfferingr — be dred of the 

atone— till Bepter/iber 12, 1575, 

Stewart ^•ert^d her Hghtf ao hii rearwidoir, 

JMj Jean 

btM pc*^€ffioD of 
L'Tfrhnd feat of tts 

fj-^Artfftly inth itwce**, for *!:c 

Ar^fjll fimUj) in 15^2, and kept other y/mttue 

UwU tiB lier dta*h on Jacturj 7, 158XU 8h« 
vri* btjr^, as Conntezs of Argyll, T^Iib l^r rcjal 

snr^':%Ujn in the Abbey of Eolyroo^. Tb«*e fis«t« 
at!'! dat^ are proTed t? the tecmdt of tb« Gwrt 
of g**?!OT ZLiot *±e (hmm'm&rj Court of Edin- 
burgfi, and "rlll be fooLd at tnon Un^tf.Yt in RWd*:Ifi 
*P??Ta^e and Ccxiirtorial Lair/ to)', i pp. 547-51. 
It b d^L'^'iWfu tc tnut to tie ttAtt^f-.otn of 

Ooofh, aod 

•D/>i'?^. of hiatofkal irnport^ne0, m^jttf/fi 
r* 7rh;ch tfj* fortoooi of tbia iK>f;lo libra 


HOTEfl OH BOOKH, fcc. 
An^mli of the BcdUi^n Lif.rary, Oxfr/rd, Bf the R^. 

V/illlam Vnrm%litenj,MM, kMA, Htcond tdltlm. 

Th« w?/>f»d edition of Mr, MvrriT*? sdmfraMe ' AnnUn 
of the ^odlcU^ ' ki a W>ri to •choUrf , Ifpon fti? flrtt 
appearan^^, tirenty-*^o ye^r? s^o, the rolamf: ohtalr*ed 
a //^/m wetomne. The »tofy- Indeed, of the jfro^th of 
thf« pide of Oxford aod of tngl^xiA, from tbi nnnUsm 
ytondfA Ly SirThcmMH^yflty Ut the half-r/ijllion Of^«o of 
Tofmnea It now tK.r?e«ef, ha# d«p VrMntii, and {« faaei- 
i:»atinjdjr toM, W*: owrn to harin^ gone ^itinlf orer th/^ 
old frotind, and read wUb aocmooted fntoreaC the 
a^^y>fjnt of the contril^utionf^ direct or indirect, of Bod- 
ley, Laad, Befd^rj, T.>.m\\ugr,n, M^k 

the manner In 7rh;ch tlie fortoooi of tbia iK>hlo library 

raloA;, ikptciallj lateruiU^g U th^ ^^riod of Ciril War, 
with the a^^/tjnt h'^-wr^ lo 1^5 Kin^ Charlei x/rnt for 
the 'lilitoUt Uttlrer^ello' of v'Anhi^ui, th*: metaaj/e 
rig the fpectal aothoriziitlon of the' Viee-CLineellor 
and how Kom, tho librarian, mindfal of hie oath, f howe^ 
the atatotet to tho klnf, who tFjoreupon w >«il4 n^/t p^. 
mit the woltmut to 1/^ uken <mi ^^ th-5 UYfr^rj, %ni how 

In tfce dHtrzcticM of 1^17 and !^/4^ r*/, aecz/un 

kept, bfit foftr p^gea ware left blaak for ^r.iriej tb^ 
were nertr m^d€^ 

Vofy huiHfiUhU U it to re^d of th<t rohberioa from the 
library, thouj^b la I0£^ c^oea mk^n% rolumee hare heerj 
reatored. Tn one e«^*: two rare trau^f « of Thomaa Chorch^ 
y^^rd f9era ent oot of a rolttme In whi/^h th^ wore tj^/muL 
A iOMll and ralfiAblo MH., aobee/^oencly recorere/l from 
a U//iueIIer, waa ftoleii by a w^lUlut^mn K^uiUm icholar^ 
Under the date 1%^ dpp^ari the prorniae of Jomish 
Ifblte to rttam on demand a portrait wblcb ha;? h^cn 
lent blw^ Three mh^,qru:nt mf-M^^.r.^iuU td tho then 
librarfan arati^oifieant ; ♦♦ 5r/t r^oroi%^i, Jr,ne 24. M07 
-^ 5ot ^ yet, Oet^ Wf"., J. Wrkel ^'; i^rA, at a wU^/iiu 




» ' -* * f 

Wor»t ox ail w, n .#erar, 
tfce diri^on ac: en? tbeumtfۤ, in 1^9, by the newly fit- 
troded officer* hiA MUm$ of Magdalen Cfcllej^e of inam 
of J,4<i0/, left ty tfce UtnuUr. TMa erx*bezzlef/ient oY 
corporate ffir,d«, though It did not directly eoneom tho 
Ubnrjf haa been adranead aa th^: c^t^/, of Heldeo with- 

holding from It hi4 own library In ita eotiretr. ft ie 

a£0u4li:x to find the firwt eppIicatU/n r^ tho word UA^ 
felan Uj the ilbrtrr re<ented 

•r... ,• ^ ^ -* flippant and Tfil/ar," 

77ith tho farfotM treM^iree of the library, from Ita' rjot 
onqtret^iotied Hhak<;.eariafl aiitojcrapb downward*. It ia 
netdleaa a^^ain to deal. The pre^^.t T'-.fnrr.e U one-third 
lari^ thiui it« pred/^cea*>r, in t\ut nM\i\nn^ U \whA>A 
the raeord l^etween th^ y-rar< 1^;^ and 1>^>, further eon- 
tinoaaee helr.ghA^s^ %xutiP^j^^r j hj the appearance of 
Mr NieboUoTi > report* of tbo raara durfoj^ wbkb ho baa 
held ofBee. The fsujtUmU of tbo Hhy/^t^^.H,r^. aato^rapb 
a^ee<iibie elaewhere, ie omitied, ^.-,4 a liandaooM foMTri^^ 
pkt6 of tbie library and en^ared p^/rtraita of pyAl^ 
%tA Kowlinv>n are rippliod, H^AUy*i will, i li4t of all 
recorded d^.rjora, the ralea of t^*e library, no^>f4r r^ bind- 
tef, and other i/-^tV;r?, inclodin^ a full ind^^, form a 
rery uaefol MppUr/ieriC. 

r/>/// o/ 



t;;r^t€tf Je<Mom 

the 2>tfcarity, wbeo It l^ppen^ t4> he given — iiot 

f/terred tiro centij/i^f s^o tfcat ** clerj^j/nan are 

eler^ of iQ pre^en 

Douglaa or arj Sccttub peerage wltbont Terifring ' T^ll^~^ a' / i. ... -/ r , - 

• '- ' • - -^ ^ - - • V »M«y are OTertez^d-farrr>/5Tefcf;?h!7t&xit/l than aay other 

elaee of the cofmwtju.ity. Tbie i4 one of t*ie terere^t triala 

alwdya tfce ca^e, fc^werer. 

Jo*ijpfi Baijt, 

tiniry panou, upon iMuU^h. Dr, Jewopp diren^ 



[7th s. X. Aug. 16, '90. 

much force and feeling. While hia outgoings are more 
than other men's of the same position, be is assessed on 
his freehold more highly than they, and has to pay taxes 
on an income which he never actually receives ; and for 
this there is no redress. Why will not some one present 
an eloquent Socialist to a fat country living, in order 
that the burning wrongs of this really oppressed class 

may find utterance? 

i)r. Jessopp possesses a facile pen and a sprightly style 
that can turn out a readable magazine article from but 
slight material; but whether these seven chapters, 
having once served in that capacity, deserved the more 
permanent recognition which a book is supposed to con- 
fer may be questioned. With his pathetic lament over 
the almost entire want of movement and change in the 
lives of the country clergy we quite agree. He is at one 
with Mr. Fuller in desiring that the owners of the land, 
and not the occupiers, should be held responsible for the 
tithe rent-charge. No doubt much of the friction which 
is creating such heat at present would thus be got rid 
of. By the way, the starsj or Hebrew contracts of the 
Record Offices, which gave name to the Star Chamber, 
need not have puzzled Dr. Jessopp. The word is known 
to be traceable, through the forms shtar, sheiar, to the 
Hebrew shdtar^ to write. 

Le Livre Moderne for August opens with a very inter- 
esting account of the portraits and caricatures of Victor 
Hugo. It is very difficult for those who recall Hugo in 
his later years to find any resemblance to the portraits 
taken in the years 1828 and 1829, and some, at least, of 
the caricatures are impossible. *Les Parodies Theatrales' 
are continued. Important autograph letters of Petrus 
Borel, Feuillet de Conches, and other celebrities are 

In common with all literary England we experience a 
sense of loaa in the departure of John Henry Newman, 
No direct contribution to ' N. & Q.' from the pen of the 
brilliant writer and theologian can be traced. His 
name, however, appears constantly in our columns, and 
once, through the agency of Dr. Greenhill (see 6'^ S. i. 
232), a letter bearing his signature was published. The 
controversy as to the meaning of certain lines in '' Lead, 
kindly light," occupied successive volumes of the Fifth 
and Sixth Series, and the subject remains obscure, in 
spite of Newman's explanation. Particulars of the life 
of the cardinal will be found in every book of bio- 
graphical reference, and we need not burden our columns 
therewith. It is fitting, however, that some tribute of 
regret should be paid to the memory of one of the fore- 
most Englishmen of the century. 


We have much pleasure in giving a permanent record 
to the fact that on Saturday, July 26, our correspondent 
the Rev. W. D. Macray, M,A , F.S.A., received a gratify- 
ing testimonial on the completion of his fifty years' ser- 
vice in the Bodleian Library. This consisted of a con- 
gratulatory address, artistically printed, and signed by 
the present staff, as well as by many others who had for- 
merly co-operated with him in the library, most of these 
now widely scattered. The address concludes by paying 
the following true and graceful compliment to Mr. Mac- 
ray: *'We recognize in you a man after Sir Thomas 
Bodley's own heart, and one who, as the historian of this 
great Library, will take rank in the regard of future 
generations with its greatest benefactors in another 
kind, such as Laud, Digby, and Selden, Rawlinson, and 
Oough, and Douce." A morocco purse of new sovereigns 
accompanied the address, and an enlarged portrait of the 
reverend gentleman by Messrs. Hill & Saunders is in 
course of execution. Mr. Macray's labours in the Bod- 
leian, we may obserye, are only a portion of the excellent 

work which he has done in the literary field, and as an 
exemplary clergyman both in the city and diocese of 
Oxford. ' ' 

' Memorials of Old Chelsea : a New History of 

THE Village of Palaces,' by Mr. Alfred Beaver, will 
be issued in quarto size by Mr. Elliot Stock to sub- 
scribers, and will be copiously illustrated by the author. 
— 'Studies in Jocular Literature,' by Mr. W. C. Hazlitt, 
will be added to the *' Book-Lover's Library." 


fiatitti ta €tMXtii^QnXitnti. 


We must call special attention to the following notices: 

On all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. ..^ 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 

must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication " Duplicate." ». ; 

Jno. C. Dent (" Earldom of Rochester ").— Extinct 
since 1753. It was borne by Lord Wilmot of Adderbury, 
created by letters patent dated Paris, December 13, 1652. 
He died at Dunkirk in 1659, and was succeeded by his 
son, John Wiljmot, the notorious second earl. He, dying 
in 1680, was succeeded by his son Charles, who died the 
following year, unmarried, in his minority. The title 
was then, November 29,1682, bestowed on Laurence Hyde, 
second son of the first Earl of Clarendon. He died 1711. 
His son, Henry, second earl, became fourth Earl of Claren- 
don, and died in 1763, when the title " Earl of Rochester " 
became finally extinct. For further particulars see' 
Burke's * Extinct and Dormant Peerages,' 1840. . > « 


Like an island in a river 
Art thou, my love, to me, &c. 

This song appears, p. 342, in the seventh and Sadly 
impaired edition of Mr. Bailey's noble poem 'Festus' 
(Bell & Daldy, 1864). 


Then comes a mist and a weeping rain, 
And life is never the same again. 

By George Mac Donald, a paraphrase, we believe, of 
Heine. — The publisher of Miss A. Mary F. Robinson's 
' Songs, Ballads, and a Garden Play ' is Mr. Fisher 

L^Lius (/'Wright of Derby, 1734-1797 ';).— A bio- 
graphy of him, with an account of his principal works, 
appears in the last edition of Bryan's * Biographical Dic- 
tionary of Painters and Engravers.' 

J. Lawrence-Hamilton (" Buramaree "). — See l*' S. 
iv. 39, 74, 93. 

Corrigenda.— 7^11 S. ix. 324, col. 2, 1. 10, and 360, col. 2, 
1. 26 from bottom, for "i." read n.; x. 112, col. 2, 1 12, 

q. Insert in Index of VoL III. of Fifth 

Series, Guernsey^ The Death-Bed Confessions of the 
Countess of, 6, 153, 212, 318. 

for '*e. 5'." read 



Editorial Communications should be addressed to " The 
Editor of ^ Notes and Queries'" — Advertisements and 
Business Letters to « The Publisher "—at the Office, 22, 
Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. * - 

«fc a X. Aug. 23, 90.] 





CONTENTS.— N« 243. 

If ( >TE8 :— Symbolism of Green, 141— Custom of Dunmow, 143 
- -Browning and the Parodists— Peerages granted to Sons of 
3»rinces of Wales, 144— Gilt Sixpences— Electrocution— Bet- 
lerton— Folk-lore— Campanella— Entry in Register— Women 
Irchitects, 145— Thos. Cooke — Two Beds — Termination 
" ick"— Lancashire Lad— Butt— Flash, 146. 

QUERIES :— Civil War Tracts, 146— Earl of Litchfield— 
' * Swan Inn," Fulham — Bourbon — Dashwood — * Childe 
'flarold ' — Mummy — Griscombe — * Reminiscences of an 
Etonian' — Christopher — Meaning of Inscription — Lines 
iTom Pope, 147 — Belfast Motto — Civil War Pictures - 
:Fencing— Meeres — Fitzwarren— Julia Alpinula— Hogarth- 
Tricycle, 148 — Vaugban — Battle of the Boyne— Authors 

Wanted, 149. 
REPLIES:— Execution of Charles I., 149-"Di8persion of the 

Wood of the Cross, 151—* Index Librorum Prohibitorum'— 
Mrs. Masters— Kabobs, 153— First Lord Durham— •Sing a 
Song for Sixpence '—Murray of Broughton— Monte Video, 
154— St. Erefrith — Postscript = Anyma—Brothers-in-Law of 
Henry VIIL—Englandic— Arrow Throwing, 155 — Pleshey 
Castle -Source of Phrase— Order of St. John of Jerusalem, 
156— Pot walloper— Tricolour— Joseph Bouchier Smith - Uni- 
corn, 157— West Window, New College Chapel—* Song of 
the Cane '— " Truckle Cheese "—Barley— Byron— Mr. Glad- 
stone's Oxford Address, 158. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :—Ferrers's 'Dante's ** De Vulgari Elo- 
quentia " '— Masson's *De Quincey'— Puller's 'Our Title 
Deeds '— Naden's ' Induction and Deduction '—Peacock's 
*Taales fra Linkisheere '— * Genealogist,' Vol. VL—* Anti- 
quary,' Vol. XXI. 

STotices to Correspondents. 




Some two years since the learned Dr. Paulus 
Casael, of Berlin, issued a very neatly printed 
little book entitled *Der Griine Papagei. Eine 
Symbolik des Griin und Apologie der ^' Pfaffen/' ' 
which seems to have attracted little or no notice 
in this country, though it is full of interest to 
students of folk-lore. 

According to Dr. Cassel, green is the colour 
symbolic of life — new and vigorous life. Its central 
letter (each colour has its " Mittelpunkt ") is r: in 
r all things roll and run and rash into new forms : 
the stream of rivers and brooks is named with it. 
The i^hine, the i^hone, the Rha (Volga), testify of 
I it; root and rod (rush) germinate when the rain 
runs ; and among the German people especially it 
is the symbol of spring, when all things grow and 
germinate, and grass (gramen) appears on the 
prairie (pratum).* 

** St. George was the Springtime of Faith and the 
Champion against the foes of Christ's teaching— mainly 
against the dragon Satan, when and wherever he appears. 
A similar contest was symbolized in the chase by the 

* " Im Griin ist das r der feste Mittelpunkt; mit r ist 
gleichsam alles neue Leben verbunden. Mit dem r rollt 
€8 und rennt es und rauscht es von neuem ; das Stromen 
der Fliisse und Bache ist mit ihm benannt. Der Rhein, 
der Rhone, der Rha (alter Name der Wolga) zeugen 
davon; das Reis {pl^a), die Ruthe keimen auf, wenn der 
Regen rinnt. In den meisten Bezeichnungen fiir griin 
Btellt 68 Bich dar— im Sanscrit hari^ lat. viridis, griecbisch 
:prasinos, hebr. jereZ;,'' and so on. 

archers of the Green Parrot. The Parrot was chosen ou 
account of its green hue, because it is Satan's (colour), 

George is mainly a copy of Jesus himself. He is, as 

his name shows,* the tiller of the field, the overcomerof 
the power of winter. As Jesus in the garden appears to 
Mary as a gardener in vernal raiment, so is he (George) 
the knight of spiritual springtime. The Arabs identify 
him with Al-Khizr (fr. k/tuzrat, greenness?), which 
name means nothing else but springtime and the young 

verdure Satan is the great Ape of Christ — the Parrot 

is the green copy of the Ape, that mimics his monkey- 
tricks and chatter, but is nevertheless devoid of the spirit 
of truth. Jesus is clad in green in the scripture of the 
Resurrection.! Green is also the DeviPs colour, and not 
less that of male and female demons generally (cf. 
Darell's * History of Dover Castle,' p. 112). The Scots 
and Irish have also earth-spirits (Erdgeister) clad in 
green. In Scotland the colour is, in fact, held as bring- 
ing ill luck(Grimm, 'Irische Eifenmarchen,' p. xx)." 

After giving, in the fifth chapter, examples from 
every corner of Teutonic Europe as to the devilish 
quality associated with green^ Dr. Cassel goes on 
to say (p. 51): 

'^The choice of the green parrot as the customary 
object of fowling practice ( Vogelschiessen) will thereby 
have been explained clearly enough. The Devil was 
green— what better butt (Schiessobjekt) could there be for 
a Christian society [of archers]? — the Parrot was a 
green bird." 

He then gives some brief examples of parrot-lore 
(pp. 52, 53) : 

*' In the *Tuti Ndma' it is confessedly the wise Parrot 
whom the house-master leaves behind as guardian of his 
wife, and the bird by his cunning stories restrains her 
from sin. She always asks him for his advice, and he so 
turns his words as to cause the aflfair to have a good 
issue. There is a parrot in the tales themselves, who 
would have had to suff'er for the confidence [reposed in 
him] had he not by his prudence preserved both his 
master's -weal and his own (ed, Rosen, i. p, 130). J In 
' Mishle Sindibdd,' and its variations in other stories 
{SagerCjy the Parrot has also to suffer for his faithful 
guardianship. In a Breton tale certain giants have a 
magic parrot of whom they are wont to ask news con- 
cerning what has happened in their house, and it tells 
them all. The giant asks it — 

Beau Perroquet, dans mon chateau 
Que se passe-t-il de nouveau ? 

(Pretty Parrot, what 's the news in my castle?) But at 

* Geo-orgosy earth-worker. 
t Apocryphal Gospels ? 

T Dr. Cassel cites Rosen's German translation, which 
is, I think, made from the Turkish version of the ' Tuti 
Nama' (Parrot-Book). This is a Persian collection of 
tales by Ziya ed-Din, who assumed as his poetical name 
(takhallus) Nakhshabi, from the name of his native 
town, Nakhshab. It was composed in the year 1326, 
after an older Persian work of the same kind, which was 
taken from a Sanskrit story-book, now represented by 
the'Suka Saptati,' or Seventy (Tales) of a Parrot, There 
is a similar Indian collection entitled ' Hamsa Vinsati,' or 
Twenty (Tales) of a Hamsa, a species of goose, which Dr. 
Cassel could hardly find suitable for his theory of the 
green bird. In the text of the ' Tutf Ndma,' partly done 
mto English by Gerrans in 1792, in the story referred to 
by Dr, Cassel of the parrot that *' would have suff'ered," 
and so on, the bird is a cockatoo, and it ?5made to suffer, 
and very sorely too, for the enraged lady plucks out its 
feathers and throws it into the street. 



[7^ S. X. Aug: 23, ^90. 

last it is itself caught, and the giant, with all his fellows, 

is killed (LuzePs ' Coutes Populaires de Basse Bretagne,' 

ii. p. 236 fF.). 

"Cibele (' Zoologia Popolare Veneta,' Palermo, 1887, 
p, 115) tells the comic story current in Venice of a par- 
rot who was so learnedly clever that the monks at last 
cried out, 'Questo xe el diavolo, non pol esser altro'* 
(' This can be no other than the Devil himself '). Kaden, 
in his South Italian Popular Stories (* Under the 
Olives,' p. 30 ff), gives us the tale of a notary whose 
uncle, the Devil, turned him into a parrot, to get pos- 
session of a woman whom he fancied. f The place of 
the Parrot in the Eastern forms of the * Seven Wise 
Masters ' is in the European versions taken by the Mag- 
pie (Elster), of whom, indeed, it is told that she under- 
stands German, Latin, English, and Bohemian, and else- 
where even Hebrew (Keller, 'Li Roman des Sept 
Sages,' p. xxxvii. Cf. P. W. Val. Schmidt apud Strapa- 
rola, p. 289). J Magpies are out-and-out birds of the 
Devil [Bdmonisclie Vogel). It is on magpies' tails that 
the witches ride to the Blocksberg on May-day eve, and 
so on May-day none are to be seen (Kuhn and Schwarz, 
*Nord. Sagen,'p. 378)." 

From these few samples — taken almost at ran- 
dom — it will be seen that Dr. Cassel has produced 
a work of very considerable importance to folk- 
lorists, even though he often makes strange excur- 
sions in quest of material to support his theory, 
which, however, seems in the main very plausible. 

I do not agree with Dr. Oassel in his interpretation 
of the St. George and the Dragon legend, which is 
not only very much older than Christianity, but 
is current in many parts of the world. Mr. Baring- 
Gould — who is past master in the moribund school 

of solar-mythologists 
of the Middle 


* This is in the Venetian dialect. 

f This last story, cited by Dr. Cassel from Kaden, is 
evidently identical with the second in Pitre's collection 
of Sicilian tales, which is to this effect : A merchant, 
who is very jealous of his wife, is obliged to go on a 
journey, and at her own suggestion he shuts her up in 
the house with a plentiful supply of food. One day she 
looks out of a window which her husband had inadvert- 
ently left open, and just at that moment a gentleman 
and a notary liappen to pass and see her. They lay a 
wager as to which of them shall first speak to the lady. 
The notary (very naturally?) summons an evil spirit, and 
sells his soul on the condition that he win his bet. The 
Devil changes him into a parrot, and in this form he gains 
access to the lady's presence, and to entertain her relates 
three stories. On the merchant's return the parrot is 
placed on the table at dinner, splashes some of the soup 
into the husband's eyes, flies at his throat and strangles 
him, and then escapes through the window. After this 
the notary assumes his proper form, marries the mer- 
chant's widow, and wins his wager with the gentleman. 
—Crane's ' Italian Popular Tales,' p. 167 ff. 

% Possibly Dr. Cassel, in saying that in some versions 
of the * Seven Wise Masters' the bird understands ^* even 
Hebrew," refers to the Armenian version, of which an 
account is given in ^Orient und Occident,' ii. 369 ff,, 
where the bird — a popinjay, however, not a magpie — 
talks in the Hebrew language. The story has been taken 
out of the * Book of Sindibad' (the Eastern prototype of 
the ' Seven Wise Masters') into the 'Arabian Nights,' 
and is familiar to all readers of that fascinating story- 
book under the title of * The Merchant, his Wife, and 
the Parrot.' 

a characteristic explanation of the St, Geor 



" The maiden," he says, " which the 

Dragon attempts to devour, is the earth; the mon- 
ster is the storm-cloud ; the hero who fights it iS' 
the sun, with his glorious sword the lightning- 
flash." Such are the conceits of the solar-'mytho- 
logists ! What connexion there is between the 
sun and the flash consequent on the collision of 
clouds overcharged with the " electric 'fluid" it is 
not easy to understand. Moreover, the reverend 
interpreter of our popular fictions — which need 
none, I ween — does not vouchsafe to inform us 
what may be meant by the men and beasts de- 
voured annually by the Dragon before his fatal 
meeting with the Cappadocian champion. I con- 
sider that both Dr. Cassel and Mr. Baring-Gould 
are absurdly wrong in their "interpretations." 

The St. George legend has its prototype in the 
well-known Greek story of Perseus and Andro- 
meda, which again finds countless parallels and 
analogues in both Asiatic and European folk-tales. 
The oldest known form is the ^ Bakabada,' which 
occurs in the grand Hindu epic the ^ Mahdbhirata,' 
and which has been rendered into English verse by 
Dean Milman, under the title of ^ The Brahman's 
Lament'; and the outline of the legend is given 

Monier Williams in his * Indian 

by Sir 


Poetry.' For Danish, Russian, Albanian, Arabian, 
Persian, and other Indian versions, I take leave to 
refer readers to my * Popular Tales and Fictions,' 
vol. i. pp. 158-164. 

Muslims confound Al-Khizr not only with St. 
George, but also with Moses and Elias. I am dis- 
posed to think that this mythical personage (Al- 
Khizr=" the green one*') is represented as being 
clad in a green robe not because it is a svmbol of 
'^springtime and the young verdure,'^asl>r. Cassel 
makes it out to be, but because it is symbolical of 

perennial youth. 

iched Al-Khizr^ 


tality. The ^' prophet," after incredible toil, at 
length reached, in *'the land of darkness," the 
Fountain of Youth, of which he drank a little, 
whereupon the waters disappeared and have never 
since been seen of men. In consequence of this 
draught of the waters, Al-Khizr is ever youthful : 
he is the tutelary friend of good Muslims, and 
often appears to them to guide and advise them in 
times of trouble. The myth of the Fountain of 
Youth was current throughout Europe during the 




veres. In the romance of 'Duke Huon of Bur- 
deux' a trace of the legend of Alexander and Al- 
Khizr is found in the name of the spot where the 
Fountain is said to be situated, *' the Alexander 
Rock." It is probable that the myth was brought 
to Europe by minstrels or palmers returned frooi 
Syria during the Crusades. 

; u" S. X. Aug. 25, '90.] 



But I must conclude, for I find I have occupied 
m re space with my "notes and comments" than 
with extracts from Dr. Cassel's most interesting 
little book, which I cordially commend to the 
at:ention of students of folk-lore, and I trust it 
miy be ere long translated into English, 

W. A. Clouston. 

. 233, Cambridge Street, Glasgow. 



" There have been nine applications for the Dunmow 
flitch of bacon this year, and out of these the committee 
have selected two couples whom they think most likely 
to qualify. Both couples are of middle age* One of the 
men is now livinjr at Tottenham, where he is employed 
as a gardener. The other couple live in London." — 
Daily News^ July 19. 

This announcement does, indeed, remind us of 
an ancient and time-honoured custom, the " claim- 
ing of the flitch of bacon'' by those who never 
desired the nuptial knot to be untied at least for 
a year and a day after marriage. It may be safely 
said that no custom has been more frequently 
heard of in England, or circulated more widely 
than this. All ranks, from the peer to the peasant, 
a^ well as from the palace to the cottage, have 
heard of " the custom of Dunmow." Scarcely a mar- 
riagehas been solemnized without its having been 
referred to, and the wish uttered that the contract- 
ing parties may claim, or rather obtain, the flitch 
of bacon. 

The place where it has been awarded since the 
thirteenth century — Little Dunmow— is a small 
village in Essex, with a population of some 350 
souls, once a house of Augustinian Canons. It is 
quite a different place from Great Dunmow, a market 
town of some 3,000 inhabitants, and an agricultural 
centre, about three miles distant. Why this custom 
should have obtained among monks bound by the 
vows of celibacy is not at all clear, as they could 
not have been competent or practical judges of so 
important a subject. Little Dunmow is some 
thirty-five miles from London, and in a part of 
England which it is usual to suppose flat and un- 
interesting; yet John Constable, the great painter 
of English rural scenery, found much that was 
beautiful to depict in Suffolk and Essex, as the 
Vale of Dedham and the Valley of the Stour. To 
his mind— it must be observed he was a native of 
East Bergholt— this was more beautiful than the 

Cumberland mountains 

Westmoreland lakes. 

Little Dunmow is not far from Felstead, where, in 

the Grammar School, the sons of Oliver Cromwell 

and Elizabeth Bourchier his wife received their 

education, as did also the learned divine Isaac 

Barrow ; and Easton Lodge, once the home of the 

Maynards, is at no great distance. Much beautiful 

woodland scenery is to be found in Essex, and it 

13 rich m green lanes with wild flowers in abund- 

The custom of giving the gammon, or flitch of 
bacon, seems to have originated with Robert Fitz- 
walter in the reign of Henry III., a great bene- 
factor to Dunmow Priory, and to have continued 
at intervals until the dissolution of the monasteries 
in 1536. Instances are not found of many cases 
in which it was awarded up to that time — perhaps 
the records are lost — and very few are in existence 
of its award up to the present time. Besides this, 
no record seems to have been kept of either the 
name or number of the unsuccessful applicants for 
the honour. There is some legend of the parties 
quarrelling on their way as to which of them was 
to possess the bacon, and their claim in consequence 
being vitiated. Of such Chaucer observes, in his 
* Wife of Bath': — 

The bacoun was nought fet for hem, I trowe, 
That 8om men fecche in Essex at Donmowe. 

The old Oxford antiquary, Thomas Heame, 
writing under date May 22, 1731, gives the follow- 
ing interesting account of the custom, which he 
heard from his friend Mr. Loveday, of Magdalen 
College, who was a great traveller over England, 
and chronicler of ancient customs : 

*' The custom of the gambone of bacon ia still kept up 
at Dunmowe, as I am told by Mr. Loveday, of Magd. 
Coll., who returned home on Thursday last, May 20, from 
whom I had what follows this morning. 


f At a court barron of the right worshipp- 
ful Sir Thos. May, Knight, there holdea 
Ditnmow J on Friday, the 27th day of June, in the 
nuper FrioratA year of our Lord 1701, before Thomas 

1 Wheeler, gent., steward of the said 
l^manor, it is thus enrolled. 

f Elizabeth Beaumont, spinster. "| 
Henrietta Beaumont, spinster. | 
Homage.^ Annabella Beaumont, spinster. )-Jur. 

Jane Beaumont, spinster. | 

l^Mary Wheeler, spinster. 


Be it remembered that at this court it is found and pre- 
sented by the homage aforesaid, that Wm, Parsley and 
Jane his wife have been married for the space of three 
years last past, and it is likewise found and presented by 
the homage aforesaid that Wm. Parsley and Jane his 
wife, by means of their quiet and peaceable, tender and 
loving cohabitation for the space of three years afore- 
said, are fit and qualified persons to be admitted by the 
court to receive the ancient and accustomed oath whereby 
to entitle themselves to have the bacon of Dunmow 
delivered unto them, according to the custom of the 
manor. Whereupon at this court, in full and open 
court, came the said Wm. Parsley and Jane his wife in 
their persons, and humbly prayed they might be admitted 
to take the oath ; whereupon the steward with the jury, 
suitors, and other officers, proceeding with the usual 
solemnity to the ancient and accustomed place for the 
administration of the oath, and receiving the said bacon ; 
that is to say, two great stones lying near the church 
door, where the said Wm. Parsley and Jane his wife 
kneeling down on the two stones, the said steward did 
administer the oath in these words, or to the eflFect 
following : — 

You do swear by custom of confession, 
That you never made nuptial transgression ; 
Nor since you were married man and wife, 
By household brawls or contentious strife 



[T*** S. X. Aug. 23, '90. 

Or otherwise at bed or boarl 
Offended each other in deed or in word; 
Or in a twelvemonth's time and a day 
Repented not in thought any way ; 
Or since the church clerk said Amen, 
Wished youroelvcs unmarried again. 
But continue true and in desire 
As when you joyned hands in holy quire. 

And immediately thereupon Wm. Parsley and Jane his 
wife claiming the said bacon, the court pronounced sen- 
tence for the same in these words, or to the effect fol- 
lowing : 

Since to these conditions without any fear 
Of your own accord you do freely swear, 
A whole gammon of bacon you do receive. 
And bear it away with love and good leave; 
For this ia the custom of Dunmow well known, 
Tho* the pleasure be ours, the bacon 's your own. 

And accordingly a gammon of bacon was delivered unto 
the said Wm. Par?ley and Jane hia wife, with the usual 
solemnity. — Exam** p' Tho. Wheeler, gent., steward, — 
WUl^ Hague:' 

This delivery of the bacon took place in 1701, 
T^Len William III. was Kincr of England ; and it 
may be asked, Wh 


Probably they were tenants in the 

neighbourhood, perhaps of Sir William 
of Great Dunmow, who died in 1719, and no 
doubt rescued from oblivion by this sole act in 
their lives, were pointed out by their friends during 
the whole of their after life as successful claimants 

bacon. Who were the 
nd Mary Wheeler, all 

delegated to th 

calculated to form an opinion on matrimonial 

matters as monks could have been in former ages. 

Fifty years pass by, and in 1751, the bacon was 
claimed successfully by John Shakeshaft, a wool- 
comber, of Wethersfield, and Anne his wife, who 
on this occasion induced a jury consisting of six 
bachelors and six spinsters to recognize their claim. 
This formed the subject of a painting by David 
Ogborne, which has been engraved. This used 
to be chronicled in almanacs within my own 
recollection as a remarkable event, *^La8t Flitch of 
Bacon claimed at Dunmow." Perhaps, however, 
there may have been additional unrecorded in- 
stances. In 1855 the old custom was galvanized 
by I\Ir. Harrison Ainswortb, who presented the 
prize, and has written a descriptive novel, entitled 
*The Flitch of Bacon; or, the Custom of Dun- 
mow.' Now, after the lapse of so many years, the 
custom is to be again resuscitated. Yet there may, 
however, since 1855, have been some intervening 
instances which are unnoticed. The custom seems 
to have been preserved in the curious tavern sign 
sometimes seen, " The Flitch of Bacon,** and per- 
haps may be hinted at in the saying, "Saving 
one's bacon." The old chair in which the recipients 
sat after receiving the bacon, which probably was 
once the chair of the prior, or perhaps the lord of 

the manor, has been depicted. An appropriate 

inscription for 

smt ista 


sedentes." G 




Semper gaudentes 

accounts of the 

Jocnlar Tenures,*" 

and in Brand's 

'Popular Antiquities,' vol. ii pp. 118-122, edited 
by the same authority. The custom is also referred 







Egbert Brow5i>'g and the Parodists. 

every scrap of information relating to the great poet 
is being eagerly sought for, the following note, I 
received from him, may be thought worthy of a 
place in 'N. & Q.* His strong disapproval of 
parodies was in striking contrast with the views held 
by Mr. F. Locke^Lamp^on, Mr. G. R Sims, Mr. 
Austin Dobson, Mr. Ashby Sterry, and other 
living writers, who enjoy the fan of these things,, 
and can laugh at a joke, even if it be a little at 
their own expense. I had written to ask Mr*. 
Browning's consent to quote a few lines from two 
of his most popular poems, to illustrate tho* 
imitations : 

29, De Vere Gardens, W., Dec. 2?, '88. 
Sir, — In reply to your request for leave to publish tvro 
of my poems aJong with *' Parodies *' npon them, I am 
obliged to say that I disapprove of every kind of " Parody "^ 
so much that I must be^^ to be excused from giving an 
such permiftsion. My Publisher will be deeired t 
enforce compliance with my wish, if necessity shoul' 

Believe me. Sir, 

Yours obediently 
(Signed) Robert Brow5I>*<?. 


Walter Hamilton, Esq. 

Of course I treated his wishes with deference, 
and carefully avoided the insertion of any parody 
which could be considered offensive, either to 
himself or to his works. TValtek HA^iLxoir. 




Tuview : 

there is one thing unique in the peerage which was 
lately hetowed on H.R.H. Prince Albert Victor of 
Wales, " He is the only son of a Prince of Wales," 
remarks the reviewer, *^ who has been elevated to 
the House of Lords before his father's accession to 
the throne." This observation is only true if the 
grant of a peerage is not considered complete unless 

and until the grantee has 

to the full 

privileges of the order. The reviewer would have 


Prince of Wal 

had taken his seat in the House of Lords before 
his father*s accession to the throne. Elevation to 
the House of Lords is a different matter. In 1726, 
King George L gmnted peerages to two of his 
grandsons, sons of George, Prince of Wales, but, 
being minors at the time, they were, of course, 
unable to take their seats in the Honse of LordSr 
One of these was Frederick, who has been wrongly 
quoted by the Saturday reviewer as an instance in 

' * S. X. Aug. 23, '90. ] 





fa 'our of his assertion. Prince Frederick was 

cr ated Duke of Edinburgh, Marquess of Ely, Earl 

II of Eltham, Viscount Launceston, and Baron Snaw- 

His brother William, who in the letters and 
memoirs of the time always figures as "The 
Euke/^ jpor excellence — a dignity shared in later 
times by another military hero, whose blue frock, 
white trousers, and "good grey head" most of us 
who have reached their cinquantaine can well 
remember— was created at the same time Duke of 

riand, Marquess of Berkhamsted, Earl of 
igtoD, Viscount Trematon, and Baron 
Alderney. George I. died on June 11, 1727, and 
his successor, who seems to have hated his eldest son 
from his childhood, left him in Hanover for a year 
and a half. Prince Frederick arrived in England on 
Dec. 4, 1728, and shortly afterwards was created 
Prince of Wales and sworn of the Privy CounciJ. 
The prince had then attained his majority, but the 
long delay in the issue of the patent has some 
interest in connexion with the recent discussion on 
the title of '' Prince of Wales " in ' N. & Q.^ The 
ministerial party were delighted with the prince's 
arrival in England, and the event was celebrated 
by their Grub Street allies in a series of poems. 
In one of these effusions, which now lies before me, 
entitled 'A Poem on the Arrival of His Royal 
Highness Prince Frederick,' the bard thus touches 
on the approaching creation : 

All Hail, Great Prince ! Britannia smiles to see 
Brave Brunswick's Features live so strong in Thee ! 
Your Faitbful Britons give their chearful Voice, 
And Her Welch Sons, in antient Notes, rejoyce; 
No longer now, their Harps remain unstrung. 
Never again to be on Willows hung ; 
Each sportful Swain his nimble Finger flings. 
With careless Ease, across the trembling Strings ; 
From String to String, in various Notes, they fly, 
And ev'ry Sound, and ev'ry Measure^ try. 

It is to be feared that poor Prince Fred did not 
quite realize the hopes of his admirers. 

W. F. Pkideaux. 

Jaipur, Rajputana. 

Gilt Sixpences-— The following paragraph, 
which appeared in the Examiner for June 30, 1833, 
shows that neither gilt sixpences nor low gambling 
houses in the parish of St. James's are new things : 

" The new sixpences lately coined have the word 
* Sixpence ' impressed upon them, to prevent them being 
passed, when gilt, as half-sovereigns, a fraud which had 
been committed to a great extent by passing gilt six- 
pences of a former coinage. A great quantity of base 
Sliver coin is put into circulation at the low Kambling- 
houses which swarm, and are daily increasing at the 
■weet-end of the town, particularly in the parish of St. 

J. D. C. 

Electrocution.— The term electrocution, or 
execution by means of an electric current, seems 
to have originated in America, where the first 
experiment of applying such a capital punishment 
was made on August 6, at New York. It may 

be worth while to ascertain whether this concise 
expression was first invented by an American or an 
English journal. 


H. Krebs. 

Thomas Betterton, Actor. — The son of 
Matthew Betterton, he was baptized in the Church 
of St. Margaret, Westminster, Aug. 12, 1635. 
This note will lend additional value to the article 
on Betterton in * Diet. Nat. Biog.,^ vol iv., p. 434, 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Folk-lore. — I think the following strange piece 
of folk-lore may be as new to others as to myself. 
Remarking, recently, to an old man that, though it 
rained, it did not appear warmer, he replied, " We 
shan't have fine weather till after to-morrow.^^ 
I said, "Why?'^ "Because to-morrow is '^hanging 
day.' " Three men were to be hung the next day 

at Worcester ! 

W. M. M. 

Campanella, or Sacking Bell. — We read of 
the sacring bell in Shakspeare, * Hen. VIII.,' in 
the passage where the brutal courtiers charge the 
fallen Wolsey with gross immorality with a certain 
brown wench ; also in the ordinances of the Bishops 
of Worcester (' Constit. Episc. Wigorn.,'A.D. 1240): 

^' Campanella pulsetur cum Corpus Domini in altum 
erigitur, ut per hoc devotio torpentium excitetur, ac 
aliorum charitas inflammetur." 

This constitution is quoted in ^The Principles of 
Divine Service,' by the Eev. Philip Freeman^ of 
St. Peter's College, Cambridge, and sometime 
Principal of the Theological College, Chichester, 
published, Oxford and London, by J. H. & Jas. 

Parker, 1857, p. 86, note. 

H. DE B. H. 

Curious Entry in a Parish Register : Ford 
HAM, CO. Cambridge. 

In y® Parish Register under y® year 1604: 
1604. " 

** Fordham. 

is this Entry. 1604. Up :)n Wednesday y^ 27 of Febr' y 
year above written, y® Hi^h and Mighly Prince, James, 
by y^ Gr^ce of God, King of Great Britain, France & 
Ireland, Defender of y'' Faith, &c., did hunt y^ Hare 
with his own Hounds, in our Feilds of Fordham, & did 
kill six near a Place called Blackland, & afterwards did 
take his Repast in y® same Feilds at a Bush, near unto 
King's Path/'— Cole's MSS., vol. viii. fo. 7 (Add. MS. 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Women Architects. — Few women are associated 
with architectural fame ; but two ladies at least 
deserve "a niche.'' 

1. Part of the sculptures at the church of San 
Petronio at Bologna, Italy, are said to have beeu 
designed by Propertia de' Rossi. {Vide Rev. B. 
Webb's * Notes on Architecture/) 

2. In the Church Times, May 2 of this year, p. 437, 
the most interesting fact is stated that the beautiful 
(Renaissance) church of St. Dunstan's in the East 

was built by Sir Christopher Wren from a lady 



[7thS. X.AoG.23, '90, 

friend's designs. Of course the "crown imperial" 
spire of the other St. Dunstan's (in the West) was 
imitated from Newcastle parish church, now both 
a parish church and a cathedral. The crown im- 
perial, as on our florins and other later issues of 
coins, is, like the crown imperial of the now dis- 
solved Holy Koman Empire, and like the crown 
imperial of the present German Emperor, really in 
origin a depressed mitre, or analagous to that form. 
The Venetian Doge's cap wap, I take it, suggested 
either by the classic Roman pileus, or possibly by the 
Phrygian cap, afterwards desecrated in France as 
the " cap of liberty." H. de B. H. 

Thomas Cooke. — The information furnished by 
the annexed extract from Report XL, part yii. 
p. 43, of the Hist. MSS. Commission, will form a 
fitting addition to the account of Cooke found in 
'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. xii. p. 95 : 

" The Manuscripts of the Duke of Leeds at Hornby 
Castle, Yorkshire. Cooke, Thomas. Germanicus, a 
tragedy, A note is prefixed by the Duke of Leeds, 
dated Feb. 25, 1796, that he believes the dedication is to 
his father, and that it must have been ■written about 
1731 ; of the author he knew nothing. Pp. 145, 4to." 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square^ Clerkenwell. 

Two Beds. — Village superstitions have an anti- 
quarian interest, and sometimes are far reaching. 
In this village (Edwinstowe, Nottingham) a woman 
named Perry died on Saturday, July 5, from a fall. 
When it was told to Mrs. Branford, a neighbour, 
whose mother died on the previous Tuesday, she 
replied, '' Ah ! I was sure there would be another 
[death] before the week was out, for she [meaning 
her mother] said, ^ There are two beds,' and them 
was the last words she spoke." 

E. CoBHAM Brewer. 

The Termination "ick." — I notice that Lord 

Holland, in his * Reminiscences/ always writes 
"publick," "irepublick," ^' diplomatick," &c. As 
the work was published so lately as the year of 
Her Majesty's accession, this fact may serve to 
show how rapidly, at all events, one change — that 
of abbreviation — is passing over our tongue, for I 
suppose that nobody nowadays would use the final 
h in such words. 

. Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

E. Walford, M.A. 

A Lancashire Lad. — Perhaps the following 
" merry Northern adage," from 'Hearne^s Collec- 
tions,' vol. iii. p. 156 (Oxford Historical Society, 
1888), may be worthy of a corner in *N. & Q.'; 

He y^ will fish for a Lancashire Lad 

At any time or tide 
Must bait his Hook with a good Egg py 

Or an Apple w^h a red side. 

Hearne seems to have taken this from a translation 
of some * Comments on Chaucer's *^Troilus and 
Cresida,"^ by Sir Fra. Kinnaston, of Oatly, in 



Butt : Butt-woman. — Some years ago a corre- 

both of these words. 


wordforahassockusedinchurches. Ahutt-womanm 
(or was) a pew-opener or sextoness. She generally 
wore a black dress and white cap, and was most 
often attached to chapels of ease. Probably by 
this time her office has come to an end. 

H. Bower, 



1890) : 

" The country around his [John Brindley's] home wa9 
infested with two gangs of pedlars. Those hailing from 
the village of Plash were known as ' flashmen/ and the 
goods they dishonestly vended as ' flash " goods/' 

N. &Q 



We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
aames and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 


A broadside of the seven- 

teenth century which has just come into my hands 
is headed thus : 

*^A Complete Collection of Books and Pamphlets;! 
Begun in the Year 1640, by the Special Command of 
King Charles I. of Blessed Memory, and continued to 
the happy Restauration of the Government, and the 
Coronation of King Charles II." 

A somewhat lengthy history is given of the in- 
ception of this collection, which contained above 
two thousand bound volumes with a catalogue 
in ten volumes folio. Bound with the printed 
tracts are near one hundred several MS. pieces^ 
that were never printed, all or most of them on the 
king's behalf, which no man durst then publish 
without endangering his ruin. Whenever His 
Majesty had need of a volume he had the usa 
of it, and his appreciation of the design greatly 
encouraged the undertaker of the work, who spent 
twenty years in the task. The devices for 
ensuring the safety of the collection during the 
troubles are related at large, and the broadside 
concludes with the statement that the undertaker 
refused 4,000Z. for them in his lifetime, supposing, 
that sum not sufficient to reimburse him. What I 
was the ultimate destination of this vast assem- 
blage of ephemeral literature ? The above-men- 
tioned announcement contains no hint of a forth- 
coming sale ; it was, apparently, simply a handbill ^ 
intended to stir up an interest in the collection. 
Oarlyle (Introduction to * Cromwell's Letters and 
Speeches ') says that there are j 

" thirty to fifty thousand unread pamphlets of the Civil 
War in the British Museum alone ; huge piles of 
mouldering wreck, wherein at the rate of perhaps one 
pennyweight per ton lie things memorable." 

Did a part or the whole of the mass alluded to in 

;«• S. X. Aug. 23, '90. J 



tl e broadside ultimately find its 

to the 

n; tional collection ? 

J. Eliot 





The Earl of Litchfield. — Wanted the pre- 

v:ous political or court history of Lord Litchfield 
{not Lichfield, as ^ The Book of Dignities ' has it), 
who was appointed captain of the Gentlemen 
PensionerSj and sworn of the Council in 1762. 


^^SwAN Inn," Fulham. — I should be much 
obliged to any reader who would kindly give me 
(direct, if he Kkes) any references to, or descrip- 
tive accounts of, the old "Swan Inn," near Fulham 
ferry, burnt down in 1871. It is mentioned in 
Capt. Marryat's ^ Jacob Faithful/ 

Chas. Jas. FijRET. 
49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

Bourbon. — Can any of your readers enlighten 
me as to the origin of the family of Borbone del 
Monte in Italy ? Rietstap gives their arms as 
"D'azur, a 3 fleurs de lis d'or, au baton de gu. en 
abime pos6 en bande," which looks as if they were 
a natural branch of the Bourbons of Naples or 
Parma. Dussieux, in his ' Hist. Gen^alogique de 
la Maison de Bourbon,' however, makes no men- 
tion of any illegitimate sons of the Italian branches. 
Another family, Borbone di Monte Santa-Maria, 
bear/- D'azur, au chevron d'or, ace. de 3 fleurs de 
lis du meme.*' 

G. Milner-Gibson-Cullum, F.S.A. 

I The Dashwood Family of Suffolk. — Will 
■some of your numerous correspondents inform me 
if there were any families of position of the name 
of Dashwood in Suffolk in 1735-6-7, where- 

jabouts they resided in that county, and where I 
can find any particulars of them ? 0. Mason. 

29, Emperor's Gate, S.W. 

' Childe Harold.'— "Will you kindly inform me, 

through the medium of your paper, whether any 

great literary man has ever written a moral on the 

life and character of Byron's ' Childe Harold ' ? 

If so, I should be glad to know name and publisher 
of book. — - - 

Mummy. — What is the meaning of mummy in 
the popular mind ? At an inquest held at South 
^eston, Lincolnshire, on May 27, a farm labourer 
is reported to have said that when he saw the 
deceased " her face appeared to be smashed to a 

E. K. Oliver. 

Mercury^ May 


[Mummy=pulp is known in the West Riding.] 

brRiscoMBE- — In an American pedigree appears 
-he following :— « The ancestor of this family was 
'ne Andrew Griscomb, who came from Yorkshire, 
. ngland, in 1680." I have succeeded in localizing 
ihe name by finding the marriage of Francis Gris- 

combe, of Spotland, Lancashire, with Isabell 
Stringer on May 25, 1639, and of the baptism of 
a son of this marriage at Rochdale parish church 
on April 19, 1640. I shall be extremely obliged 

for any early references to the name. 

R. Alford. 

^Reminiscences of an Etonian.' — I picked 
up the other day a little book, apparently rare, 
with the above title, and published by subscription 
in 1831, and dedicated to the Duchess of Kent. 
The imprint is "Chichester, Printed for the Author 
by J. Hackman, Tower Street"; and there is no 
olue to the authorship, except that the writer dates 
his preface from Bognor, and that on the last page 
he tells us that he left Eton to be entered at 
King's College, Cambridge. The list of subscribers 
contains a very large proportion of titled person- 
ages. E. Walford, M-A. 

7, Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

Christopher Family. 

Information is re- 

quested on the following points: 

1. Who was Robert Christopher, executor of 
the will of Isabel, Lady Gresham, 1565 ? {Misc. 
Gen. et Her.^ ii. 140.) 

2. To which branch of the Wilkinsons did Mar- 
garet, who married John Christopher, of Norton, 
CO. Durham, belong ? She ob. 1786, set. eighty- 

3. The date and place of marriage of William 
Thomas Christopher, of London, born 1802, and 
Harriet, daughter of Capt. H. Christopher, and 
widow of James Taylor, Esq., H.E.LC.S. 

4. The date and place of marriage of Margaret 
Ashington Christopher and John Bell, officer in 
3rd Regiment Fusiliers, Supposed to have taken 
place in London, circa 1825-30. 

Notes respecting any persons of the name prior 
to 1750, and anything concerning the family of 
Ashington, will greatly oblige. 

Geo. F. Tudor Sherwood. 

6, Fulham Park Road, S.W. . 

Meaning of Inscription Sought. — Would 

you or any of your readers kindly inform me to 
what the following inscription refers ? 

Success to the Hundred and five, 
Be honest and staunch ye True Blue. 

It is on a large china bowl in an ancient family 

seat in Anglesea. 


Lines from Pope. — In a sermon preached on 
Sunday, June 7, by the Cardinal Archbishop of 
Westminster, his Eminence is reported in the 
Tablet to have quoted the following couplet : 

For points of faith let senseless bigots fight, 
He can't be wrong whose life is in the right. 

Every one knows these lines are by Pope ; but 
what is the correct reading? Has the reporter 
made a blander; or do they exist in more than one 

form ? I have consulted four editions, one a folio, 



[7«» S. X. Aug. 23,'90. 

undated (perhaps it is the first), and three in 
octavo, 1*736, 1740, and 1758. They all read : 

For modes of faith let (jraceless zealots fight, 
He can't be wrong whose life is in the right. 

It by no means follows that an error has been 
committed either by the archbit^hopor his reporter. 
There are many various readings in Pope's verse. 
It is a matter, however, that it would be well to 

have cleared up. Anon. 

Belfast Motto, " Pro tanto quid retribu- 
amus." — To what favour does this refer 1 Has it 
any reference to King William III. ; and what is 
the meaning of the bell on the canton in the arms ? 
Arms, Parted per fesse, arg. et az,, in the first a 
pile vaire ; second, in base, a ship in full sail ppr.. 

on a canton gu., a bell or. 



had a daughter Elizabeth, who married Sir Richard 
Haukford, and Thomasine, the issue of the 
marriage, brought Tawstock to her husband, Wil- 
liam Bourchier, created by writ (Hen. VL) Lord 
Fitzwarren, and from whom the Bourchiers, Earls 
of Bath (of Tawstock), descended. Was Mar- 
garet Audleigh's husband, Fulk Fitzwarren, of 
another branch of the family of Fitzwarren of 
Brightleighl Tawstock and Brightleigh are only 
six miles apart; the name Fulk is common to both 
families ; and the arms of the families are as fol- 
lows : 1. Fitzwarren of Brightleigh, Gules, a chief 
indented argent. 2. Fitzwarren of Tawstock, Quar- 
terly, per fesse indented argent and gules. It would 
almost seem as if the latter shield were differenced 
as being a younger branch of the original stock at 
Brightleigh, since "Gules, a chief indented argent," 
is the simpler shield of the two. 



I wish, if possible, to 
get together a list of pictures by well-known 
artists representing events which occurred in 
Northamptonshire during the great Civil War. In- 
formation also as to the present location of such 
pictures, and whether or not they are accessible to 
the general public, would be much appreciated by 

John T. Page. 

Holmby House, Forest Gate. 

Fencing. — Will anybody owning the following 
kindly communicate ? Set of old drawings, Dutch 
or English, seventeenth century, probably sepia- 
•washed or outline, but perhaps coloured. Subject, 
fencing. Seems intended to illustrate fencing 
work. Most likely among family papers in old 
private library. W. London. 

1, St. Mark's Grove, Fulham Road, S,W. 

Meeres Family. — Of this family Sir Thomas, 
M.P. for Lincoln 1658-1708, and Admiralty Com- 
missioner 1685, was a member. Particulars of the 
life and death of William, third son of the above 
Sir Thomas Meeres, what heirs he left, &c., would 
oblige. Perhaps some of your numerous genea- 
logical correspondents could throw light on this 
subject. E. D. 

Fitzwarren. — Can any one help to establish 
the connexion between the two Devonshire families, 
(1) Fitzwarren of Brightleigh and (2) Fitzwarren 
of Tawstock? (1) With regard to the former 
family, Sir W. Pole states that " William, sonne of 
Fulk Fitzwarren, receyved this land from his father 
in Hen. II. tyme." He then gives the pedigree 
onwards of the Fitzwarrens, or Brightleigh^*, as they 

(2) With 



> j> 

came to be called from their dwelling, 
regard to the latter family (the Fitzwarrens of 
Tawstock), the same author mentions that Mar- 
garet, daughter of Lord Audlegh, married one 
Fulk Fitzwarren. This lady brought Tawstock to 

her husband by a special entail. Their son Fulk I 

Julia Alpinula. — Readers of ^Ohilde Harold' 
will remember Byron*s very effusive remarks ou 
the epitaph of Julia Alpinula in a note on stanza 
Ixvi. of canto iii. I find this epitaph given in full 
at p. 123, vol. i. of Orelli's ' Inscriptionum Latin- 
arum Selectarum Collectio,' &c., Turici, 1828, but 
with the following remarks appended : — v 

'^A Paulo Gulielmo habuit Lipsius ^Auctar.,' p. 53. 
Grut., 319, 10, nemini posthac visam et procul dubio a 
fraudulento isto bomine confictam e Tacit. 'Hist.,' i. 68,^ 
ut visum est jam Ryckio ad Tacit. *Ann.' iii. 23, et ■ 
Hagenbuchio MSS., i. p. 218 ; quamvis eadem deceptua 
est etiam immortalis noster Joannes Muellerua 
CSchweiz'r-Geschichte,' b. i. c. vi.) et Anglus poeta 
Byron: 'Je ne connois point de composition humaine 
plus touchante que cette inecription.' V. Lord Byrou 
par Mme. Louise Svv.-Belloc, Paris, 1824, t. i. p. 346. 
Levade, p. 21 : ' Cette epitaphe a ete transportee en 

To the last remark Orelli adds a note of interroga- 
tion. Is, then, the story of Julia Alpinula a myth? 


Hogarth. — Did Hogarth the painter change his 
name to Hoggart ; and, if so, when? Were the 
Hoggarts, who lived at Fox Grove, Beckenham, 
his descendants ; if so, by and through whom ? 

H. A. W. 

Tricycle. — Is there any earlier instance of the 
use of the word tricycle for any kind of vehicle 
than in the following extract from the Annual 
Eegister for 1828 ("Chronicle," p. 185)? 

*^ Tricycles.— Christmas Day was rendered memorable 
to the Parisians by the starting of this new species of 
carriage for public accommodation. The tricycle is a 
kind of coach, mounted on three wheels; it is drawn by 
two horses only. It moves very lightly, although there 
is an appearance of weight about it. One wheel is placed 
exactly as the leading wheel of the steam coach : it i9 
capable of containing twenty persons, whom it conveys 
distances of at least three miles for five sous each." 

A. F. R. 




Vaughan Family. — Do you or any of your 
"lumerous correspondents know of any MSS. ex- 
-ant relating to the Vaughan family, of Tretower, 
Breconshire, prior to Edward Vaughan, Gent., 
^ans issue, eighth in descent from Sir Roger 
Vaughan, of Tretower, who was killed at Agin- 
court (from Jones's * Breconshire/ 1809, vol. ii. 
p. 497-505) ? If any one could give me any infor- 
mation on the matter I should feel obliged. 

. 0. M. Vaughan, 

Chaplain H.M.S. Orontes. 


. Battle of the Boyne. — What account of this 

battle by eye-witnesses of it or actors in it are now 

extant ? Are there now existing any pictures of 

this battle which were produced near its date ? 

Are any relics of it still to be seen ; if so, where ? 

Are there in existence lists of the officers who 

fought on James II.'s side, and of the confiscations 

resulting from their being on the losing side? Any 

other sources of authentic information would 

oblige. William of Orange. 

Authors of Quotations Wanted, 

'Tig well to be oflF with the old love 

Before you are on with the new. R, J. C. 

first two lines are, we believe, — 

'Tis well to be merry and wise (?), 
'Tis well to be honest and true.] 

A cloud that rayed down darkness. 

N. M. AND A. 

I passed within the minster old 

And listened to the singing ; 
The mighty organ's thunder rolled, 

A pae in heavenward flinging. 
'I heard the anthem die away, 

The origan cease its pealing. 
While from the chancel worn and grey 

The evening hymn came stealing. 

John Pickford, M.A. 

•Why should my harassed (?), agitated mind 
"Go round and round this terrible event ? 
Seeking (?) in vain some secret cause to find. 
Some Cause why all this trouble (?) has been sent. 





(7"> S. ix. 446 ; x. 38.) 

If there is nothing of importance to be brought 
afresh to the examination of the particulars of 
the execution of Charles I., there is still room 
m N. & Q.' for placing them in the light of con- 
temporary illustration. 

I have before me a copy of the * Tragicum 
Theatrum Actorum et Casuum Tragicorum Londini 



p. 185 there is a print of the execution, from 
which It appears that the block was exactly oppo- 
site to the fourth window from the left end of the 

hall, as you face it. The block appears to reach 

up to the roll of the breeches of the assistant, who 
holds up the head, that is, just above his knee. 
The perspective makes it appear to reach higher 
up the leg of the man with the axe. 

In the account of 'The Trial of Charles L' in 
the "Family Library," 1832, there is, at p. 107, a 
print of "The Execution, from an Engraving pub- 
lished at Amsterdam, 1649.'' From the similarity 
between the two this appears to be from the same 
source with that in the * Theatrum,' u. s. But it 
represents the block as reaching much higher up, 
with other variations in the scene of the execution 
itself, as well as some omissions in the representa- 
tion of the spectators. Was there another print 
at Amsterdam in 1649 as well as that in the 
* Theatrum,' in which these variations occur ? Will 
any one who has the opportunity look in the 
Sutherland Collection to ascertain this point; or 
can any one state whether this is so from any other 
authority ? It will clear up the question whether 
the height of the block is to be taken from the 
size as it appears in the print of the ^ Theatrum ' or 
in that of the ' Trial,' both, on the face of them, 
contemporary with the execution. 

Ed. Marshall, 

As you have had a note on the execution of 
Charles L, possibly you may admit the results of 
a little investigation of the subject, and the more 
so that I think I have arrived at a very probable, 
if not at a definite conclusion. Ed. Phillips, the 
continuer of Baker's * Chronicle,' in the edition 
of 1674, gives an account of this execution which 
has every appearance of having been taken from 
contemporary records, and not improbably from 
official sources. I say not improbably, both on 
account of the change then made from the shorter 
and less determinate statement given in the editions 
of 1660 and 1665, and because the same statement 
is made, all but verbatim, in R. Burton's (Nath. 



For contrast's sake, however, and for other 
reasons, I first give Baker's records of the execu- 
tions of Mary, Queen of Scots, and of Strafford. 
Of Mary it is said, p. 372, ed. 1674 ; 

''She came to the Scaffold where was a Chair, a 

Cushion, and a Block, all covered with Mourning 

Prayers being concluded then shadowing her face 

with a linnen cloth, and lying down on the Block she 
repeated the Psalm ' In te Domine speravi ne confundar 
in seternum ' ; at which words she stretching forth her 
Body her head at two blows was taken off." 

While, therefore, she knelt at prayers, she pro- 
bably lay recumbent at the time of execution, and 
as "she shadowed her face with a linnen cloth,'' 
she lay, in all probability, with her face upward. 

Of Strafford, p. 530, we read : 


" Then he addrest himself to the Block, and having 
prayed a while, he gave the Executioner the token of his 

preparedness, whereat the Headsman severed his 

head from his Body at the first stroke." 

^'*^ ^ 



[^Jth S. X. Aug. 23, '90. 

Here, though there may be some uncertainty, 
it is more probable that, having knelt in prayer, 
and that nothing being said of any intervening time 
or change of posture, that he was beheaded kneel- 
ing, v?ith his neck on the " higher '^ block, Mary's 
being, of course, of the lower kind. 

Now we come to the execution of Charles, 
which will be found on p. 602. After addressing 
his speech, necessarily to Juxon and Col. Tomlin- 
son, for the populace were kept at a distance by 
strong bands of soldiers, he said to the executioner, 
" I shall say but very short prayers, and when I 
thrust out my hands [showing how he would thrust 
them out], let that be your sign." Then, after 
giving some conversation with Juxon, and after 
speaking of some change of costume, &c., and of 
his again repeating his admonition and his intended 
sign, the writer continues : 

" After that, having said two or three words (as he 
stood) to himself, with hands and eyes lift up, imme- 
diately stooping down, he laid his neck upon the Block ; 
and then the Executioner, again putting his Hair under 
his Cap [his nightcap, under which the bishop and the 
headsman had previously helped him to place it] the 
King (thinking he had been going to strike) said, Stay 
for the sign. 

" Executioner, Yes, I will, and it please your Majesty : 
And after a very little pause, the King stretching forth 

his hands, the Executioner at one blow severed his Head 
from his Body." 

The king, a little before his execution, had 
declared that "he died a Christian according to 
the Profession of the Church of England." He 
therefore knelt during his short prayers. That he 
also had this position in view is shown by his 
*' looking very earnestly on the [low] Block when 
he first came upon the scaffold/' and then asking 
Col Hacker " if it could be no higher/' as also, 
though not so distinctly, by his looking again on 
the block just before his private prayers, and 
saying to the executioner, ** You must set it fast." 

I need say nothing as to the low block being 
purposely chosen, since it seems that arrangements 
had been made to bind him to it in case of his 
offering any resistance to the sentence ; but I 
gather that, though kneeling, he, through this 
lowness of the block, had to stoop his head still 
lower, thus accounting for Phillips's use of the 
words "stooping down/' and that, in fact, his 
attitude was perforce that of kneeling-prostration. 

Br. Nicholson, 

D. B. (see 3^^ S. xi. 54, 144, 164) ought to read 
the letter of Miss Whitmore Jones, of Chastleton, 
in the Times of June 14. While confirming the 
information he received as to the sale, on the death 
of Lady Fane, of sundry effects used in the last 
hours of Charles I., the drift of the letter forbids 
the idea of the block having been part of those 
effects, as D. B. was informed. It may be remem- 
bered that information received by D. B. on an- 
other point was corrected by another correspondent, 

's ■ 

D. B. having been informed that Lady Fane's first 
husband was Bishop Juxon, instead of Bishop 
Juxon's grand-nephew, as he actually was. Mis- 
takes in such matters easily arise. The year of 
the death of Lady Fane's second husband is given 
by D. B. as 1782 ; in Burke's ' Peerage ' (" Foreign 
Titles," " De Salis") as 1772 ; in Burke's ' Dormant 
and Extinct Peerage' as 1776. 

It can hardly be hoped that the actual block 
will now be called into court to settle the case 
between Mr. Palgrave and his opponents, as lately 
discussed in the Times, and referred to slightly in 
* N. & Q.' at the above references. Miss Whit- 
more Jones refers, in her interesting letter, to the 
catalogue of a sale at Little Compton on Lady 
Fane's death in 1792, lot 158, in which is " The 
chair of K. Charles I., with the stool he knelt on 
at his execution." The chair, now at the cottage 
hospital at Moreton-in-Marsh, the stool, the loca- 
tion of which is uncertain, and the Bible given to 
the bishop, now in the possession of Miss Whit- 
more Jones, would have formed an interesting 
addition to the *' Relics of the Beheading of Charles 
I." shown at the Stuart Exhibition last year. The 
Prayer Book used on the scaffold was exhibited 
by Mr. Evelyn. 

Miss Whitmore Jones thinks that the entry in 
the Little Compton catalogue settles the question 
of the king's position at his execution, in favour, I 
presume, of kneeling to a raised block. To me it 
does not seem so conclusive. A chair and a stool 
are articles most likely to have been provided for 
the king's accommodation. The presence of a 
stool does not necessitate the idea of its being 

At Charles IL's 

used for kneeling purposes 

coronation part of the paraphernalia was " a Rich 

Chayre of State with a Footstoole & Cushion for 

his Ma^ 

upon occasion 



footstool or faldstool, the fact of the cataloguer 
having described it as " the stool he knelt on at 
his execution " does not necessarily imply that he 
knelt upon it while being beheaded. It may have 
been used for previous purposes of prayer. The 
auctioneer of 1792 could hardly have said less than 
he did. Miss Whitmore Jones writes of "the 
relics of the tragedy — the chair, the stool, and the 
Bible used on the scaffold." It would be open to 
perversity to argue that as the chair was used on 
the scaffold the king was beheaded in a sitting 


If, again, it were conceded that the stool was 
used during the brief process of decollation, the 
question of position would not be settled. The 
luxury of a raised block would be rather counter- 
balanced by raising the knees of the victim on a 
stool ; and if executed in the lying-down position, 
he must kneel down as a preliminary measure. ^_ 

Mr. Jonas is doubtless aware of the existence 
of prints of the beheading of Charles I., in which 

7'" S. X. Aug. 23, '90.] 



I hese do not afford conclusive evidence, tbey show, 

I I all events, that the idea was a familiar one in 
\ imes much nearer to the event than these. 

Iieis^shown lying down to a low block. Though a good deal of cross-firing over this discussion, 



Some inference may be drawn in support of the 
supposition that the block must have been a low 
one from the contemporary account of the execu- 
tion which is found in the little quarto pamphlet 

" King Charls (sic) | His [ Speech [ made upon the | 
Scaffold I at Whitehall Gate | immediately before his 
Execution [ on Tuesday the 30 of Jan 1648 | with a 
Eelation of the Man^-r (sic) of | his going to Execution 

Published by Special Authority | London printed by 
Peter Cole at the Sie:n of the Printing Press in Cornhil, 
near the Koyal Exchange 1649. 

"The King then said to the Executioner is ray Hair 
well. Then the Kinjjj took oflF his Cloake and his George, 
giving his George to Doctor Juxon saying Remember — 
(it is thought for to give it to the Prince), Then the 
Xing put off his Dublet and being in his wastcoat, put 
bis Cloak on againe then looking upon the block said to 
the Executioner you must set it fast. 

" ExectUioner : It is fast Sir. 

^^ King : It might have been a little higher. 

^^Executioner : It can be no higher Sir. 

" King : When I put out my hands this way then 
(stretching them out). 

"After that having said two or three words (as he 
•stood) to Himself with hands and eyes lift up ; Imme- 
•^iately stooping down, laid His Neck upon the Block : 
"^ud then the Executioner again putting his hair under 
.Ills Oap the King said Stay for the signe (thinking he had 
bin going to strike). 

** Executioner : Yes I will and it please Your Majesty. 

''And after a very little pawse the King stretching 
forth his hands— The Executioner at one blow severed 

Ilia head from his body," 
Belsize Avenue, Hampstead, 

Geo, Clulow. 

' I 


the Dukes of Hamilton/ published 1673, gives an business-like comment. 

may I be allowed to recapitulate ? 

1. It is curious, in the first instance, that two 
or three correspondents write to refer readers to 
Rohault de Fleury, quite oblivious that he is the 
authority relied on in the quotation from Mr. 
Riley's book given originally by Mr. Buckley. 

2. Mr. Woodall also says he has been to the 
British Museum to search Mr. Riley's book for 
his authority without success, while all the while 
this triple reference to Rohault de Fleury was 
before us. Apparently, however, the ^Memoire 
sur les Instruments de la Passion ' is not in the 
British Museum Library, though it does contain 
other works of G. R. de Fleury. 

3. I must plead guilty to having myself "played 
dominoes " by diverging at the second reference 
from the history of the "dispersion" to a legend 
of the " construction " of the cross. But I beg to 
point out that two correspondents at the third 
reference hastily treat this as if I had given 
an "imperfect version," instead of a variant, as 
Oanon Taylor's wider experience of legends led 
him to perceive. They ought to have observed, 
from the terms in which I spoke of it, that I by no 
means treated it as a normal version, but as an 
almost unknown variety. Many literary curiosi- 
ties are printed in Italy in the form of compli- 
mentary books on occasion of weddings, christen- 
ings, &c., which never reach the eye of the general 
reader ('N. & Q.,' 6'^ S. v. 207; vi. 335), and as 
I happened to know of this one, I took the oppor- 
tunity of Mr. Buckley's note to bring it forward 
as an illustration of the same, and also on account 
of the lately preceding discussion (*N. & Q.,' 7'^ 
S. viii. 382, 501) concerning Sacchetti's writings, 
as well as for the sake of Sacchetti's own quaintly 

account of the execution of James, first Duke of 
Hamilton, a few months after that of King Charles, 
in which he says: 

" He [the duke] turned to the Executioner, and after 
Tie had observed how he should lay his body, he told him 
he was to say a short prayer to his God, while he lay all 

^long and then he stretched himself out on the 

ground, and having placed his head aright, he lay a little 
while praying," &c. 

Constance Russell. 

" I 


have fn my possession a small book, * The 
3 in England, Scotland, and Ireland,' printed 
for Nath. Crouch at the Seven Stars in Sweeting 
Alley, 1681, One plate represents the execution 
of Strafford, who is lying full length on the scaf- 
fold, with his neck on a piece of wood (not a block) 
a few inches high. The same piece of wood appears 
in a plate ' The Martyrdom of King Charles I.,' 
but no block. W. G. F. Dilke. 


S. ix. 204, 316, 449; x. 34.)— As there has been 

4. The calculation quoted from Rohault de 
Fleury is interesting, so far as it may be correct, 
from being a response to those cavillers who have 
often maintained that the volume of pieces claim- 
ing throughout Christendom to be relics of the 
cross far exceed that which the cross itself could pos- 
sibly have contained. At the same time it isnot to be 
denied that in early times it was believed that the 
actual wood was multiplied in dispersion by a 
simple miracle, after the manner of the miracle of 
the loaves. It has also, on the other hand, to be 
borne in mind that many articles treated as relics 
were originally but facsimiles, venerated because 
they had touched the original, but came in process 
of time, by excessive veneration, to be treated as 
originals. This is very likely the case with the 
Bishop of Brechin's portion. An accurate estimate 
of the scattered portions is, therefore, well-nigh im- 
possible to arrive at. Mr. Buckley speaks of the 
Bishop of Brechin's relic being half an inch long. 
Now I am myself in possession of a piece (duly 
accompanied with the necessary sealed "Autentica * 



t7th g. X. Aua. 23, '90. 

<;oncecIed to me under circumstances which Induce 
me to think it as big as any piece likely to have 
been given to a Protestant, and yet it is certainly 
barely a quarter of that length. Has not his 
veneration led him to magnify the size through 
his memory of "forty odd years" ? It is obvious 
that such very natural inaccuracies, multiplied 
by the vast number of small sections scattered 
throughout Christendom, demand a wide margin 
of allowance in any attempt at estimating the total 

5. Where Mr. Riley appears to have gone wrong 
is in the pronouncement that 

"up to the year 636 the Holy Rood remained entire, 
and then, to provide against the calamity of its destruc- 
tion by the infidels, it was decided to divide it into nine- 
ieen portions," 

a list following of the places among which he sup- 
poses it to have been distributed — some of them 
moderately insignificant, and Rome not mentioned 
At all. Now of course the majority of people at 
the present day consider the fact of the " inven- 
tion" of the cross mere superstition, not to say 
bosh ; but for those who accept the story which 
St. Cyril relates as an eye-witness and other early 
historians treat as a fact, St. Helena at once divided 
it into three portions : (1) the first was enshrined 
in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, 
{2) the second was given to Constantinople, and 
(3) the third was carried by St. Helena herself to 
Rome, where the oft-times rebuilt Basilica of Sta. 

Croce in Gerusalemme stands to attest the venera- 
tion in which it has ever since been held. What- 
ever authenticity Mr. W. 0. Woodall so positively 
claims for the " Title " preserved there attaches a 
fortiori to this relic of the true cross, the " Title" 
being but an adjunct, depending for its authenticity 
on that of the cross. 

6. The portions of the wood of the cross which 
remained at Jerusalem and Constantinople were 
the subject of numerous serious vicissitudes. St. 
Louis, however, obtained a considerable share of 
one of these, and enshrined it in the Sainte 
Chapelle at Paris, together with a chief portion of 
the crown of thorn?, handed over to him for safe 
custody by Baldwin H., and the point of the 
lance,"^ which he redeemed from certain money- 
lenders of Venice, to whom Baldwin had sent it 

in trust for the sinews of war supplied to him by 

7. It is doubtless the careless mention of the 
portion of the cross which fell into the hands of 
the infidels as ^Hhe cross" which gives rise to the 
sensational and at the same time erroneous account 
of its utter loss quoted by Mr. Woodall. I 
observe, too, that Fortune has caught him in a 

* The lance itself, minus this point, was sent in a 
splendid case to Innocent VIII. by Sultan Bajazet in 
1492, and is now in St, Peter's, where it is exposed on 
various days commemorative of the Passion. 

snare which she seems always to lay for one when- 
ever one ventures to pronounce anything "quite 
certain." It truly seemed "quite certain" that 
the two divergent statements of Rohault de Fleury 
and of W. 0. Prime " could not both be true.'' 
Yet, after all, they are thus quite reconciliable : 
(a) De Fleury estimates first the whole bulk of the 
original cross, and secondly the bulk of the sums 
of all the remaining portions, showing by deduc- 
tions of one from the other that a vast amount 
is lost or its whereabouts unknown to us at 
present. This seems to tally with the amount 
which is supposed to have fallen into the hands of 
the "infidel." (6) W. 0. Prime, ignoring the 
large portions deposited in safe custody prior to 
the inroads of the "infidel," treats the lost portions 
as " the cross," and thus gets himself and those 
who follow him into a muddle. 

8. The silence of Eusebius, on which Mr. 
Woodall lays so much stress, cannot be called 
"inexplicable," as it has often been discussed and 
variously accounted for. The accidental silence 
of one writer cannot invalidate the positive state- 
ments of others. Nor is it an unusual fact at 
various points of history, as Dean Stanley has 
pointed out in another relation, that important 
facts escape noting by contemporary writers. It 
has further been pointed out that Eusebius him- 
self does record the miracles said to have been 
continually worked at the spot where the wood of 
the cross lay enshrined. 

9. MRe Woodall asserts that during the inters 
between the date of Christ and that of St. Helena 
"history and tradition are both silent as to the 
existence even of the original cross." But for 
those who accept the history of the "invention" 
at all, the cross was buried all this time, and in 
that case there was not much that history or 
tradition could have said about it. Nevertheless 
it is to be presumed that pious minds were exer- 
cised by the desire for its discovery, otherwise St. 
Helena would hardly have been so enthusiastic in 
the assumption of her arduous task. 

10. The question asked by Mr. J. R. Haig 
whether there is any reason to suppose that Christ 
was crucified on a cross specially made for him — is 
answered (for those who accept the history of the 
"invention") by the detail recorded in it that St. 
Helena was guided to the spot where it lay buried 
by the local information that it was the custom to 
bury out of sight, as objects of horror and repulsion, 
the instruments by which a condemned man had 
been put to death, near his place of suffering or 
burial, whence it would follow that a new instru- 
ment of death was required for each execution. 
Possibly Mr. Haig is right as to "a public gallows 
being kept in our own day." It is, however, cer- 
tainly not kept standing, but is erected on every 
occasion of use, so that the difference is not great. 

R. H. Busk. 

^ ■■ r 


;«»• S. X. Aug. 23, '90. ] 




Hitherto ^N. & Q/ has been a neutral ground, 
on which we have been able to correspond with 
o le another quite irrespectively of religious belief. 
Cf late we seem to have approached dangerously * Index.' It may possibly, therefore, notwithstand- 

D9ar to the verge of controversy on the subject of 
t]ie cross on which Jesus suffered, I cannot under- 
Siand Mr. Woodall's assertion that ^'the authen- 
ticity of the tablet set up over it has never been 
<5 uestioned. " I suppose few persons ever heard of 
its existence. That an oaken board buried in the 
^arth for three hundred years should not have 
perished seems as wonderful as the preservation 
of the cross itself. Mr. Woodall says, "The 
letters are incised. The Greek and the Latin 
versions read from right to left [!]. The Hebrew 
portion is quite destroyed." 

In each of the four Gospels the word used to 
express the inscribing is some form of ypd(f)oj. 
Matthew, Mark, and Luke say the soldiers set up 
the accusation. John snys Pilate wrote it and 
put it on the cross. This variation is quite ex- 
plicable. "Qui facit per alium." In any case, 
the inscription seems to have been done off-hand, 
not by the slow process of carving. The object of 
setting it up was to make it as widely read as pos- 
sible. Letters cut in wood would not answer this 
€nd. A piece of whitened board or cloth or a 
«kin of parchment, with letters written or painted 
thereon, would be much more to the purpose. 

^ J. Dixon. 

I give the following as to the special character 
of the cross on which Christ suffered from my 

the Church of Rome,' second edition, p. 141, that the 
Madrid * Index' sometimes clashes with the Roman. 
It disagrees also in one instance with a Naples 



^ South English Legendary.' The account therein 
is at least of interest : 

"Adam was buried in the valley of Hebron, and in a 
few years afterwards three small twigs sprang up. 
Moses found the three trees when he led the people 
through the wilderness. They 8tood there till the time 
of David, who carried them to Jerusalem, set them in a 
reserved place, and built a wall round them. When he 
visited them next day they had grown into one tree- 
typical of the Trinity. King Solomon felled the tree 
in order to use it at the building of the Temple, but it 
was too short. It was being used as a bridge, but the 
Queen of Sheba prevailed on Solomon to raise it from 
that position. It was then removed and buried far from 
the dwellings of men. A beautiful well sprang on the 
spot. After our Lord came to the earth the tree floated, 
and the Jews used it as the cross on which he was put 
to death. After our Saviour's death the cross was buried 

along with two others, and lay more than a hundred 

Heference ia then made to the discovery of the 
cross by the Empress Helena, the carrying away 
of a part by Chosroes 11. into Persia, and the re- 
-capture and removal of this to Jerusalem by the 
Emperor Heraclius. W B 



INDEX LiBRORUM Prohibitorum ' (7^^ S. X. sound heard in the Eogliah name Bob. 


ing its having had for its editor Cardinal Sandoval, 
the Inquisitor-General and Archbishop of Toledo, 
have been regarded with some disfavour ; and the 
fact that it was reprinted at Geneva under Pro- 
testant editorship in 1622 may conceivably have 
helped to produce in some quarters a real or 
aflfected disbelief in its existence. But there does 
not seem to be any evidence that the book itself 
is of very rare occurrence. A description of it, 
with a brief summary of its contents, is given at 
pp. 42-46, bd. ii. of Reusch's * Index der Verbo- 
tenen Biicher,' Bonn, 1885, but nothing is there 
said of any rarity attaching to it above that of 
other books of like class. Mention is made of it 
in other works to which Reusch refers. 

W. D. Macray. 

Mrs. Masters, the Poetess (7^** S. x. 107). 

I have got several letters from Mary Masters to 
my great-grandmother, Barbara Kerrich, written 
from Norwich, where she appears to have lived 
between September, 1749, and January, 1752. One 
contains a poem about an old maid. They have 
much local interest, and show how curiously and 
persistently she went to work to get subscribers 
for what must have been a second volume of poems. 
I never saw a copy for sale of either volume, 
though I have long looked for them. If C. E. D. 
would care for any extracts from Mrs. Masters's 
letters, I shall be very glad to send them. 

Albert Hartshorne. 

A volume entitled * Familiar Letters and Poems 
on Several Occasions,' by Mary Masters, was pub- 
lished in 1755 (London, 8vo.). In the list of the 
subscribers is the name of *^ Mr. Samuel Johnson, 
A.M., author of 'The Rambler,' &c." 

G. F. R. B. 

She also published ^ Familiar Letters and Poems 
on Several Occasions,' London, 1755, 8vo. ; and 
the name of Mary Masters, a native of Otley, near 
Leeds, in Yorkshire, is attached to four pieces 
appearing in Baldwin's ' Poems by Eminent 
Ladies,' 1755, vol. ii. pp. 147-156. 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

Kabobs (7*** S. ix. 89, 216, 355).— Your corre- 
spondent Mr. Hobson is very far adrift in his 
phonetics. The proper Romanized form of the 
word is Jcahdb, not either kdhob nor Icahbb. The 
latter spelling was probably invented to show the 
stress fell on the second syllable, the syllable, no 
doubt, being sounded by the speller with the vowel 


second vowel, properly sounded, is the broad d 



[7i»» S. X. Aug. 23, '90. 

beard in English father, while the first vowel is 
the short formless a heard only in English in un- 
stressed syllables, as in aside,agoingy woman; not 
the vowel in maUy which is radically difi'erent, 
though represented alike in our effete and senseless 
spelling. This short formless a is the sound of the 
short German a, common to most continental lan- 
guages, which, pronounced by most Englishmen like 
the man vowel, makes them objects of ridicule and 
mimicry by Germans listening to them. It is now 
generally admitted that the Latin short a was pro- 
nounced in the same formless manner. However 
diflBcult to Englishmen to catch its sound exactly 
when stressed, they are quite near enough if they 
sound it as the fully formed vowel heard in pup, 
guUj dove^ come. In kabdb, however, the first vowel 
is quite unstressed, so there is no excuse for mis- 
pronouncing and perverting it. Moreover, I feel 
convinced that kabob has come to us through the 
Hindustani language, though it is of Persian 
origin. It represents the corrupt pronunciation 
given to habdb by Englishmen ignorant of the lan- 
guage except so far as picked up by ear. The same 
class of our countrymen gave us in days gone by 
*'Sir Roger Dowler" fox Sir dj-ud-daulaf the tyrant 
of Black Hole infamy. The same class to-day 
persist in saying "doll" for ddl (millet), "konner" 
for hhdnd (food), "molly" for mdli (gardener), 
"nabob" {neybob) for ndwdb, or more correctly 
nuwwdby and this class have enriched English with 
a whole crop of such-like barbarous jargonisms, as 
they were well termed by the late Dr. Duncan 

Forbes, the Orientalist. 



John George Lambton, First Lord Durham 

(7^^ S. X. 69). — According to the Annual Re- 
gister j 1840, this Whig statesman's first wife was 
"Miss Harriet Cholmondeley," whom he married 
**at the age of twenty," time and place not spe- 

Annual Register, 1812, records a marriage in 
January, ^' at Gretna Green, Hon. William H. 
Lambton, E^q., of Durham, to Miss Cholmondeley, 
daughter of the late celebrated Madam St. Alban." 
Lord Durham's Christian names were John George. 

cified, but apparently in the year 1812. 


Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 

*SiNG A Song for Sixpence' (7'^ S. x. 45). 

Alas ! "Sing a song for sixpence" is the accepted 
version of to-day, probably just because children 
nowadays never think of doing a thing unless it 
is for something. And so in high and low places 
when the dear old rhyme is heard, it is always 
^^for sixpence." Years ago, when there were fewer 
books, our mothers were most exact in teaching 
the little one a prayer, a verse, or a rhyme, and 
"mistakes" of words were not allowed to pass. 
We always had in our minds, when the " pocket 
full o' rye" was reached, the big, roomy pockets 

which our mothers wore under their gowns — there 
were no dresses thenadays. The late Mr. Oalde- 
cott mistook his work when he drew in his 
admirable illustrations an oH woodman instead of 
an old woman. A child in the old days could not 
in mind associate a man with "a pocket full o' 
rye." No ! Whoever first sang the ^ Sing a Song 
o' Sixpence' had certainly in mind an old, a very 
old woman, and there are still some among us who 
can see her as they saw her when there was only 
the rhyme to guide the eye of the mind. This is 
how the children in a Derbyshire village said, or 
sometimes sung in a sing-song way — never quite 
the same "tune" — the old nomony or ditty: 

Sing a Bong o' sixpence, 

Pocket full o' rye, 

Four an' twenty black-bods 

Bakt in a pie ! 

When th' pie wor oppunt, 

Bods begun ter einjr, 

An' worner that a danty dish 

Ter set befowert kinii? 

T' king wor int chamber, 

Countin owert his mony, 

T* queen wor int parler, 

Eeetin bread an' hony. 

T' maid wor int gardin, 

Hengin ert cloos, 

An' there come a pynet, 

An' snapt oflF her noos ! 

Thos. Katcliffe. 


Murray of Broughton (7^^ S* ix. 609 


92). — It may interest some readers of * N. & Q/ 
to know that in the cathedral burying-ground of 
St. Andrews there is a tombstone with the follow- 
ing inscription : 


to the Memory of 

William Henry Wood Murray, Esq^®, 

CGrandson of 

Sir John Murray of Broughton) 

who, for upwards of Forty Years, 

was the talented and highly respected 

Lessee and Manager 
of the Theatres Royal and Adelphi 


Born 26^ti August, 1790, 
Died 5^h May, 1852. 

Kequiescat in pace. 

D. H. F 

Monte Video (7'»» S. vii. 7, 293, 333, 477; x. 
94). — I have no doubt that Mr. Gibson is in the 
main right about the derivation of the above, and 
I may perhaps help him in his difficulty about the 
time when the d disappeared from the past tense 
of the verb ver, to see. 1 have before me as I 
write two Spanish manuscripts — one the letter of 
an ambassador to the king, dated 1560, in which 
the first person singular past tense of the verb is 
written as it is to-day, m; and the other written 
by a Castilian resident in Lisbon, and dated 1589, 
in which vide is used. I am led thus to believe 

Jtb S. X. Attq. 23, '90. J 




tl at the form vide lingered much longer in Portugal 
tl an in Spain ; indeed, I well recollect having 
h 3ard in my childhood Gallego servants say vide 
a id vido for **I saw" and "he saw," and I have 
n3 doubt ignorant Gallegos say so still. The pro- 
bxbility, therefore, is that Magalhaes's sailor would, 
being a Portuguese, exclaim, ^^ Monte vide eu," 
Y'hich would literally mean " I saw a mountain." 
CJastilian tongues would soon soften the personal 
pronoun eii^ and the result would be Monte Video. 
I do not at all understand what Mr. Gibson 
neans by saying that the accent has been changed 
from the second e in Montevideo to the syllable 
vid. I was in the city a few months ago, and 
heard no change from the pronunciation which had 
been familiar to me all my life, namely, Monte- 


Martin A. Sharp Hume, Major. 

St. Ertfrith or Herefrith (7^^ S. x. 88). 
Herefrid occurs in the Rev. Richard Stanton's 
*Menology of England and Wales,' p. 526. There 
appear to have been two Herefrids, one an abbot 
and the other a hermit ; they may, however, have 
been the same. According to Potthast's ' Index 
of Saints ' in the 'Supplement' to his 'Bibliotheca 
Historica Medii CEvi,' p. 218, St. Herifrid was 
Bishop of Auxerre (Autissiodorum). His feast is 
on October 23. As I have not, I much regret to 
say^a copy of the * Acta Sanctorum,' I am unable 
to supply any details as to his life. 

It may interest Mr. Thompson to know that in 
the Churchwardens' Accounts of Louth, Lincoln- 
shire, which I am preparing for the press, there 
occurs an inventory of the goods belonging to the 
church in 1486. Among other precious objects there 
was : " j come of Ivery that was saynt herefridis." 
This object had probably belonged to the English 
abbot or hermit, not to the Gaulish bishop. 

Edward Peacock. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg, 

Herefrid, Abbot of Lindisfarne, from whom 
Bede learned the particulars of the dying hours 
and death of St. Cuthbert (' Bedse Vit. S. Cuthb.,' 
xxxvii-xl), may be the person meant. I am not 
at present able to say whether he was sometimes 
styled " St." at Durham or not. Mr. Thompson 
might refer to the ' Dictionary of Christian Bio- 
graphy,' which is probably in the York Chapter 
Library. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Doncaster. 

[Other replies are acknowledged.] 

Postscript =Anym A (7'*^ S. x. 87).— In the 

earliest printed copies of the first letter of Colum- 
bus, describing his discovery, the postscript is not 
called anymay but is headed " Nyma que venia 
dentro en la carta." This accounts for anyma not 
being found in the Spanish dictionaries, 
seal. "" 


The nema was really a piece of paper placed 
on the outside of a letter like a padlock, and over 

which the seal was put. Presumably the postscript 
was written on this piece of paper. The MS. tran- 
script of Columbus's letter, which is preserved at 
Simancas, and is of later date than the above-men- 
tioned printed copies, calls the postscript anyma, 
but I do not know the reason of the variation; 

perhaps only a clerical error. 

R. V. E. 

Brothers-in-Law of Henry YIII. (7'^ S. x. 
22,96).— I am much obliged to Major Sharp Hume 
for his remarks upon the above. Strictly speaking,, 
it may be doubtful if Philip of Flanders should be 
styled King of Spain, as his father- in-law. King 
Ferdinand, outlived him. But his grandson (the 
husband of our Queen Mary I.) has always been 
known as Philip II., King of Spain. WhO;,. 
then, was Philip I., if not his grandfather, the 
consort of Juana and the father of the Emperor 
Charles V., who (I write under correction, having 
no books of reference near me) styled himself 
Charles I., King of Spain, in the lifetime of his 
mother, the nominal Qaeen Regnant? 

My list only dealt with the legitimate issue of 
King Henry VIII/s fathers-in-law, therefore I 
could scarcely introduce the names of the Arch- 
bishop of Zaragoza and the Grand Constable 

amongst them. 

Permit me to take this opportunity of correcting 
a slip of the pen in regard to the name of Queen 
Catherine Howard^s parents. Her father and 
mother were Lord and Lady Edmund — not Wil- 
liam — Howard, as everybody knows. 

H. Murray Lane, Chester Herald. 

Aigle, Switzerland. 

Englandic : English Speaking (7*^ S. ix. 425; 
X. 37). — This is such a good English expression that 
one is led to feel that the wish for something shorter 
may possibly be carried too far. As, however, 
" English speaking " seems to some rather long, and 
"Englandic " does not gain supporters, it may be 
asked why ^^ English tongued" would not supply 
this want. It is a little shorter than *' English 
speaking," and perhaps admits the suppression of 
the noun following it {i. e., world, people, &c.) a 
little better than the latter, while at the same time 
it would allow the use of both concurrently. 

Ad Libram. 

How are the mighty fallen ! I wonder what the 
Romans would have said if one of them had 
written in the strain of Mr. Hyde Clarke. 

J. F. Mansergh. 


Arrow Throwing (7'^ S. x. 7, 75).— Your cor- 
respondent at the second reference does not de- 
scribe the arrow-throwing referred to by your first 
correspondent. Twenty years ago, when I amused 
myself with arrow-throwing, we had no feather to 
the arrow and no ^' nick cut round the shaff The 
arrow was made in exactly the same way as an 



[T^^* S. X. Aua. 23, '90. 

ordinary pointer, and the string — a piece of whip- 
cord—if drawn sufficiently ti^ht kept itself in 
position. I believe I am right in stating that the 
opening day for arrow-throwing was Shrove Tues- 

day. I seem to remember that 



and arrow-throwing came close together; but I 
may be wrong. 

One thing more. Unless in the matches which 
now take place more accurate measurements are 
taken than was the case formerly, not much re- 
liance is to be placed on the *^ scores.^ The mea- 
surements were taken in a very rough and ready 
fashion, on the principle that ''it was as fair for 
one as for another," and, except in matches where 
a rather high stake was thrown for, I never knew 
the ground to be measured before the match com- 


S. Illingworth Butler. 

Pleshey Castle (7^^ S. x. 68). — When I 
visited Pleshy two years ago I found the frag- 
ment of a stone with the inscription built into the 
outer face of a wall on the left hand side of the 
load as you enter the village from Chelmsford. It 
is certainly deserving of better protection than it 
now has in so exposed a spot, as being one of the 
very few remains of the college founded there by 
the Duke of Gloucester in 1393, When Weever 
(p. 637) visited Pleshy about 1630 he found that 

" the Parishioners (being either unwilling or unable to 
repair the decays) had carried away the niaterinls from 
the upper part of the church which were employed to 
other uses/' 

The rich funeral monuments, he says, were "ham- 
mered a peeces, bestowed and divided according to 
the discretion of the Inhabitants." Richard II. 
was not imprisoned at Plesby, but he seized the 
Duke of Gloucester there and sent him over to 
Calais to be murdered. On Jan. 15, 1400, the 
Earl of Huntingdon was beheaded in the court- 
yard at Pleshy, close to the bridge which still spans 
the inner moat. He was buried in the church at 
Pleshy, and Weever found a piece of his " dismem- 
bered monument." King Richard was buried at 
Langley, and his remains were afterwards trans- 



Hamilton Wylie 

Rapines ' Hist, of England ' (ed. 1732) informs 
us, on the authority of Walsingham, that the dead 
Richard XL was carried from Pontefract " to Lon- 
don in a Coffin, with his Face uncovered, to be 
seen of all Persons. His Funeral was solemnized 
at St. Paul's, the King himself being present. 
After that he was carried to Langley Abbey, and 
buried," i.e., ''in the Church of the Fryars- 
Preachers at King's Langley, in Hertfordshire " 

(vol. i. p. 490). H 
to Westminster Abbe 
(1719), vol. i. p. 280. 


See also Kennett's 'Hist/ 
J. F. Mansergh. 

Source of Phrase sought (7*^ S. ix, 347). 





'E/xoiJ Se '^4^V, ^pwvrai/ fSovkofxaL [laXXov rovs 
dvdpiinrovs, Ota ri dvSptas ov Ketrat Karojvo?, 
7] Sta ri Keirat. — " Apophthegmata," ' 0pp. Mor.,* 

fol.,p. 198 F. 

In another place it is : 

*0 8e Karwv, tjStj ttotI rrj^Vw/irjs avairifiTrXa' 
fxkvri^ avSptavTwv, ovk 6Cov avrov ycvecr^at, 
MaAAov, €^7y, fSovkofxat TrvvOdvecrdai rtvas 8ca. 
rt fjiov dv8plas ov Keirai r^ 

" Eeipubl. Gerendse Pisecepta,'' !&., p. 820 B. 

In Plutarch's ^ Life of Cato,' after noticing his 
statue in the Temple of Health, he observes : 

" Before this he laughed at those who were fond of 
such honours, and said, ' They were not aware that they 
plumed themselves upon the workmanship of founderg,. 
statuaries, and painters, while the Romans bore about a 
more glorious image of him in their hearts.' And to 
those that expressed their wonder that, while many 
persons of little note had their statues Cato had none^. 
he said, 'He had much rather it should be asked, why 
he had not a statue, than why he had one/ " — Tho^ 
Langhornes' translation of Plutarch's * Lives,' vol. ii.. 
p. 509, Lond., 1819. 

Ed. Marshall. 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem (7^^ S. ir,. 

If Mr. Fred. 0. Frost wants to 

468 ; X. 74). 

know about the above order, he can obtain every 
information at the Grand Priory of the Order, St. 
John's Gate, Clerkenwell. That any one can in 
the present day be ignorant of the history and 
work of the Venerable English Langue of the 
Sovereign Religious and Military Order of St.. 
John of Jerusalem, now, by Eoyal charter, **the 
Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in 
England," a work which has revolutionized the * 
empire, from the Orkney and Shetland Islands to 
Australia and New Zealand, breaking down all 
caste prejudices in India, is somewhat surprising.. 
The information on the subject furnished by Mr. 
Frost is, to say the least of it, astounding to 
members of the Order, which has no connexion 
whatever with Freemasonry. No doubt many of 
the Fieres Chevaliers are Freemasons, but I know 
of no instance in which they were not Masons 
before being received into the Order, there being, 
in my opinion, insuperable difficulties in any mem- 
ber of it becoming a Freemason. Of course, the 
Bishop of St, Albans and Sir R. Dixon are mem- i 
hers of the Order, the former being Chaplain i 
General of it, the other a Knight of Justice. Each I 
wears his decoration, as ordered by the statutes of 
the Order and by the charter granted by the \ 
Queen when she secularized the Order, following 
the example of the late King Frederick William of 
Prussia and the Johanniter branch of the Order, 



7* Si X. Aug. 23, '90.] 



Grand Prior of England. By the charter, the 
V Tious members of the Order wear their decora- 
tions on all state occasions, whether in or out of 
u liform, and by the regulations of the Horse Guards 
ficers in uniform are always to wear the decora- 
tion of their rank in the Order. 

Francis Robert Davis, 
Knight of Justice of the Order of the Hospital 
of St. John of Jerusalem in England. 

Since my note appeared in your columns, I read 
in the Western Morning News of July 30 ; 

"The Prince of Wales, Grand Prior of the Order of 
the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in England, 
accompanied by a distinguished party of members of the 
Order, presented the silver medal to Thomas Chapman, 
pitman, of Drakewalls Mine, for his conspicuous 
gallantry during tbe rescue of the two miners. Rule and 
Bant, who were entombed in the mine for five days in 
February, 1889. The presentation was made at Marl- 
borough House," &c. 

The report goes on to speak of another presenta- 
tion of a medal to another recipient, but does not 

give the date. 

Teignmouthj Devon. 

Fred. 0. Frost. 



I think the 

Life of Chatham' (about five pages from the 



historian is speaking of the bribery and corruption 
practised by the Duke of Newcastle : 

"A third whispered that he had always stood by his 
Grace and tbe Protestant succession ; that his last elec- 
tion had been very expensive ; that Potwallopers had 
now no conscience ; and that he hardly knew where to 
turn for five hundred pounds." 


The Tricolour (7'^ S. ix. 384, 415).— Will 
you allow me to say with regard to Mr. Halt's 
opinion that ''this revolutionary emblem was 
adopted from the colours of tbe house of Orleans, 
white, red, and blue," that it does not coincide 
with the statement on the subject of the formation 
of the tricolour cockade in M. Thiers's ' History of 
the French Revolution' (vol. i. p. 67, 1853); and 
also to remind Mr. Halt that the colours of the 
Orleans livery were not white, red, and blue, as 
he states, but the very same as those of the city 
of Paris, namely, red and blue? It may not be out 
of place to mention, in connexion with the matter, 
that the Marquis de Lafayette, the creator of the 
National Guard — "an institution that was cowardly 
in war, anarchical in revolution, ever on the side 
of disorder, never on that of order, and powerful 
only in mischief" — was also the inventor of the 
tricolour cockade, in which he symbolically blended 
the king and the people. Immediately after the 
storming of the Bastille, in July, 1785, Lafayette, 
being^ commandant, incorporated into the Civil 
Militia several Swiss, and a great number of 
soldiers who had deserted their regiments in hope 

of higher pay. The king himself had authorized' 
this proceeding. The Militia assumed the name 
of the National Guard, selected a uniform, and 
added to the two colours of the Parisian cockade 
red and blue — white, the colour which was that 
of the king. This was the tricolour cockade 
adopted on July 26, 1789, and was presented by 
Lafayette as follows. He said : 

'' Gentlemen, I bring you a cockade that shall make 
the tour of the world, and an institution at once civil 
and military, which shall change the system of European 
tactics, and reduce all absolute governments to the 
alternative of being beaten if they do not imitate it, or 
of being overthrown if they dare to oppose it," 

Henry Gerald Hope. 

6, Freegrove Road, N. 

Joseph Bouchier Smith (7^^ S. x. 48). — It 
may prove useful to mention, as illustrative of this 
query, that the monument of Joseph Smith, D.D., 
Provost of Queen's College, Oxford (1730-1756), 
and Rector of St. Dionis Backchurch, may be seen 
facing the door of the college chapel. Upon it 
there is a long inscription, surmounted by a shield 
of arms and a bust of Dr. Smith. It is said that 
he is buried in the vault of the chapel. The same 
monument also commemorates Timothy Halton, 
D.D., Provost of Queen's College 1677-1704, 
whose remains are said to have " been removed ta 
the vault of this chapel." The Bouchiers were 
an old family long resident at Hamborough, in 
Oxfordshire, a parish at no great distance from 
Kidlington, and their monuments used to be in 
existence at Hamborough Church. 

John Pickford, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

The son of Dr. Joseph Smith, of the city of 
Oxford, he matriculated as of Queen's College, 
June 16, 1775, aged sixteen. His grandfather, 
Joseph Smith, D.D., Provost of Queen's College, 
Oxford (died November 23, 1756, aged eighty-six), 
had been buried in the vault under the chancel of 
the college chapel. The Gentleman^s Magazine, 
1822, vol. xcii. part ii. p. 649, records the death 
on December 29 of John Boucher Smith, Esq., 
while on a visit to the Earl of Coventry at Worcester. 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Unicorn (7^^ S. x. 49).— G. H. R. will find an 

answer to his question in All the Year Bounds 
First Series, xii. 118, where a description is given 

Queen c 


He should also refer 

25, 113. 


EvERARD Home Coleman. 

71j Brecknock Road. 

Two unicorns are the supporters of the arms of 
Scotland, and when James VI. of Scotland became 
King of England the Scottish unicorn was asso- 



[7«' S. X. Aug. 23, '90, 

ciated with the lion as a supporter of the royal 
arms in the place of the red dragon. 


The Library, Guildhall. E.G. 

[Replies enough to fill a number of *N. & Q.' are 
acknowledged. ' Our National Arms,' Parker's 'Glossary 
of Heraldry,' Boutell's 'Heraldry,' and Burke's ' General 
Armory,' are among the books moat constantly recom- 

The West Window of the Chapel, New 
College, Oxford (7''» S. ix. 507).— If my memory 
does not deceive me, K. will find a full-sized 
coloured plate of the once famous, but now discre- 
dited west window of New College Chapel, con- 
taining Faith and Fortitude and the rest of what 
Walpole with unjust contempt styled " Eeynolds's 
washy virtues," in Ackerman's * University' of 
Oxford' (1814), which may be assumed to give a 
faithful representation of the colours employed. 
May I add another question to that of K. ? What 
has become of the " Virtues " themselves and the 
" Nativity "' ? I do not mean Eeynolds's original 
designs, which are— at least the "Virtues" — or 
were in the possession of the Earl of Normanton, 
and have been exhibited at Burlington House, 
but Jervais's reproductions of them on glass. With 
all their faults, they are too good to be put away in 
a lumber room or broken up. E. Venables. 

* Song of the Cane' (7"^ S. x. 88).— I beg to 
say that I have a copy of ' The Song of the Cane,' 
which, if Mr. Scott desires, I will forward to him. 
The lines in my possession were published in a 
Manchester weekly paper some dozen years ago, 
and were, I think, originally copied from Punch. 

Edward Roberts. 

19, Walmer Place, Longsight, Manchester. 

"Truckle Cheese": "Merlin Chair" (7'^ S. 
X. 67).— A merlin chair, so named, I believe, from 
the first maker, is the three-wheeled invalid chair 
which has a double tire to the two front wheels, 
the outer tire being somewhat smaller than that on 
which the chair rests, so that by turning it with 
the hand the chair can be propelled. G. F. R. B. 
can see a picture of it in any collection of trade 
advertisements. I saw one myself only an hour 


ago in my July ' Bradshaw.' 

Longford, Coventry. 

Annandale, in his 'Dictionary,' says "truckle 
cheese " is the local name for a small flat cheese. 

Evbrard Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

For "truckle cheese" see Brand's 'Popular 
Antiquities,' i. 67 (Bohn's edition). 

Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 


Barley (7^^ S. ix. 445, 513).— The greatest of 
Barleys, next to Sir John, was Bess of Hard- 

wick, better known as Countess of Shrewsbury 
and mother of the Cavendishes. Her first husband, 
and the generous founder of her fortunes, was 
a wealthy Derbyshire squire named Barley. There 
is a Barley parish in Hertfordshire. A. Hall. 

Byron {7^^ S. vi. 369, 493).— In the ' Works of 

Lord Byron' 




M., 1826, pp. 590-1) 
parte ' consists of only 
as also in the ^ Works 

Miscellaneous Worka 

vol. ii. pp. 400, 401) are published * Additional 
Stanzas to the Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte/ 
being stanzas xvii., xviii., and xix. Thus we can 
fix the date of first publication between 1828 and 
1831, and their separate publication in the last- 
mentioned edition seems to point to their being 
recent then. 

The Morning Chronicle of April 28, 1814, con- 
tained the following letter to the editor : 

Sir, — The two stanzaa which I now send you were, by 
some mistake of the printer, omitted in the copies of 
Lord Byron's poetical ode to Napoleon Buonaparte, 
already published. One of the ** devils " in Mr. Davison's 
employ procured a copy of them for me, and I give yoa 
the chance of first discovering: them t3 the world. 

Your obedient servant, 

J. K. 

Additional Stanzas to Lord Byron's Ode to Napoleon 



(Not printed in Mr. Murray's edition.) 

Yes ! better to have stood the storm, 

A monarch to the last ! 
Although that heartless, fireless form, 

Had crumbled in the blast ; 
Than stoop to drag out life's last years. 
By nights of terror, days of tears, 

For all the splendour past : 
Then, — after ages would have read 
Thy awful death with more than dread, 

A lion in the conquering hour ! 

In wild defeat, a hare ! 
Thy mind hath vanished with thy power. 

For danger brought despair : 
The dreams of sceptres now depart, 
And leave thy desolated heart, 

The Capitol of care ! 
Dark Corsican ! .'tis strange to trace 
Thy long deceit, and last disgrace. 

What connexion have these stanzas with the poem? 
Were they the production of Byron, or an imita- 
tion ? I have but once seen them reprinted, and 
then not as an addendum to the *Ode/ It would 
be interesting could their authorship be settled in 
these pages. J. Cuthbert Welch, F.O.S. 

The Brewery, Reading. 

Mr. Gladstone's Oxford Address (7'^ S. 
ix. 144, 249, 394; x. 29).— I must have written 
in a very slovenly fashion, for I am much misun- 
derstood. I will try to be distinct and concise. 
I do not believe that the Greeks in Homer's time 
had learned any astronomy from the Chaldees^ and 




fortwo reasons. First, because in Homer's time 
the Greeks had no astronomy. Homer believed 
the earth to be a vast plain surrounded by a 
mighty river Oceanus, into which the sun and 
Btirs plunged, and from* which they arose re- 
frashed/ Hesiod was of the same faith. Names 
bud been given to a score or so of stars, but that 
is not astronomy. Our boors had given names to 
the daisy and the shepherd's purse, but that is not 


had no astronomy. 


the Greeks had elaborated their magnificent geo- 
metry, and were becoming scientific astronomers, 
that great man Hipparchus, with whose name a 
dozen great discoveries are coupled, applied to the 
Ohaldees for their observations. He found that 
they had only begun to register eclipses in the 
year 721 B.C. In a word, he learned nothing from 
them. They had, indeed, made catalogues of stars, 
and the use they put them to was to divine for- 
tunes ; that is, not to advance science, but to pro- 
pagate error. Every one is free to believe, with 
Berosus and Critodemus, that the Assyrians had 
observations extending over 490,000 years, or, 
with Pliny, over 720,000 years, or, better still, 
with Simplicius, over 1,440,000 years. I prefer 

the fact that Hipparchus could not find any older 
than 721 B.C. 

With regard to Achilles's shield, it seems to me 
no argument that the figures moved, because 
Hephaistos did sometimes make automatic figures. 




was still lame from that terrible fall from heaven 
to the isle of Lemnos, and therefore a kind of 
Bath chair which moved spontaneously must have 
been a great convenience. So the Tripods which 
came with a wish to assist him in his toil. But I 
can conceive no purpose that would be answered 
by the figures on a warrior^s shield moving their 
heads or arms. And as the text does not say so, 
T do not believe it. I am still in the belief that 
what artists call composition is one of the highest 
excellences in painting and in sculpture ; that is, 
that the figures should be arranged as in real life, 
so as to tell the story. And that I take to be 
Homer's meaning — " They were grouped like living 



9 ii 





Dantes Treatise ^ De Vulgari Eloqnentid,^ Translated 
into English, with Explanatory Notes, by A. G. Ferrers 
Howell, LL.M. (Kegan Paul & Co.) 
The year of the sexcentenary of Beatrice sees yet another 
work devoted to the study of Dante. The human race 
cannot be sufficiently thankful to the Re del Canto for 
having endowed it with the most mellifluous of all idioms 
for the expression of thought, and substituting for abase 
Latinity a terse, stately, and musical language. It is, 
nevertheless, remarkable that the treatise in which 

Dante has left (confessedly only in fragmentary form) 
the record of the cogitations which led up to this 
great achievement, is far from being an admirable 
performance. Wordy and involved throughout, ofttimes 
inconsequent and fanciful, perhaps its greatest merit is 
that it serves to show by contrast how much greater was 
Dante's mastery of the language he created than of that 
he abandoned. How different are the laboured, far- 
fetched, often obscure ratiocinations of this little Latin 
treatise from the tender flowing outpourings of the 
Italian ' Vita Nuova ' ! But, also, how different is the 
condition of knowledge to be dealt with in the thirteenth 
and nineteenth centuries may be observed by comparing 
Dante's tentative guesses at the origin of language with, 
say, such an article as that on the ^ Origin of Alphabets ' 
in the current number of the Edinburgh Review. Mr. 
Ferrers Howell sums up ably what has been argued as 
to the date at which the treatise was written, to the effect 
that it must have been quite within the first decade of 
the fourteenth century. Though now generally accepted 
by Dantisti as a genuine work, there is still just suiTi- 
cient doubt about the authenticity of the treatise ^De 
Vulgari Eloquentia ' to supply the spice of fascination 
which is wanting to it inherently, the fascination of 
exercising our powers of judgment on it as we read. For 
these reasons, and also because Dante himself tells us 
that it was the first treatise ever written on this pregnant 
subject, and because whatever Dante wrote deserves to be 
studied, all English readers who aspire to any acquaint- 
ance with higher literature cannot but be grateful to 
Mr. Ferrers Howell for saving them much weariness by 
putting them in possession of the first English translation, 
and making it so readable, not to say attractive, a ver- 
sion — a version in which loving care has obviously been 
taken that the rendering should wear all the pleasant- 
ness of which a faithful translation was susceptible. A 
most arduous task it must have been. 

The Collected Writings of Thomas de Quincey. By David 
Masson, Vol. X. (Edinburgh, Black.) 

De Quincey is more interesting and more instructive 
in literature than in politics, and it is pleasant in the 
tenth volume of his collected works to get back to lite- 
rary history and criticism. This latest volume of the 
new edition of his collected works begins with the ' Let- 
ters to a Young Man ' whose education has been neglected. 
Following these comes the essay on 'Rhetoric,' followed 

again by the brilliant and discursive paper on 'Style' 
and by one on* Conversation.' Of ' A Brief Appraisal of 
the Greek Literature in its Foremost Pretensions ' Prof. 
Masson gives what might almost serve as an exegesis. 
Two short and valuable essays dealing with Shakspeare 
and Milton are also given, in addition to his admirable 
preface Prof. Masson supplies introductory observations 
to different portions of the volume. 

Our Title Deeds. By Rev. Morris Fuller. (Griffith, 
Farran & Co.) 

Mr. Fuller's book is a defence of the Church against 
disendowment, and is a perfect storehouse of facts and 
documents bearing on the subject of tithes. It is a reply 
to Mr. Miall's unfortunate treatise, in which he ventured 
to impugn the Church's right to her own property on the 
ground that somehow and somewhen it had been con- 
ferred upon her by the State; and Mr. Fuller ruthlessly 
tracks out and exposes the blunders and fallacies into 
which the writer was betrayed, especially the ^* fallacy 
of reference," by which the authorities he appeals to are 
often made to suggest conclusions quite at variance with 
their real opinions. It is a subtle form of misrepresenta- 
tion which parti pris is notoriously prone to. The his- 
torical sketch of the rise of the tithe system is full and 



[7^'' S. X. Aug. 23, ^, 

'interesting. Mr. Fuller has here failed to notice that 
among the primitive Semites tithes were originally tri- 
•bute in kind paid to the king, and afterwards to the 
national god as king, which has been shown in Mr. 
Robertson Smith's recent volume 'Religion of the 


In a book which rightly insists on accuracy as of 

.supreme importance, we regret to notice a large number 


of " typographical errors, e.g., *'frondos" (p. 37) 
fundos; "maneuses" (p. 52) for mancuses ; "Cyriesceat 
(p. 82, &c.) for Cyricsceat ; '^Duyer'^ {p. 190) for Dwyer; 
the Council of " Macon," p. 27, is Mascon, p. 41 ; " less " 
,(p. 26) is a misprint for morej &c. Every lover of truth, 
however he may feel disposed to the National Church, 
would do well to master tbe contents of this volume. 

Jnduclion and Deduction: a Historical and Critical 
SIcetch of Successive Philosophical Conceptions respect- 
ing the Relations between Inductive and Deductive 
Thought; and other Essays. By Constance C. W. 
Naden. Edited by R. Lewins, M.D. (Bickers & Son.) 
It is impossible to read this work without deriving both 
profit and pleasure from the perusal. Induction is 
defined in the introduction as the passage upward from 
lees general to more general truths ; deduction as the 
^passage downward from truths more general to truths 
less geneial. At the end a more precise formula is 
given : *' Induction is a process of cognition involving 
recogjnitions. Deduction is a process of recognition 
involving cognitions." The series of essays which com- 
prise the largest part of the work before us traces these 
processes in the reasonings of the greatest thinkers of 
ancient and modern times. In its course the erroneous 
views often held with regard to some of them, par- 
ticularly Aristotle and Bacon, are pointed out. The 
latter, as the authoress remarks, was, in fact, the pre- 
cursor not of Newton, who would have done his work 
quite as well had Lord Verulam never lived, but of J. S. 
Mill and Jevons. It is much to be regretted that Miss 
Naden was called away last winter, before she had com- 
pleted her thirty-second year. Those who study her 
writings will endorse the view expressed by Mr, Herbert 
.Spencer, that they exhibit a degree of receptivity and 
originality which are not often combined. 

Taales fra Linlisheere. By Mabel Peacock. (Brigg, 

JackRon & Son.) 
Miss Peacock's fresh contribution to Lincolnshire dia- 
lect deserves and will receive a warm welcome. The 
.dialect, as she is careful to explain, is that spoken in 
'* the stretch of country lying between the Ancholme on 
the east, the Humber on the north, the Trent on the 
-west, and the old coach road from Gainsborough to 
Bishop's Bridge on the south." As the aim of her book 
is scholarly, it is well to be thus precise. Her language 
generally, however, and her expressions with very few 
exceptions, can be understood a hundred miles away in 
some directions from North Lincoln. Her stories, which, 
with one or two exceptions, are of local growth, may be 
read, as we have tested, with much gratification, and 
have both humour and tenderness. Their** Doric,'' more- 
over, is a recommendation to others besides Lincolnshire 
readers. Many curious traits of folk-lore and supersti- 
tion are enshrined in a volume of exceptional interest, 

Thp Genealogist. KS., Vol. VI. Edited by Keith W. 

Murray. (Bell & Sons.) 
The first volume of the Genealogist vihxch appears, under 
the editorship of Mr. Keith Murray, since the lamented 
loss of Mr. Walford Selby, deserves a special welcome at 
our hands. It is also the first volume which we have 
seen for some years. Looking back at past issues of the 
Genealogist^ and comparing them with this their suc- 

cessor, we gladly recognize many familiar features and 
some familiar names among the writers. Mr, Joseph 
Bain raises a question of considerable interest concern- 
ing the identity or difference of blood between the Ridela 
and De Riddels, who appear side by side in Scottish and 
English mediaeval history. We incline, from our own 
independent researches, to the view indicated by Mr. 
Bain, of which the outlines were stated by him, under 
the name of Anglo-Scotus, in ' N. & Q.,' 5^^^ S, xii. 102, 
though we do not altogether share his apparent con- 
fidence in the earlier portion of the pedigree of Riddell 
in Hutchinson's ' Durham.' The statements made by the 
new editor of the Genealogist in his preface regarding 
the probable early completion of the ' New Peerage ' 
commenced in the pages of our valued contemporary 
by G. E. C, will be read with satisfaction by all who are 
acquainted with the portion so published. In the pre- 
sent volume we are glad to find the good work of printing 
parish registers entire, as distinguished from extracts, 
is being well carried out, Mr. J. V, L. Pruyn contributing 
the marriages at St. Saviour's, South wark, 1606-25, down 
to 1610, and tbe whole of the parish registers of St. Mar- 
garet's, Bermondsey, from their commencement, 1548, 
down to 1563, being given as a separately paged publica- 
tion, covering forty-eight pages of the volume. Not a 
few existing Bermondsey names, e. g,^ Goodman, are here 
represented, and also in St. Saviour's, Southwark, while 
the element of curious and foreign names is strong in 
both. Thus, in St. Saviour's, Southwark, we meet with 
an Alice ffrigosa (? Fregoso) and a Polidorus Abcee, and 
in St. Margaret's, Bermondsey, with a John Widesacke, 
a Thomas Piggs, and a Thomas AppuUtaste. ■ 

The Antiquary. Vol. XXI. (Stock,) 

Among many articles of interest in the twenty-finrt 
volume of the Antiquary are the contributions by the 
Baron de Cosson and the Hon. Harold Dillon on * The 
Tudor Exhibition'; Mr. Hope's 'Holy Wells: their 
Legends and Superstitions'; and * Roman Castrameta- 
tion,' by the late H. H. Line. The Antiquary keeps up 
its reputation, and its longer essays will always repay 

We must call special atte7ition to the following notices: 

On all communications must be written the name and 
address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but 
as a guarantee of good faith. 

We cannot undertake to answer queries privately. 

To secure insertion of communications correspondents 
must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, 
or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to 
appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested 
to head the second communication "Duplicate." 

J. N. C. — "To square the circle "=to find a square 
of the same area as a given circle — a famous problem, 
incapable of geometrical solution. See *New English 
Dictionary,' under '^Circle." 

Dkrf (** Book-plate ").— We have no means of repro- 
ducing your design. 


Editorial Communications should be addressed to *' The 

—Advertisements and 

Editor of 'Notes and Queries'"— 
Business Letters to " Tbe Publisher" 

at the Office, 22, 

Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.G. 

We beg leave to state that we decline to return com- 
munications which, for any reason, we do not print; and 
to this rule we can make no exception. 

•tb s. X. Ato. 30, '90. J 




- CONTENTS.— N<» 244. 

NOTES:— A Cromwellian Commonplace Book, ICl— Dispen- 
sations mentioned by Theiner, 162— Folk-lore of East and 
West compared, 164— Ambrose Philips— The Queen and her 
Family— Literary Parallel, 165— Folk-lore from Chicago- 
Henry Aldrich— Jesse Windows. 166. 

QUERIES :— Quotation Wanted— Coronation Robe— Eeference 
to Wm. Penn— Hannington Family— W. Vigorous— Sharpens 
* Warwickshire Portraits' — William Horwood— Music and 
Words of Song Wanted — Icelandic Measurement — Lady 
Caroline Lamb— Okey Family, 167— Peter le Royer— Pro- 
tection of Animals— Shaw Family — Henry Labouchere, 
Lord Taunton— Sixth Centenary of Abbot Norton—** Write 
you" — J. Porden — Le Sergent Hoff— Martin Lluelyn— 
Miles Coverdale, 16<S— Rew Family— Wellington— Portrait of 
Douglas Jerrold Wanted, 169. 

REPLIES :— Unfastening a Door at Death, 169— Edouart's 
Silhouettes— Archaeology. 170— Dukedom of Clarence— Allan 
Ramsay, 171— Poem and Author Wanted— Flint Flakes— 
St. Bernard's Hymn for the Dying— A. W. Devis — * Mayor 
of Wigan '— * A Woman's Question,' 172— Judicial Whipping 
—Spurs— Ugborough Church— 'The Greville Memoirs'— 
Jacob Van Lennep— Dropping the Final ** g," 173— Duke of 
Wellington— Killigrew's Wives— St. Saviour's, Southwark— 
Works on Music — Cardinal Newman— Victorian Coins — 
' Sing a Song for Sixpence ' — The Tricolour— Church of SS. 
Anne and Agnes, 174— Commissariat— Henshaw Quarterings 
—Jointed Dolls— Curious Inscription— Early Portgraves of 
London, 175— Bird-lore— Hampstead— Girl pronounced Gurl 
—Dr. Thos. Shaw— Mytens— Colman Hedge— Kelly, 176— 
Mackintosh— Brat— Senegambian Folk-lore— De la Poles- 
Wright of Derby— Dr. Sacheverell— Superstition concerning 
Bees, 177— Lanphier— Aulas— Lybe—*' A rump and dozen" 
— Cuthbert Bede -Turkey-Red Dyeing, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-Ebsworth's ' Roxburghe Ballads'— 
Bullen's 'Antient Drolleries'— Baring-Gould's 'Yorkshire 


{Continued from p. 124.) 

The sermon which follows the extracts previously 
given is interesting when we consider its period, for 
the text is " Touch not mine anointed." After it 
come two letters in Latin from Urbanus Octavus, 
Pont. Max., to Doctor Gilbert, professor and 
pastor of the French Church, London, bearing date 
November, 1628. Next comes an extract from Mr. 
Pike's book * Of Conscience,' and a sermon follows 
which is worthy of quotation, as it deals with the 
conscientious scruples of some of the ministers of 
the days of King Charles : 

*^It is not to be thought unreasonable that divers of 
ye ministers, especially among ye inferiour sorte, doe 
finde youselvea much aggrieved with ye oathe yt is now 
comming on. ffor certes it will be said y* none will 
stumble at ye oath but such as have formerly conceived 
some disaffection to ye government of ye Church. Yet 
they cannot be now iuatly blamed for y** dissaffection yt 
have hitherto all y^ tyme submitted youselvea quietly & 
obediently, & so w*^ doe still were they not preased with 
more yn ever they were before, formerly they have felt 
and suffered more yn was desirable. But this oath irks in 
such a manner and in such a matter as may atartle any con- 
science yt is not stifled wth ye worldly advantage that 
cornea to soome thereby. Might it not suffice yt we em- 
brace ye present discipline unlesse we must applaud? 
Might it not be enough if we bind ourselves for this 
king's tyme, unlesae we binde ourselves for ever, which 
includes this world and ye world to come ? Might it not 

be enough to swear in generall unlesse we must abide all 
manner of vexations & moleatations] Might it not be 
enough to sweare thia matter sincerely for necessity's 
sake unlesse we must do it willingly and gladly? This 
last branch implyes the impression that it is not so much 
to binde for ye tyme to come as to finde out wher' ye 
ministry have any soreness of etomacke to this forme of 
rule and to exerne them altogether. But this encroach- 
ing upon the liberty of Christ may well be distasted of." 

Lengthy extracts from Tarson HarkwelFs Apo- 
logy of the Power and Providence of God ' follow ; 
also some from a book by one Carolus Gallusa 
dated 1592, and from another by ^^Mr. Meade, a 
noted divine of Cambridge 1627.^' 

In a sermon on 'England^s Destiny for Keforma- 
tion ' we have a long list of the " daungers '^ she 
has been saved from in order that she may devote 
herself ^^to this good worke." Among these 
mercies to Protestants are ^'the escape of Dubline 
from a massacre in 1641, the escape of England fro' 
the Armado in '88, fro' the powder treason in 1605, 
and fro' the Spanish navy in 1639, and now fro' 
many plots and Heresies.'* 

But the worthy minister was evidently no fanatic, 
for he quotes with approval the sermon preached 
by Mr. Owen before the House of Commons on 
April 29, 1646 (the year before the king came a 
prisoner to Carisbrooke), where the preacher in- 
veighs against "those State Physicians who take 
themselves to be Church Physicians & would fain 
pronounce sentence of blood against hereticks.'* 

Digressing for some few pages from these 
weighty matters, we find the old scholar deep in 
the making of " dialls both plaine and Horizon tall 
as well as Cylindrical!," all illustrated by neat dia- 
grams, endless calculations, and little movable 
pieces of parchment carefully attached to the great 
circles, crowded with minute figures and learned 
notes. In the making of these he evidently took 
the keenest delight, and the book abounds with 
doggerel rhymes on the subject, and hints "for find- 
ing of the time of day (if a Clocke or sundiall can- 
not be had) merely by yourhande alone if the sun 
doe but shine," and many a scrap of Latin verse on 
a fly-leaf or note of a sermon has been used by him 
for these minute and endless calculations. The 
letter from that *^ brave soldier and wise governour 
Sydenham" owes its preservation solely to the 
figures on the back, and another letter — apparently 
a discouraging reply from one of Mr. Sparks's re- 
lations, refusing money and recapitulating all that 
^^your fathear has done for you"— is used in the 
same way. It is of considerable interest, from the 
extraordinary difierence in the writing from that 
of the book and its enclosed writings. Evidently 
the old-fashioned or uncultured hand of that day 
varied even more from the hand of the period than 
does the slanting and feeble style of the first half 
of this century from the bold and dashing hand of 
the present day. The address reads quaintly, too, 

for whereas on the other letters it runs thus 



[7«»' S. X. Aug. 30/90. 

ffor his respected friend 

Mr. Sparks at Northwood 


the cold response to his begging letter brings a 
great sheet of rough paper addressed 

To my loveing Brothear 

M>* Vincent Sparke in 

The lie of Wighte 
deliver thes I praye. 

In another scrap we find him falling foul of one 
Morgan, who seems to have very ignorantly dab- 
bled in his own pet pastime of dialling. He begins 
his halting lines by 

Some — after Homer — would write Iliades 
And prove themselves to be far stouter blades 
Than were the former Giants, yet when all 
Is done they can, they prove not halfe so tal, &c., 

and so forth, with sledge-hammer satire. 

On yet another scrap we find a list of books, 
apparently of books lent by the minister, for beside 
the name of one of them he has written in difi'erent 
ink the sad remark, which so many of us find true 
for all time, " Yt came not againe.*' 

To enumerate the odd jumble of letters and ex- 
tracts so carefully preserved would be too long a 
task, but the only piece of printed paper in the 
book is well worth noting. It is an almanac for 
1646, and contains a list of the kings and queens 
since the Conquest, with the *^ number of their 
years, mons, and dales.'* It is strange to see the 
name of King Charles, the last on the list^and the 
empty space under the heading '* Since the Reigne 
ended '* filled up with the words " Vivat Eex et 

The rest of the almanac is taken up by '^Pro- 
gnostications of Eclipses for this present yeer and 
calculations as to when the sun maketh his revolu- 
tion thorow the 12 signes." Also a table of the 
planets ^'in some sorte to satisfy the desires of 
those who are curious to the weather.'' 

Apparently our country parson was one of this 
class, and his interest in the planets was not con- 
fined to their efiect on the weather, for we have 
some curious notes on the casting of the nativity, 
the domination of starres, and the nature of the 
planets, mixed with medical observations " for 
him who intendeth to study physicke, and is 
neither knave nor fool." '* Know, then," says the 
old scholar, " that sympathy and antipathy are the 
two hinges upo* which the whole body of Physicke 
hangs. Erecte the whole fabricke upon this founda- 
tion if thou beest wise. If not, thou art unfitt to 
be a physician. '^ 

It is strange to find a man so learned as Mr. 
Sparkes writing gravely of astrological influences 
on health, choler, and the complexion^ and giving 
rules for finding the complexion and character by 
the dreams. He quotes with approval some verses 
written by Thomas May, E^q., which describe the 
different dreams which may tell whether the 

dreamer be ^^Melancholik, Cholerick, Sanguine 
or Phlegmatik," and winds up his extracts by 
observing that he himself most surely believes that 
men and women *^may know strange truths by 
their dreames if their nativityes be accordingly, 
either by nature or Arte." 

But this excursion into merely secular matters 
is almost the only one in the book, for the mind of 
the old minister was filled with the weighty con- 
troversial matters, on which war was so fiercely 
raged both by tongue and pen in the disturbed 
days he lived in. That the bent of his thoughts 
was purely and deeply spiritual we may see from a 
remarkably beautiful morning prayer which follows 
this medley of learning and superstition. We find a 
rhythm and a harmony in this beautiful prayer 
which show that the parson of Northwood had a' 
fine sense of style, and its composition is very like^i 
that of the fine prayers one hears in the Preshy 
terian churches of the north of Ireland, where so 
much true eloquence is to be found. 

The question of ^^ mixed Communions,'' 
treated in "the booke of Mr. Jeanes," greatly 
exercises the mind of the ^^pastour," who attacks 
Mr. Jeanes both in Latin verse and in Enelisb 
doggerel, beginning : 

This booke, in this greate doubt, doth by no meanes 

Thee satisfy, though writt by learned Jeanes. 

Hee proves indeede wee may with equity 

Sup there, where is not full Presbytery, 

And why not ? If ye companye be all 

So faire as needes not for a censure call 

Or if ye faulty people willingly 

Hold yt their pastour shall them certify. 

But may or must wee sup where ye people 

Are plainely grosse, and most invincible. 

But then what needes there of Presbyteration, 

May yt turn oflF ye blessings of a nation ? 

You say yt if pastours and people try 

Theire utmost to sett up Presbytery 

And yet cannot, they may communicate 

With scandalous folke^ and not sin in this state* 

A steward the pastour is, an angell in his place 

Chosen, accepted, — ruling in this case. 

The power of ruling is in him chiefly 

He 's God to others— as their neede doth cry. 

Will you such scandals in a Church permitt 

Rather yn grant her pastour what is fitt ? 

And shall ye worst, if frowarde hee shall prove 

Prevaile to treade on -z^;"! the Lord doth love. 

do not then by force— and cavillation 

Harden bad heartes and hinder reformation, 

fFor this ye fearefuU strive, leaste this displease 

The goddlesee worldlings yt have wealth and ease. 

Let us Him please, who 's Lord of life and death, 

Men-pleasera feare not God (while they have breath). 

M. Damant. 

{To he continued,^ 





Two papal dispensations, hitherto, I believe, un 
noticed, are recorded in Theiner's * Vetera Monu 
menta Hibernorum et Scotorum historiam illuE 

T-*" S.X.Aug, 30/90.] 



trantia/ which throw a curious light on the family 
history of the early Stewart kings. 

1. Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Mure of 
Eowallan, was the first wife of Robert Stewart, 
Earl of Athole and Strathern, who in 1371 ascended 
the throne of Scotland as King Robert XL They 
had a well-known dispensation from Pope Cle- 
ment VL, dated at Avignon X Kal. December in 
the sixth year of his pontificate (1347), and addressed 
to the Bishop of Glasgow, in whose diocese both 
parties resided, which states that^^diucohabitantes 
prolis utriusque sexus multitudinem procrearunt," 
and that there was a double impediment to their 
marriage, Robert being related to Elizabeth in the 
fourth degree of consanguinity and Elizabeth being 
related in the third and fonrth degrees to Isabella 
Boutellier, or Boucellier, with whom Robert had a 
previous liaison (Theiner, p. 289). But it has not 
been observed, so far as I know, that a third im- 
pediment to their marriage appears to have been 
removed in 1345, when the same Pope, by letter 
dated at Avignon, XII I Kal. June, in the fourth 
year of his pontificate (1345) (see Theiner, p. 284), 
authorized the Bishop of St. Andrews to dissolve 
a marriage contracted with the consent of friends, 
"per verba de presenti,'* between Hugh Giffard, of 
the diocese of St. Andrews, and Elizabeth Mure, 
of the diocese of Glasgow, when Hugh was nine 
years of age and Elizabeth eleven, regarding which 
the letter says : 

"Cum ad pubertatem pervenerunt contra hujusmodi 
matrimonium reclamarunt, ipsumque raatrimonium 
gratum sive ratum non habuerunt, nee adhuc habent, 
immo expresse dissenserunt, et adhuc diasentiunt matri- 
monio memorato." 

It is, perhaps, impossible to prove now that the 
betrothed wife of Hugh Giffard was identical with 
Robert Stewart's wife; and it would occupy too 
much space to state here all the arguments for and 
against that proposition. Those in favour of it con- 
siderably outweigh, in my mind, those against it. 
It is pleasing, charitable, and not inconsistent with 

probability to conjecture that Robert and Elizabeth 
were married in good faith, and that when con- 
fronted with the fact that their marriage was in- 
valid through Elizabeth's early contract, had no 
resource but to avail themselves of the Pope's dis- 
pensing power. It may also be noted that Hugh 
Giffard of Yester, the famous ^^necromancer,'' con- 
firmed by charter in 1345 a grant that his grand- 
father, Sir Thomas Morham, had made to the monks 
of Holyroodhouse, and then, or at some other time, 
founded the collegiate church at Yester (Wood's 
Douglas's ' Peerage,' ii. 650). 

No attempt seems to have been made to trace 
the consanguinity which the dispensation of 1347 
states to have existed in the fourth degree between 
Robert Stewart and Elizabeth Mure. The pedigree 
of the Mures of Rowallane as generally accepted 

dispensation of Aug. 29, 1322 (see Theiner, p. 226), 



of Elizabeth Mure, was 
wife. By this dispensa- 
tion a former marriage between Adam Mure and 
Joanna Cunningham, both of the diocese of Glas- 
gow, which had been celebrated " olim," without 
due dispensation from the impediment caused by 
Adam being related in the third degree of consan- 
guinity to Hugh de Hutsconperi, Joanna's former 
husband, is sustained, and the issue already born, 
and to be born, declared legitimate. If Joanna 
Cunningham was the mother of Elizabeth, it is 
possible that the consanguinity with Robert 
Stewart is to be traced through her. (I have 
not met elsewhere with the name Hutsconperi in 
Scotch family history.) 

2. Robert Stewart, third son of Robert II. and 
Elizabeth Mure, afterwards Duke of Albany and 

d, married Margaret, Countess 
i first wife. She was the only 
child and heir of Mary, Countess of Menteth, by 
Sir John Graham, and seems (if the dispensations 
are correctly printed in Theiner) to have had four 
husbands. Her first husband was John de Moravia, 
Lord of Bothwell and Panetarius Scotise, who died 
s.p. 1352, and as his widow she had a dispensation 
from Clement YI., dated at Avignon, August 15, 
in the eleventh year of pontificate (1352), to marry 
Thomas, thirteenth Earl of Marr. The impediment 
is not stated in the dispensation, but it arose from 
the earl being nephew (by the half blood) of John 
de Moravia, her first husband, through Lady Chris- 
tian Bruce, mother (by her third husband) of John 
and grandmother (by her first husband) of the carl. 
In this dispensation (printed in Theiner, p. 300) it 
is stated that the petition alleged '^quod tu, fill 
comes, in toto Regno Scotise, tinde oriandus ex- 
istis, aliquam mulierem nisi te, filia Margarita, 
cum qua secundum tui status decentiam, matri- 
monialiter copulari valeas, commode invenire non 
potes." Andrew Stuart mentions a second dis- 
pensation of 1354 in favour of the same parties, 
but as the second dispensation is not printed in 
Theiner, I am unable to say if it differs from 
the first, or if it explains the necessity of its 
issue. Thomas, Earl of Marr, was divorced 
from the countess, and there is a letter, un- 
noticed by genealogists, from Pope Innocent YL, 
dated lY Kal. May, in the eighth year of 
pontificate (1360), authorizing the Bishop of Dun- 
blane on certain conditions to absolve John Drum- 
mond and Margaret, Countess of Menteth, from 
the ecclesiastical censure and excommunication in- 
curred by their having " olim " contracted rnar- 
riage, knowing that they were within the prohibited 
degrees of consanguinity, and to permit them to 
marry, and to declare their issue legitimate (Theiner, 
p. 315). This John Drummond was, I presume, 

affords no clue to any consanguinity. There is a Sir John Drummond, ancestor of the Earl of Perth, 



[7U> S. X. Aug. 30, '90, 

who is said to have married Mary de Montifex, 
heiress of Stobhall, &c., and to have had by her 



. .. _Jng David II. (see Wood's 

Douglas's 'Peerage/ ii. 359). If the Countess 
Margaret was remarried to Sir John Drummond 
under the dispensation of 1360 it is probable that 
Sir John died soon after the ceremony, for on the 
V Ides Sept., in the ninth year of his pontificate 
(1361), she had another dispensation from the 
same Pope to marry '^Robertum natum Roberti 
comitis de Stratherne," the impediments being (1) 
that Robert and Margaret were within prohibited 
degrees ; (2) that Robert was within the fourth 
degree of consanguinity to John de Moravia ; and 
(3) to Thomas, Earl of Marr, Margaret's former 
husbands (Theiner, p. 317). It is curious that the 
dispensation of 1361 does not refer to that of 1360, 
and does not mention Sir John Drummond, who 
was certainly, through his sister Margaret, queen of 
David IT., and his daughter Annabella, queen of 
Robert III., connected by affinity, if not by con- 
sanguinity, with Robert Stewart. This difficulty 
would be removed if we suppose that there is a 
misprint in the 1360 dispensation as given by 
Theiner, and that the countess who had married 
Sir John Drummond was not Margaret the 
daughter, but Mary the mother, whose first hus- 
band, Sir John Graham, was executed by order of 
Edward III. in 1346; and this conjectural emenda- 
tion is consistent with a charter of King Robert IL, 
dated at St. Andrews the penultimate of March, 
1372, confirming the donation that "Maria Oomi- 
tissa de Menteth, in sua viduitate fecit et concessit 
Joh'ni de Dromond'^ of certain lands in Levenax 
(Reg. Mag. Sig. 113, 3). It would be interesting 
to know what became of the issue of Sir John 
Drummond and the Countess of Menteth, whom 
the Bishop of St. Andrews was authorized to de- 

clare legitimate. 



Students of folk-lore have often been struck by 
the occurrence of the same popular beliefs in 
countries widely remote from each oiher. Such 
observations have generally been made by Euro- 
peans, but in a recent communication to the 
Anthropological Society of Bombay, Mr. Jivanjee 
Jamshedjee Modi has approached the subject from 
the point of view of an educated Parsee familiar 
with the learning of East and West. During his 
residence in Paris he noticed, amongst other 
customs, that of blessing any one who sneezes. 
There are allusions to this in the classical literature 
of Greece and Rome, and the fact that the custom 
is mentioned by Aristotle, at all events, disposes 
of the theory that it originated during a mediaeval 
epidemic of great fatality and of which the first 
sympton was a violent attack of sneezing. When 

Mr. Modi was staying at Vienna, a sudden sneeze 
brought him an elaborate bow and an expression of 
wishes for his good health from the porter who was 
standing by. Under such circumstances a Parsee 
mother will say, " My Jamshedjee will live long, 
and the tailor will prepare suits of clothes for him." 
In India, however, the sneeze of one of the oppo- 
site sex is a good omen. If a man has a small 
pustule on the eyelid, he may expect seven in 

Bird omens are very common in Europe and in 
India, and the word ** auspices ^' has its parallels in 
Sanscrit, Gujerati, Persian, &c. The Hindoo 
woman, when she sees a crow, endeavours to pro- 
pitiate fate by this invocation : 

Oh crow, oh crow, 

I will give thee, 

Golden rings on thy feet, 

A ball of curd and rice, 

A piece of silken cloth for thy loins, 

And pickles for thy mouth. 

This is the bird's supposed ideal of bliss. A 
peculiar noise made by the crow is the forerunner 
of a visit from a dear relation or of a letter from 


When the auspice is correct, sweets are 


placed for the birds, and it is a matter of belief that 
none of the feathered crowd will touch the food 
until the feast is begun by the particular crow 
whose prophetic instinct had earned the largesse. 

Salt superstitions are numerous. In India, 
when they pass it from hand to hand, the giver 
pinches the hand of the receiver, so as to end any 
possible quarrel in a friendly pinch. To eat a few 
grains of salt on your birthday will ensure a sufficiency 
of nimak roti^ salt and bread, until the succeeding 
anniversary. For the same reason a little salt is 
often put in the tiffin basket of any one going a 

If a sick person speak of his illness to one who I 
is healthy, the latter touches his amulet, or taps ^^ 

under the table, or places two fingers in a V shape, 
in order to prevent the disease being transferred 
to him. The belief in the *^evil eye" is wide- 
spread ; in India, mothers place a black mark on 
their child's face that it may avoid this danger. 
Old shoes are placed on poles for the protection of 

That the forefinger is in some 


the growing crops. 

special sense dangerous is generally accepted. 
is wrong to point a forefinger at a fruit-tree 
in India, and at a baby in England. The horse- 
shoe is nailed on the wall alike in East and 


to guard against evil eye, witchcraft, and 
Iron is thought to have special virtue for 

protection and exorcism. A small knife, nail, or 
scissors, is attached to the cradle of a child. When 
a wife expects to be a mother, the greatest care is 
taken to prevent the evil eye or other maleficent 
influences. If an eclipse occurred during her 
pregnancy the husband would not be allowed to 
hold a knife in his hand or even to mend his quill 


7« S. X. Aug. 30, '90. J 



Friday is an unlucky day in India as well as in 
urope. Odd numbers are regarded as lucky 
nd even numbers as unlucky, which is the reverse 
f the general European superstition. The reason is 
aid to be that corpses are usually carried by an even 
utrber of bearers. The Western huntsnlan regards 
meeting with an old woman as a sign that good 
ame will be wanting in the day's sport. The 
lindoo widow^ in the same way, is regarded as an 
men of danger and ill-luck to those whom she 
aay enconnted. 

These are but samples of the multitudes of 
rivial occurrences and accidents from which the 
uperstitious alike in East and West draw conclusions 
8 to the good or ill fortune that may be in store 
or them. Man will never conquer a feeling of 
uriosity as to his fate, nor extinguish the desire 
raise the curtain hiding the future ; but as 
ducation advances he will, it may be hoped, forget 
hese puerile superstitions, which are even now but 
eminiscences from the childhood of the race. 

Armytage, Bowdon. 

William E. A. Axon. 




Ambrose Philips.— In the edition of Spence's 
Lnecdotes ^ which he has prepared for Mr. Walter 
Scott's " Camelot Series '' of books, Mr. John 
Jnderhill gives short biographical notices of the 
arious writers concerned. These should be accept- 
ble to readers, especially as they are concise and 
erse, but to be completely satisfactory they ought 
be as nearly accurate as possible. Mr. Underbill, 
peaking of Ambrose Philips, gives 1695 as the year 
f his birth, which would make him under fourteen 
l^hen his * Pastorals' appeared, and seventeen on the 
iroduction of his famous ^ Distressed ~ " . 
3 curious that such a slip should have occurred, for 
ven Dr. Johnson, although admitting that he had 
een baffled to discover the date of Philips's birth 
[nd the facts of his early life, states that he " died 
ane 18, 1749, in his seventy-eighth year." Other 
iographers have now no hesitation in giving the 
jxtreme dates of the poet's career as 1671 and 1749. 
Philips still suffers at the hands of critics in regard 
other matters besides dates. Mr. Gosse, for ex- 
|mple,inhis * Eighteenth Century Literature,' p. 138, 
ys that he " composed a number of birthday odes 
children of quality, in a seven-syllabled measure, 
hich earned him the name of ' Namby-Pamby,' 
ut which form, in their infantile, or servile, 
rettiness, his main claim to distinction." In 
ard's * English Poets,' vol. iii. p. 130, Mr. Gosse, 
ntmg on the same subject, states that ''his odes 
private persons, and in particular to children, 
...won him ridicule from his own age, and from 
enry Carey the immortal name of Namby- 
amby.'' Neither of these descriptions of the 
des IS correct in point of fact. They are not all 
birthday odes to children of quality," for while 
here are twelve altogether, one is an address to an 

Italian singer, one is a supplication on behalf of a 
child suffering from small-pox, two are memorial 
tributes to the worth of deceased noblemen, two are 
grouped as songs, and say nothing of children, and 
one (as Dr. Johnson mentions) is addressed to 
Robert Walpole as *'steerer of a mighty realm." 
This likewise disposes of Mr. Gosse's further de- 
finition of the odes as being in honour of '^ private 
persons," and it may just be added that the two 
memorial odes find their occasion in the deaths of 
the Earl of Halifax and Earl Cowper respectively. 
Nor, apparently, did Philips himself regard Signora 
Cuzzoni as a private person, for he implores her 
to retreat southward, in case disastrous national 
results should follow from the exercise of her art : 

Tuneful mischief, vocal spell ! 
To this island bid farewell ; 
Leave us as we ought to be, 
Leave the Britons rough and free. 

Philips may not have been a very great poet, or 
a very brave man, but that is no reason why 
people who write about him should not strive to 
give him his due. Thomas Bayne. 

Helensburgh, N.B. 

The Queen and her Family. — Our beloved 
Queen commemorated the fiftieth anniversary of 
her marriage with the late Prince Consort on 
February 10 last. That union was singularly 
blessed in its issue. Her Majesty was herself an 
only child; but she has lived to see her children's 
children's children. At this time (August), this 
numbers fifty living descendants, including sons 
and daughters, grandsons and granddaughters, 
great-grandsons and great-granddaughters. Be- 
sides whom, she has four sons-in-law, four daughters- 
in-law, five grandsons-in-law, and one grand- 
daughter-in-law,* The Queen has lost one son and 
one daughter, five grandsons, one granddaughter, 
one great grandson,t and one son-in-law. If these 
were living, her family circle would number seventy- 


C. H. 

Literary Parallel. — Has the following 

interesting coincidence ever been noted ? I call 
it a coincidence, because we may feel pretty sure 
that when Scott wrote the scene in question he 
was not thinking of Robert Greene's pleasant 
Arcadian romance. When Front-de-Boeuf receives 
the summons and challenge signed by Le Noir 
Faineant, Gurth, Wamba, and Locksley, he, like a 
true mediaeval knight, being unable to read, hands 
it to the Templar, who delivers the contents amidst 
the inextinguishable laughter of De Bracy and 

* Strictly speaking, Her Majesty has two grand- 
daughters-in-law, viz., the Empress Augusta Victoria of 
Germany and the Princess Henry of Prussia ; but as the 
latter is also the Queen's granddaughter by birth, she i^ 
necessarily enumerated among them. 

t The still-born infant of H.R.H. the Duchess 




[?^ S. X. Aug. 30, '90. 

himself at the idea of a cartel of defiance signed by 
a swineherd, a jester, and a yeoman (^ Ivanhoe/ 
ch. XXV.). Compare this with the following passage 
in ^ Menaphon,' report vi. I have modernized the 

spelling : 

" As soon as they came there Melicertus begirt the 
castle with eucli a siege as so many sheepish cavaliers 
could furnish : which when he had done, summoning 
them in the castle to parley, the young knight [Pleusi- 
dippus] stepped upon the walls, and seeing such crew 
of base companions, with jackets and rusty bills on their 
backs, fell into a great laughter, and began to taunt them 
thus: *Why what strange metamorphosis is this? Are 
the plains of Arcadie, whiloiEe filled with labourers, 
now overlaid with lances? Are sheep transformed into 
men, swains into soldiers, and a wandering company of 
poor shepherds into a worthy troop of resolute champions? 
No doubt either Pan means to play God of war, or else 

these be but such men as rose of the teeth of Cadmus 

Here she is, shepherds, and I a Priam to defend her 
with resistance of a ten years' siege : yet, for I were 
loath to have my castle sacked like Troy, I pray you tell 
me, which is Agamemnon ? ' " 

It is immediately after quoting some glowing 
stanzas sung by Menaphon in praise of Samela 
that M. Taine, in his * flistoire de la Litterature 
Anglaise,' says, with more or less truth : " Je veux 
bien croire qu'alors les choses n'etaient point plus 
belles qu^aujourd'hui ; mais je suis sur que les 
hommes les trouvaient plus belles." 

Jonathan Bouchier. 

Folk-lore from Chicago and the Corea. 

The following paragraphs, cut from the People 
for Feb. 26, 1888, may interest the readers 
of^N. &Q 

" SherifiF Matson, of Chicago, received a letter from a 
woman in Cerro Gordo, 111., asking him to send her one 
strand of a rope that had been used to hang some person. 
She had been told, she wrote, that it would ' cure the 
fits from which her boy suifered.' 

" The Coreans are essentially a superstitious people. 
Lately they have been freely discussing the probability 
of serious trouble in that kingdom, which they allege is 
foreshadowed hy the early fall of snow, accompanied by 
thunder and lightning." 

E. Walford, M.A. 

Hyde Park Mansions, N.W. 

Henry Aldrich, Divine and Scholar. — It 

may be noted that Henry Aldridg, son of Henry 
by Judith, was baptized in the Church of St. 
Margaret, Westminster, Jan. 22, 1647. See 
further 'Diet. Nat. Biog.,' vol. L, p. 251. 

Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Jesse Windows. — A note on these windows 
may not be out of place. M. Du Caumont 
(' Ab^c^daire,' Caen, 1870, p. 373) states that 
these symbolic representations in stained glass are 
not earlier than the thirteenth century in France. 
For convenience I translate the paragraph, * L'Arbre 

de Jesse 

d' Amiens : 

" The tree of Jesse is a representation by which the 
mediaeval sculptors and image-designers gave material 

expression to the fulfilment of the prophecy which had 
foretold that Jesus Christ would be born of the seed of 
David, the eighth son of Jesse \ Etegredieiurvirgaderadice 
Jesse, etflos de radice ejus ascendet. The numerous exist- 
ing representations of this symbolic subject display a 
genealogical tree with the different members of the race 
of David from Jesse to the Blessed Virgin. Her figure 
is at the summit of the tree, and the other figures are 
always supported on a branch, the height of vyhich 
determines their chronological order. This subject ig 
found sculptured in a large number of cathedrals, and ia 
painted on many glass windows from the thirteenth to 
the sixteenth centuries. Jesse is the figure of a sleeping 
man, sometimes recumbent^ sometimes sitting, and the 
stem of the genealogical tree springs at times from his 
breast, at times from his head. The figure now given 
shows Jesse sitting and asleep, with his head supported 
by his right hand. It is taken from Amiens Cathedral." 

M. Du Oaumont's woodcut on the same page illus- 
trates the treatment of the subject. It may here 
be noted that the idea of the genealogical tree is 
taken from the classic Roman stemma^ cf, Juvenal: 
" stemmata quid faciunt ? " Isaiah's prophecy 
as to the root of Jesse suggested, as we know, the 
anthem in the Sarum rite, ' Radix Jesse,' one of 
the nine antiphons, commonly called ^^The Nine 
O's," sung from December 16, "0 Sapientia,'' to 
Christmas Eve. By a beautiful and pious fidelity 
to the sacred past of our Church, the anthem " 
Sapientia " is yearly sung in Latin at evensong on 

December 16 at Magdalen College Chapel at Ox- 

M. Du Caumont, ibid.y p. 717, gives a cut of a 
Jesse tree of the fifteenth century carved in wood. 
Springing from the loins of the recumbent Jesse 
are the various patriarchs and kings standing 
crowned on the several branches, and with the ^] 
B. V. M. holding her Divine Child, at the summit. 
She is enclosed in an elliptical "glory." The place 
where this work of art is preserved is, unfortunately, 
not stated. There is also a Jesse tree in one of the 
churches of Nuremberg. It is represented in the 
window known as the ^^ Volkamer Fenster." 

In England, among, doubtless, other instances 
of Jesse windows or carvings, I may just note that 
they are to be found in Winchester College Chapel 
(dedicated to Our Lady of Winton, the cathedral 
of course, being under the invocation of SS. Peter 
and Paul), and at the magnificent church at Dor- 
chester, Oxon, which was the see in that region 
before it was transferred to Lincoln, the see of Ox- 
ford being, as is well known, a '' New Founda- 
tion" one, i. e.j dating only from the Reformation, 
Unhappily, the Dorchester example is mutilated. 
Vide the Athenceumy July 19, p. 104, where, in a 
notice of the British Archaeological Association's 
visit to Oxford, it is stated that among other archi- 
tectural remains are '* the carved 'Root of Jesse,' 
with the culminating group, the Virgin and Child, 
hacked away, in a window at the east end ; an 

adjoining window containing scenes from the life 
of Christ, and some local traditions, such as St. 
Birinus converting Cynegils," &c. The current 


. T'hS. X.Aug. 30, m] 



iJhurch TimeSj moreover, mentions that there is a 
^resse window in Selby Abbey Church. Perhaps 
some of your learned contributors could give an 
exhaustive list of the ancient Jesse windows to be 
found here and on the continent of Europe. There 
is a Jesse window at the east end of Wells Cathe- 
dral, and also a Jesse window (over the site of an 
altar) at St. Cuthbert's, Wells. 

a DE B. H. 

We must request correspondents desiring information 
on family matters of only private interest, to affix their 
names and addresses to their queries, in order that the 
answers may be addressed to them direct. 

f , 

Quotation and its Source Wanted. — Years 
ago I once met, in a leader in the Times^ with a 
Latin quotation, expressing the truth — or I might 
even call it truism — that the reward of labour, or 
the recognition of it, comes often late in life, but 
then amply. It made such an impression on me 
that I subsequently frequently quoted it myself in 
private letters and articles I wrote; but when 
lately I wished to quote it again, I found, to my 
regret, the beginning had slipped my memory, and 
I only recollect now the end of the distich, running 
thus: "ssepe tarda, sed ampla venit." As my 
forgetfulness annoyed me very much, and I was 
anxious to recall the beginning to my mind, with- 
out, however, succeeding, I applied to our foremost 
classical scholars here and elsewhere, but not one 
had ever even heard of, or met with, the dictum. 
Nor, of course, could I find it in any dictionary or 
other work of reference, not even in the otherwise 
so exhaustive ^Dictionary of Latin and Greek 
Quotation?/ &c., by Riley (London, G. Bell & 
Sons). An application to the editor of the Aca- 
demy^ too, I regret to say, remained unanswered. 
May I, then, hope that in thus addressing myself 
to you, and through you to your learned readers, 
I may be more successful ? Of course, I should 
like, at the same time, to ascertain the source 
whence the dictum is derived. David Asher. 

2c, Lehmann's Garten^ Leipzig. 

Coronation Kobe.— The Dalmatic robe used 
at the coronation of the sovereign of this country 
is embroidered with " Golden eagles intermixt 
with roses, flower de luce?, and crowns," as de- 
scribed by Sandford two centuries ago, and as it 
exists now. What is the meaning of the eagles ? 


Can any of your 

' William 


*«v,«v,*^ w^oiou iuo lU UUUlUg OUL 111 WlilCU Ui VV lUlltlli 

Penn's works, and in which chapter, &c., the fol- 
lowing quotation is to be found, viz., "A man 
should make it a part of his religion to see that 
his country is well governed " ] 

Edmund Harvey. 

Hannington Family, Hants. — A family, 
named after the village of Hannington, near 
Basingstoke, held lands, &a, in many neighbour- 
ing parishes, and in the sixteenth century were 
lessees of tithes at Preston Oandover, and of the 
manor of Moundesmere there. It is supposed that 
the above family intermarried with the Oades, 
afterwards of Moundesmere. Desired, information 
concerning Hannington and Oades families. 


William Vigorous, Rector of Fulham, circa 

1336. — Wanted, any biographical information re- 
specting this person. Sir William Vygorous I 
find, in a deed dated 21 Ed. III., described as one 
of the executors of Sir Stephen de Gravesende. 

Kindly reply direct. 

Chas. Jas. Feret. 

49, Edith Road, West Kensington, W. 

Sharpens ' Catalogue of Warwickshire 
Portraits.' — This book is referred to in Colvile's 
* Warwickshire Worthies.' When was it published, 
and where can a copy of it be seen ? It does not 
appear to be in the 'Brit, Mus. Oat.' 

a F. R. B. 

William Horwood, of Polhampton, Hants 
(Inq. P.M., 10 Henry V., No. 11).— He held 
manor of Stevenbury, n Preston Oandover, which 
manor he granted to John Marchaunt and Johanna 
his wife, held of the lord of the manor of Bradfield, 
in Berks. Desired to know how the connexion 
between Stevenbury (alias Stenbury) and Brad- 

field arose. 


Music and Words of Song Wanted. — The 

song containing these lines: 

Here's the nook, the brook, the tree, 
Hark ! hark ! a voice ! don't you think 'tis he ? 
It is not he, and the night is coming on ; 
Oh ! where is my lonely wanderer gone? 

It is supposed to be an old Wiltshire song. 

F. W. M. 

Icelandic Measurement. — On p. 2 of * Ice- 
landic Reader/ by Vigfusson and Powell, is a 
statement that the distance between Reykjanes, 
in Iceland, and Jolduhlaup, in Ireland, is three 
(nine ?) days* sailing. Where in Ireland is Joiduh- 
laup ( = Leim na h-eilte = the doe^s leap) ? 

K. A. A. 

Lady Caroline Lamb. — Disraeli is supposed 
to have painted Lady Caroline's portrait in the 
characters of Mrs. Felix Lorraine in ^Vivian Grey,' 
and of Lady Monteagle in * Venetia.' In what 
other characters of his does her portrait appear ? 
I ask this question as Mr. Hitchman seems to 
imply, in his * Public Life of the Earl of Beacons- 
field ' (1879, vol. i. pp. 30, 127), that there was at 
least one other portrait. G. F. R. B. 

Okey Family. — I seek for information concern- 
ing the family of Col. Okey, who signed Charles I/s 



[7th s. X. Aug. 30, '90. ' 

death warrant. He had a son, as I believe a Capt. 
Okey, who is referred to in Noble's * Lives of the 
Regicides.' There was a family named Okey, some 
of whom lived at Chesham, in Buckinghamshire, 
the eldest of whom, Jeremiah, was born December, 
1712, and was the son of Jeremiah and Mary Okey, 
of whom I have no further record. It is supposed 
by the family that this last-named Jeremiah was 
the son of Capt. Okey. As Col. Okey was born 
early in the seventeenth century, this may be so. 

Frederic Hepburn. 

Peter Le Roter, Physician to the French 
Ambassador.— On July 13, 1647, a petition was 
presented to the House of Lords by Peter Le 
Royer, a French physician, asking for redress for 
certain wrongs suffered at the hands of the Royalists 
during the Civil War. In this he stated 

^'That yor Peti^ being Dior in Phisicke to his Ma<y of 

flFraunce was sent into this Kingdome, about 9 yeares 

since to the right Ho^'*^ the Marquess of Senetorr then 

Embassador to the King of England from the ffrench 

The matter was referred to the Commons for settle- 
ment, but I can find no record of the result. Is 
anything known further about Le Royer, who would 
appear, from his own description, to have been a 

prominent medical man ? 

A. F. R. 

Protection of Animals from Cruelty. — Mr* 
Moncure Conway, in the Chicago weekly journal 
the Open Court, June 12, says: 

'^ Darwin is the real founder of every existing society 
for the prevention of cruelty to animals. I cannot learn, 
after some inquiry, that a single society of that kind ex- 
isted, either in Europe or America, before the publica- 
tion of Darwin's * Origin of Species.' " 

Is this statement historically correct ? Allow me 
to ask before tradition has invested the Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals with a 

legendary origin. 

A. R. 


Shaw Family. — Can any correspondent give 
me information regarding the Shaw family? (1) 
Where the members came from originally ? (2) 
Where now mostly found ? (3) Whether any 
branch at one time called Lanphier, or inter- 

married with that family ? 

R. L. Shaw. 

Henry Labouchere, Lord Taunton. — Are 

there any portraits or engravings of Lord Taunton ? 
I am aware of Sir Thomas Lawrence's portrait of 
him and his younger brother, taken when they 

were children. 

G. F. R. B. 

Sixth Centenary of Abbot Norton, of St. 

Alban's.— In Clutterbuck's 'History of Hert- 
ford ^ we read that Roger de Norton died of a 
paralytic aflection on the morning of the feast of 
All Souls in the year 1290, and was buried before 
the great altar, the Bishop of Ely performing the 
service at his funeral, which was attended by the 

Prior of Waltham and a great number of his re- 
gular and secular clergy. Sir Gilbert Scott attri- 
buted the earlier portions of the great Norman 
apse, which formed the eastern boundary of the 
church, to the time of this abbot. F. B. Mason's 
guide to the abbey says that while the workmen 
were lowering the floor of the south transept they 
discovered a cylindrical hole sunk in a block of 
stone, in which was found the lid of a small wooden 
box, of about five inches in diameter, of Oriental 
design, and richly painted. Some Arabic cha- 
racters are distinguishable on the lid of the box. 
It is supposed that it may have contained the 
heart of Abbot Norton. Can any of your readers 
give any explanation of this theory 1 


Temple Avenue, E.G. 


" Write you." — " I will write you/' instead of 
"I will write to you," as we were taught in the 
days of our youth. Is this an English and gram- 
matical expression ? It sounds like a vulgarism. 

H. A. W. 

John Porden. — Can any one give me par- 
ticulars of John Porden, the architect of the 
Dome, Brighton ? A. Oliver. 


Le Sergent Hoff. — Lieut.-Col. Hennebert, 
in *Nos Soldats' (book i. pp. 20, 21), says: 

" Tout le monde a entendu parler du Sergent HoiF, de 
cet Alsacien qui, durant le siege de Paris, a joue tant de 

bons tours aux Prussiens Des Anglais lui offraient, 

apres la guerre, un grade dans I'armee des Indee. II 
refusa. 'Un Fran^ais,' disait-il, 'ne doit pas aller' 
servir dans les armees etrangeres.' " ^1 

What possible employment could have been offered 
him in our Indian army, and by whom ? 


Martin Llueltn. — The inscription on the 
tomb in Wycombe Church of Martin Lluelyn, 
poet, soldier in the army of Charles I., and physi- 
cian to Charles IL, the Latinity of which, due to 
Dr. Isaac Milles, has attracted attention, records 


fi )> 

'^ Bino matrimonio felix septem liberos superstites re-j- 
liquit, Laetifeiam et Martinum ex priore, Georgium, Ri-'i 
cardum et Mauritium, Martham et Mariam ex poste-"* 
riore, nuper amantissimaconjuge nunc maestissima vidua, 
Martha Georgii Long de Penn Generosi filia. 

The disconsolate widow, while admitting the 
happiness of the marriage with the first wife, has 
not been careful to have that lady's name recorded.*^ 
Who was she, and where did the marriage take 
place ? That of her successor took place at Penn. 

August 5, 1662. 


Miles Coverdale. — Where shall I find a con-i 
temporary account of the removal, in 1840, oi 
Coverdale's bones from the now demolished church 
of St. Bartholomew, Exchange, to that of St. 
Magnus, London Bridge ? Did the monument 

. 7"= S. X. Aug. 30, '90.] 



^fhich marked the original spot of sepulture 
])eri8h in the Great Fire ? and is the only know- 
ledge of it contained in the Latin epitaph given in 
Anthony Munday's edition of Stow ? In * Old and 
.^}Tew London/ vol. i. p. 574, it is stated of Cover- 
dale that " dying in the year 1568, at the age of 
oighty-one, he was interred in this church," i.e., 
St. Magnus.* How a statement like this could be 
repeated in a " new edition, carefully revised and 
corrected," I cannot imagine. Perhaps the editor, 
when copying the inscription from the monument 
erected by the parishioners to the memory of 
Coverdale on the east wall of St. Magnus, did not 
notice a smaller tablet immediately beneath it, re- 
cording the fact that 

" his remains were interred in the first instance in the 
chancel of the church of St. Bartholomew, Exchange : 
but on the occasion of that church being taken down 
they were brought here on the fourth of October, 1840, 
in compliance with the wishes and at the request of the 
Kector, the Rev. Thomas Leigh, A.M., and parishioners 
of St, Magnus the Martyr." 



Rew Family, and Rewe, near Exeter. 

The family of Rew has been settled in Devonshire, 
in the neighbourhood of Exeter, for several cen- 
turies. Can any one give dates of earliest mention 
of the family, in Devon or elsewhere ? 

The little village of Rewe lies about five miles 
from Exeter, on the road to Tiverton. What con- 
nexion is there between the patronymic Rew and 
the place-name Rewe? Did one name arise from 
the other ? How, or when ? The information is 
required for a study of the family's history. 


An article i n the Cornhill 


Magazine^ August, 1879, has the following: "The 
Boeings had their home at Buckingham, and the 
Wealingg their town at Wellington." Can these 
points be proved; or are they only assertions ? 
The prefix Welling is not uncommon, and it seems 
probable that some authentic information might be 
got as to some of the Wellingtons, Wellinghams, 
Wellingboroughs, &c. My own impression is that 
the analogy of Ermington on the Erme, Leaming- 
ton on the Leam, Tyningham on the Tyne, &c., 
makes it more probable that a spring gave rise to 
these well-names. 

It seems unlikely that the tribes which crossed 
the North Sea began a new system of nomenclature 
in these islands ; but I have never seen any trust- 
worthy comparison of the frequent continental 
termination ingeUj with the many ings^ ingtons^ 
inghams^ and ingleys of South-Eastern Britain. 


. Portrait of Douglas Jerrold Wanted. 

Can any of your readers direct me where I can 
procure a portrait of Douglas Jerrold other than 
that which appears in the ' Collected Works ' or in 

the ' Life ' by his son ? 

T. S. 

unfastening a door at DEATH. 

(7'^ S. X. 66.) 

During a terrifying storm of incessant and vivid 
lightning, accompanied by long, lasting, and almost 
continuous roaring of thunder, which took place 
last August over the home counties, the few vil- 
lagers of a scattered hamlet north of Epping Forest 
were so scared by the tempest that they sat up 
through the night ; those whose tenements ad- 
joined seeking by the society of their neighbours 
to acquire additional fortitude in the hour of peril. 
These good folk thus remained for some hours in 
momentary expectation that the end of the world 
was on the point of arrival; and so impressed were 
they by the unwonted electrical phenomena that 
they took scrupulous care to open the doors of 
their cottages, fully believing that their defunct 
relatives would arise from their graves in the 
churchyard, and enter their former abodes, before 
being summoned to judgment by the last trumpet* 
It was, indeed, a Dies irce for them. In more 
than one instance a meal was actually prepared for 
these expected visitants of the other world. It is 
noticeable that the risen dead were supposed to be 
corporeal, since the doors were opened to enable 
them to enter their homes. Of course, the minds 
of all these rustic peasants had been from their 
youth up instructed in the simple belief that it 
was necessary for the graves to be opened in order 
that the reanimated bodies might issue tbence. 
Indeed, it is inculcated by the infallible Church 
(1 Thessalonians iv. 15-17). " And the graves were 
opened ; and many bodies of the saints which slept 



therefore, call this practice a superstitious (?) one. 
It is a religious observance, strictly orthodox in 
parochial communities, in our island. Doubtless 
it is the same idea which has led to a conviction, 
common (I believe) throughout Christendom, and 
possibly universal throughout the world, that on 
the approach of the last agony the doors and 
windows ought to be opened wide to allow the 
easy departure of the spirit. This conviction, like 
many other beliefs, has prevailed, apparently, not 
only among modern Christians and the Aryan race 
generally, but also among the older Turanian 
peoples ; and to this day, throughout China and 
Tartary, it is usual when the head of a family is at 
the point of death to remove him into the entrance 
hall of his dwelling and dress him in his state 
robes, with his feet to the door, which is opened 
ceremoniously, in order that the spirit may depart 
with becoming dignity from his earthly tenement 
to enter the domain of disembodied souls in the 
unknown and unknowable empyrean of infinity. 
Contrast this dignified exit from the mortal body 
with the death of a classic hero slain in battle un- 
worthily : 


I - 



[?h S. X. Aug. 30, '60. 

Vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras. 

A line Virgil repeats more than once. Every 
scholar knows the idea of the departed shade as 
portrayed by Homer : 

11 TTOTTOt 7] pa T£9 eCTTt Kai CIV AtOaO OOfXOKTtV 

'^v)(rj /cat ctScoXoVy drap ^peres ovk evi irdinrav' 

Havvn)(l'q yap /jlol TlarpoKXrjos SeiXoto 
'^l^vvr] icbecTinKet yoococrd re avpoaevr] re, 

at fJLOt e/caoT cTrereAAev €lkto oe uecKeAov 

3 ^ 


*Iliados/ xf^. 

Our country bumpkins imagine no visionary 
aerial semblance, but a substantial corpus. 
In the same parish one of the labourers, when 
relating how he had been confronted one moonlight 
night with the ghost of a lately deceased comrade, 
who, as it was reported, ^'walked" during the 
midnight hours, on being asked how he recognized 
Bill So-and-so, declared that he could swear to 
him by the peculiar way in which he habitually 
banged the gate after him ! 

S. Pasfield Oliver, F.S.A. 

P.S, — Since the above was written, a case in 
point has occurred, fully exemplifying the custom; 
for, at the death-bed of a very recently deceased 
dignitary of the Church, the last moments of the 
dying man were announced to the members of his 
family by the wife suddenly throwing wide open 
all the doors and windows of the house wherein he 
lay. This seems to have been done as a matter of 

Edouart's Silhouettes (7'** S. x. 65).— Your 
correspondent H. 0. M. is hardly exact in saying 
that the curious will find out what became of 
M. Edouart's collection by referring to my paper 
in the July number of the English Illustrated 



ply the information, the exigencies of space forbade 
the insertion of a paragraph or two which perhaps 


period of ten 


place in * N. & Q.' 
During the short 

more than fifty thousand silhouette portraits, about 
ten thousand being those of children. He made 
duplicates of all, which he preserved in fifty large 
books, writing in particulars for reference in case 
of future demand. Practising his art, he travelled 
in England, Scotland, Ireland, America, and 
France many years after his book was written, 
so that he probably produced altogether a hundred 
thousand portraits. 

These wonderful reference books, containing por- 
traits of numerous somebodies amongst innumer- 
able nobodies, would now be invaluable ; but, 
alas! silhouette portraits fare badly if exposed 
to damp, and still worse if exposed to salt water. 
On Edouart's return, in 1849, from a professional 
tour in America, the Oneida, in which he was a 
passenger, was wrecked in Vazon Bay, ofF the 

island of Guernsey, and his enormous collection 
went to the bottom of the sea. He himself escaped, 
and was housed and hospitably cared for by the 
Lukis family in Guernsey. Far advanced in ye?*r8, 
he was almost heart-broken at his loss. About a 
dozen books were fished up from the wreck, but, 
though carefully sponged and dried, they were 
almost ruined. The loss of the greater part of his 
collection so prayed upon the old man's mind that 
he forsook his profession, presenting, before he left 
the island, what remained of his silhouettes to Mrs. 
Lukis — in whose family they still remain — in grate- 
ful recognition of many kindnesses. Edouart re- 
turned to his native country and settled at Guinnes, 
near Calais, where he died in 1861 in his seventy- 

third year. 

The Leadenhall Press, E.G. 

Andrew W. Tuer. 

Archeology or Archaiology (7^^ S. x. 3, 
114).— I observe that Canon Taylor, on the 
assumption that we use the Latin, not the Greek, 
alphabet, has no difficulty in showing that we 
should write archaeology rather than archaiology; 
and certainly it is far better. 

But the assumption is not wholly correct. As a 
fact we do not use the Latin alphabet precisely, 
but the Anglo-French modification of it ; and if 
we were only to use our common sense we should 
adhere to this throughout, instead of occasionally 
recurring to the Latin type. 

Unfortunately, at the time of the Kenaissanee 
the pedants tried to introduce pure Latin spellings, 
and even wrote cedify for edify; but in a large 
number of instances the Anglo-French habit has 
held its own. Still the pedants have succeeded in| 
introducing confusion and doubt, under the im-j 
pression that they were " classical." The whole! 
matter is explained in my * Principles of Ety-l! 

It were much to be wished that "scholarship'^ 
could be taken for granted, instead of being con- 
stantly exhibited in Latin and Greek spellings.^ 
We do not accuse a man of ignorance of Latin 
because he writes edify ; and for the same reason 
it would be well if we could be content with pri- 
mevalf medievalj pedagogue^ orthopedic, and archeo- 
logy^ all with the French e, and not with the Latin 
CB at all. I have been for many years trying to 
explain to scholars at Cambridge that medieval is 
a better (i.e^, a more practical) spelling than medi- 
mval. But no one seems to grasp the argument. 
They will admit 'primeval^ because it is in diction- 
aries ; but they will have none of medieval^ because 
it looks *^unclassical.'' This is a complete answer^ 
to the eminently foolish suggestion, frequently 
made, that we ought to have an *^ academy" for ^ 
settling questions such as these. They will never 
be settled on any principle except popular capnce. 
In spelling English words it has long ago been 
agreed that no rule or habit shall be carried out 

^T'^iS. X. Aug. 30, '90.] 



consistently. There is, in English, nothing "cor- 
ject" unless it be confused, inconsistent, and 


Walter W. Skeat. 

t 4 

There appears to be a growing desire to meddle 
with English words of this class, due, I fear, to 
that "little knowledge '' which has ever been *^a 
dangerous thing." he suggested alterations in the 
spelling of words originally compounded from the 
Greek by persons desirous of making a new Eng- 
lish word cannot be regarded even as purism, and 
are generally, I fear, the pedantry of ignorant con- 
ceit. Scientific men have recently fallen into the 
ridiculous practice ; and, for example, now write 
Meiocene for Miocene and Pleiocene for Pliocene, 
though probably Sir Charles Lyell was at least as 
good a scholar as his modern improvers, and knew 
exactly what he wanted, namely, an English word 
to express a certain meaning in stratigraphical 
geology. The fact is, people are too clever by half 
in these days, and though, as a general rule, they 
do not add greatly to our store of knowledge, they 
are wonderful hands at improving the British lan- 
guage as well as the British constitution. 

James Dallas. 

The Dukedom of Clarence (7^^ S. ix. 481; 

X. 1, 44, 64, 117). — The dukedom of Clarence 
practically " became extinct at the decease of each 
possessor of the title." Lionel and Thomas both 
died without male issue; George's honours were 
forfeited, and his only son never succeeded to the 
title of Clarence. In point of fact, the latter was 
only titular Earl of Warwick, that title having 
been also attainted. William Henry died without 
issue, as King of England, in 1837. 

John, Duke of Lancaster, although nominated 
duke at the same time as his elder brother Lionel, 
was "invested" before him, consequently Lan- 
caster was really 'Hhe second duke created in 

^'Eichard," who figures on p. 2 as the brother 
of Thomas, Duke of Clarence, is a lapsus for Hum- 
phrey, who became Duke of Gloucester. 

In LioneUs will (Nichols's ^ Royal Wills,' p. 89) 
the express words are : 

"It'm lego Thomse Waleys unum circulum aureum, 
quo circulo frater meus et dominus creabatur in prin- 
cipein. It'm Edmundo Mone lego ilium circulum quo 
in deccem fui creatue." 

The expedition of Thomas to France in 1412 
was certainly in the interest of the Dukes of 
Orleans, Bourbon, and Berry, and against the 
Duke of Burgundy. The conduct of Clarence is 
thus referred to by Martin (' Hist. France,' vol. v. 
p. 526) : 

*' Una fois arrive sur le territoire de Bordeaux, 
Clarence annonQa hautement rintention de reconquerir 
le duche d* Aquitaine et recommenga les hostilites." 

In fact, Aquitaine, although not finally and com- 
pletely acquired by France till 1453, had been 


recovered from the English in 1370. (SeeLouvet, 
*L'Histoire de TAquitaine,^ Seconde Partie, p. 90.) 
The story of the varying fortunes of this part of 
France is graphically, however briefly, told by 
Freeman in his * Historical Geography of Europe,' 
pp. 348-350. He sums up the losses of the Eng- 
lish after the death of the Black Prince thus : — 

"The actual poeseBsiona of England beyond the sea 
were cut down to Calais and Guines, with some small 
parts of Aquitaine adjoining the cities of Bordeaux and 

The quoted account of the death of Thomas-^ 
second Duke of Clarence, is substantially the same 
as that given by Grafton and HoUingshead in their 
chronicles. Both give the name of the Lombard 
as Andrew Forgusa. Compare Sandford's ' Genea- 
logy/ p. 309. I have mislaid the record of the 
source of the quotation on p. 2 beginning, ''Being 
betrayed by his scout-master," &c. It is essentially 
identical with all the other accounts. Sir John 
Swinton, however, is clearly another personage 
than John, Earl of Buchan. J. Mask ell. 



Allan Eamsat (7^^ S. x. 84).— I thought Mr. 
Gosse's monograph on Gray, in the "English Men 
of Letters" series, so good that I am sorry to hear 


Mr. Bayne's note that M 
ference) depreciates Allan Ramsay^s songs 
Mr. Bayne truly says, '^ It is a recognized canon 
of criticism to credit a man v^ith the excellence 
that is his due, and not to give him summary dis- 
missal for his comparative failure?." It i?, in fact;^ 
in the case of an author, exactly the reverse of a 
chain, which is as strong as its weakest link. We 
welcome Milton for the sake of ^ Paradise Lost ^ 
and ^Comus,' and do not politely bow him out on 
account of the lines ^On the University Carrier.^ 
In Miss Mary Carlyle Aitken's * Scottish Song,^ 
in the " Golden Treasury " series, 1874, there are 
twelve pieces of Allan Ramsay's. Two of these 
are surely amongst the most beautiful songs in our 
literature, namely, No. viii., " When first my dear 
laddie gaed to the green hill," and No. xlvi., 
'Farewell to Lochaber.' Has Burns written any 
song more charming and tender than the former 
of these, or more pathetic than the latter? Then 
No. vii., *The Wauking of the Fauld,' although 
not equal to the other two I have mentioned, is 
not unworthy of Burns in his less inspired moments. 
It must be allowed that the other songs of Ram- 
say's in Miss Aitken's collection are inferior to 
these ; but their inferiority does not detract from 
the merit of *'When first my dear hddie'^and 
* Farewell to Lochaber.' 

Miss Aitken (p. 6) calls Allan Ramsay ''after 
Burns the most distinguished Scottish poet." 
This is matter of opinion ; and Miss Aitken is 
entitled to hers. Possibly Miss Aitken might not 
have thought this had her second Christian name 
been other than it is, and had not her preface been 



[7th s. X. Aug. 30, '90. 

dated ''Chelsea." Combining these facts with the right, further information can be had by hunting 

remembrance of a certain unhappy article, first 
published in the London and Westminster Review 
for 1838, it is not difficult to guess why the accom- 
plished editor of * Scottish Song ' thinks the author 
of ' Farewell to Lochaber ^ and *• When first my 
dear laddie" a greater poet than the author of 
* Gienfinlas/ 'Rosabelle/and * Alice Brand.' Allan 
Eamsay is, as I have endeavoured to show, an 
excellent poet ; but over-praise, as Hotspur says, 
^Moth nourish agues.'' Jonathan Bouchier. 

Poem and Author Wanted (7*^^ S. x. 108). — 

If 0. will accept the transposition of the figures of 
the number of illustrations — which will entail their 
reduction from fifty-two to twenty-five — his wants 
will be very nearly met by 

Tom Raw, the Griffin : a Burlesque Poem in Twelve 
Cantos : illuatrated by Twenty-five Engravings, descrip- 
tive of the Adventures of a Cadet in the East India Com- 
pany's Service, from the Period of his quitting England 
to his obtaining a Stafi* Situation in India. By a Civilian 
and an Officer of the Bengal Establishment. London : 
Printed for R. Ackermann, 96, Strand, 1828. 

The first of these coloured engravings shows Tom 
Eaw crossing the line, in a blue coat with brass 
buttons, and nankin trousers with tight straps. 
The last shows him in possession of a staff appoint- 
ment and a wooden leg. 

The work is attributed to Sir Charles D'Oyly, 
who is duly entered in Burke as the seventh 
baronet and distinguished amateur artist, and who 
was in the Bengal Civil Service from 1798 to 1838. 
Though no mention is made of other authorship of 
*Tom Raw/ either in the article on Sir Charles 
D'Ojly in the ^Dictionary of National Biography/ 
or in the entry of the work in Halkett and Laing, 
collaboration would seem to be implied by the 
wording of the title and an account of the origin 
of the work given in the preface, while some of the 
notes indicate a personal military experience which 
would not have fallen to a Bengal civilian. It may 
be mentioned that an acknowledged work of Sir 
Charles D'Oyly, ^ The European in India/ pub- 
lished in 1813, included, as appears by the full 
title, " a Preface and Copious Descriptions by 
Captain Thomas Williamson, and a Brief History 
of Ancient and Modern India by P. W. Blagdon,'' 
and AUibone seems to credit D'Oyly with only 
the illustrations of that work. His fame would not 
suffer by being deprived of the authorship of the 
poetry of * Tom Raw,' though the description of 
manners is of interest; but the illustrations will 
bear comparison with the best caricature draughts- 

up the works that are connected with Rowland- 

manship of the day. 


Writing from memory and by guess, I should 
say that there was a book like this with the title 
*The Qui-hi in Hindostan/ or some such title; 
and that the coloured plates were not by any 
amateur, but by Rowlandson, If this guess is 

son^s name. 

Walter W. Skeat. 

Many years ago I saw this poem, illustrated 
with coloured engravings. It is entitled 'Tom 
Raw, the Griffin/ a name which used to be applied 
to a subaltern in India for a year and a day after 
his joining the army. The name of the author I 
cannot remember. John Pickford, M.A. 

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. 

Flint Flakes (7*^ S. vi. 489; vii. 36, 254). 

*• At Brandon, in Suffolk, at this moment, no fewer than 
thirty-five men are still employed in fashioning grun flints, 
or * flint-knapping,' as it is generally called. No less a 
number than thirty millions of gun flints of various 
qualities and sizes are ofl&cially stated to have left the 
workshop of one Brandon man alone during the last ten 
years. Their destination is the West Coast of Africa, 
whence they are distributed among the savage tribes of 
the interior. Auctioned ofi* many years ago. as no longer 
of any use to us, our old flint guns and pistols have 
found their way to remote parts of the great African 

continent." — Daily News^ July 18. 

L. L. K.. 

St. Bernard's Hymn for the Dying (7^^ S.x. 

69).— I should suppose that the '*Dies Iroe, Dies 
Ilia" is, without doubt, the one meant. Trans- 
lations are many and various. 

Charlotte G. Boger. 

St, Saviour's, Southwark. 

Arthur William Devis (7'^ S. x, 27). — I do 
not know whether the information will assist Mr, 
Floyd, but the episode he refers to was painted^^ 
by a Mr. Mather Brown, and an engraving of the 
work was published in 1793. In the window of a 
bric-a-brac shop, a few doors up from Holborn, on 
the left-hand side of the Gray's Inn Road, I saw il 
recently exposed for sale the original print, sub- m 
scribed (left-hand lower corner) " Mather Brown, 
pinx*. Historical painter to their R.H.H. the* 
Duke and Duchess of York," and (in the right-* 
hand lower corner) ^'Daniel Orme, sculp*. His- 
torical engraver to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales," 
and the date of publication appended as 1793;, 
but perhaps Mr. Floyd is acquainted with the | 
existence of this work. 




' The Mayor of Wigan' (7*^ S. x. 107).— The f 
notice of this work as "a dirty story, poorly told," 
appears in the Monthly Review, 1760, vol. xxii. 
p. 342. Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

' A Woman's Question ' (7^^ S. x. 108).— Jt 

would surprise me very much if some verses be- 
ginning with the lines quoted by your correspondent, 
and transferred by me from the Grantham Journal 
to my scrap-book about seven years ago, should be 
found in any edition of the works of Mrs. E. B. 
Browning. Somebody signing himself " A Bottes- 

■f'h S. X. Aug. SO/m] 



L I 

lord Bachelor'' bad sent rhymes to the paper setting 
Ibrth the qualifications he deemed desirable in a 
^vife. The exact particulars I do not recollect, but 
ut the very least, she ought to be a perfect angel 
phis cook and seamstress. " Easton Spinster" 
iprwarded the following spirited reply, giving no 
hint that it was anything but original : 

Do you know you have asked for the costliest thing 

Ever made by the Hand above — 
A woman's heart and a woman's life, 

And a woman's wonderful love? 
Do you know you have asked for this priceless thing 

As a child might have asked for a toy — 
Demanding what others have died to win 

With the reckless dash of a boy ? 
You have written my lessons of duty out, 

Man-like you have questioned me : 
Now stand at the bar of my woman's soul, 

Until I have questioned thee ! 
You require your bread should be always good. 

Your socks and your shirts should be whole ; 
I require your heart to be true as God's stars. 

And pure as heaven your soul ! 
You require a cook for your mutton and beef— 

I require a far better thing : 
A seamstress you're wanting for stockings and shirt 
>^ I want a man and a king! 
A king for the beautiful realm called home, 

And a man that the Maker, God, 
Shall look upon as He did the first, 

And gay, It is very good ! 
I am fair and young, but the rose will fade 

From my soft young cheek one day; 
Will you love me then 'mid the falling leaves. 

As you did 'mid the bloom of May 1 
Is your heart an ocean so strong and deep 

1 may launch my all on its tidel 
A loving woman finds heaven or liell 
i* On the day she is made a bride ! 
^ I require all things that are good and true, 

All things that a man should be : 
If you give this all, I would stake my life 

To be all you demand of me. 
If you cannot do this,— A laundress, a cook, 

You can hire, with little to pay; 
But a woman's heart and a woman's life 

Are not to be won that way. 

St. Swithin. 


Judicial Whipping in England (7"^ S. viii. 287, 
', 432 ; ix. 253). — In the Launceston Municipal 
Accounts are payments for various judicial whip- 
pings, one point in them, concerning the corporal 
punishment of women, being specially noteworthy. 
In the mayoral year 1783-4 a woman, found guilty 
of stealing a piece of beef, of the value of tenpence, 
from the open market, was sentenced to be con- 
fined in prison until the following Saturday, the 
local market-day, and then to be stripped naked 
and to receive thirty lashes on her bare back, 
during the infliction of which she was to be led 
through the main streets of the borough. But 
nine years later another woman, for theft, was sen- 
tenced '' to be stripped to the bare back, and pri- 
vately whip'd until she be bloody"; while a man, for 
stealing, received a similar sentence, except that the 
punishment was to be administered " in the public 

street." A similar distinction between the sexes 
was made in 1805-6, a man being condemned to 
be " whip'd on his bare back round the market,^' 
and two women, likewise for theft, " to be pri- 
vately whip'd." This kind of punishment died 
hard. In * Launceston, Past and Present,' Mr, 
A. F. Robbins states that 

" the process of flogging at the cart's tail for larceny was 
got rid of in 1826, the last to suffer the infliction being a 
man for stealing silver spoons. The penalty of twenty- 
five lashes on the bare back was laid on by the town 

scavenger Other floggings took place at the old pump 

in Broad Street, close to the assize courts, the scavenger 
still officiating, and a couple of men were flogged in the 
town on two successive days in 1826 [the earlier culprit 
being stated in a local diary of the period to have been 
'^ tied to the Launceston Pump," and the later " flogged 
round the town"]. The last who suffered punishment 
at the pump was a man in 1831 for stealing tarts; but the 
last flogging which took place in Launceston was in the 

autumn of 1834, when a young man was tied to a tree 

which stood in the centre of the old workhouse yard, and 
there given twenty-five lashes as a preliminary to three 
months in Bridewell for assault," 


Spurs (7'^ S. x. 9, 75, 118).— I am sorry to see 
that^ in replying at p. 75 to the query at p, 9, 
I have in the last sentence introduced an element 
of confusion by writing *^ plate that bore the 
rowels," which is nonsense, instead of " plate that 
bore the points," or " rowel that bore the points." 
As, however, the sentence was not essential to the 
completion of such reply to the query as I could 
give, I trust that the querist has not been puzzled. 


^ Ugborough Church (7^^ S. x. 68).— A descrip- 
tion of the ^ Figures on the Screen in Ugborough 
Church ' will be found in the Western Antiquary^ 

iii. 207. 

EvERARD Home Coleman. 

71, Brecknock Road. 

' The Greville Memoirs ' (7'*" S. x. 108). 

Certain statements in the first edition of this work, 
3 vols., 1874, were omitted from the second 

Freegrove Road, N. 

Henrt Gerald Hope. 

Jacob Van Lennep ;(7'^ S. x. 107).— To the 

English versions of his works mentioned at the 
above reference may be added, *The Count of 
Talavera/ translated by A. Arnold, and appearing 
in "The Modern Foreign Library," Lond., 1880, 
8vo. Daniel Hipwell. 

34, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell. 

Dropping the final g of the Present 
Participle (7^^ S. ix. 286, 375, 472, 496 ; x. 91). 

At the last reference it is correctly stated that 
^^the long- of longer is not generally pronounced 
by educated Englishmen like the long- of longing J^ 
In others words, the division of sound in longer is 
madjs immediately hefore the g^ and in longing^ is 
made immediately after it. There are at least two 



[7^^ S. X. AucJ. 30, '9}. 

words in which the educated use and the dialect 
use are respectively expressed by this very 
difference, or rather, by the converse of it. They 
are singer and singing. In each of these words 
the educated use divides the sound after the g ; 
while the dialect use, especially in Salop, divides 
it before the g. The dialect us 3 does, in fact, double 
the g ; so that singer becomes sing-ger^ and singing 

becomes sing-ging. 

A. J. M. 

Duke of Wellington (7'^ S. x. 5).— The fol- 
lowing extract from a file of the Freeman^s Journal 
of May, 1769, may be of interest to your corre- 
spondent Hardric Morphyn : 

" Birth.— Dublin, May 6tb. In Merrion Street, the 
Right Hon. the Countess of Mornington of a son/' 


3, Nelson Street, Dubhn. 

Tom Killigrew's Wives (7^^ S. ix. 248, 318, 
372). — How long is the joke about the arms of 
wives to be kept up? We quarter the arms of 
the ladies we are descended from, if they be 
heiresses. But we are not descended from our 
own wives. How, then, can we quarter them? 
It would be worse than the sister-in-law case. It 
is very desirable that writers should remember 
this. So many of them are anxious to quarter 
their own wives, or at least somebody else's, in- 
stead of using the word they really do mean. 

P. P. 

St. Saviour's, Southwark (7*^ S. ix. 447 ; x. 
54). — It may be interesting to note that Miss 
Gwilt, in spite of age and infirmity, was able to 
be present on July 24, on the occasion of the 
laying of the memorial stone at St. Saviour's by 
the Prince of Wales. Her heart must have glowed 
at being allowed to see the completion of the great 
work — which her father had so much at heart — at 
least begun. It is also worth noting that the 
sexton and caretaker, Mr. Drewill, remembers the 
old nave in its former state. He has outlived the 
present hideous structure, and will, I trust, be 
spared to see the restoration of the church to its 

former beauty. 

Charlotte G. Boger. 

St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

Works on Music (7^^ S. x. 107).— 'Musical 

Eecollections of the last Half-Century ' was written 
by the Rev. John Edmund Cox. G. F. R. B. 

Cardinal Newman and 'N. & Q.' (7'^ S. x. 

140). — Besides the communication which Dr. 
W. A. Greenhill made about ^'Lead, kindly 
Light," there is another point of contact between 
Newman and * N. &Q.,' which should be recorded. 
He himself writes ; 

" A misstatement was made some time ago in 'N. & Q./ 
to the effect that I had expressed * doubts about Machyn's 
Diary/ In spite of my immediate denial of it in that 
publication, it has been repeated in a recent learned 
work on Anglican orders. Let me, then, again declare 

here that I know nothing whatever about Machyn, and 
that I have never even mentioned his name in anything 
I have ever written, and that I have no doubts whatever, 
because I have no opinion at all, favourable or unfavour- 
able, about him or his Diary." — ' Catholicity of the 
Anglican Church,' * Essays,' ed. 1871. 

Edward H. Marshall, M.A. 



Victorian Coins (7^^ S. x. 68).— According to 

the " Companions